Semiotic Self and Dialogic Self

Semiotic Self and Dialogic Self

Key Terms

  • Dialogic
  • Semiotic
  • Reflexive
  • Inner Speech
  • Norbert Wiley
  • Charles Sanders Peirce
  • George Herbert Mead
  • Self
  • Semiotic Self
  • Dialogic Self
  • Hubert Hermans
  • M. Bakhtin
  • Semiotic Self Theory
  • Dialogic Self Theory
  • Sign
  • Symbol
  • Signifiers
  • Signified
  • Interpretants
  • I-positions
  • Peircean Phenomenological Categories
  • Firstness
  • Secondness
  • Thirdness
  • Subjectivity
  • Inter-subjectivity
  • Narratives
  • Socio Linguistics
  • Communication
  • Semiotic Auto-regulation
  • First Person Perspective
  • Second Person Perspective
  • Third Person Perspective
  • Lev Vygotsky
  • Jaan Valsiner
  • Relational Psychology

Source: Charles Sanders Peirce and the Semiotic Foundation of Self and Reason

The philosophy of the classical American pragmatism represents one of the basic challenges to the conception of self and reason in the history of philosophical and psychological thinking. As the founder of pragmatism, Peirce is well known for his attempt to overcome the Cartesian tradition of philosophy, which was founded on the paradigm of monologic self-consciousness and self-awareness. The dialogical principle is a core piece of the Peircean semiotics, which has deep implications to subjectivity, meaning-construction, reasoning on the “self,” and communication. The reinterpretation of the classic tradition of thinking on signs leads Peirce to a triadic and dynamic-dialogical conception of signs. For Peirce, a sign is as such because it stands for something to somebody. It creates in the mind of the person an equivalent or a more developed sign. This radical conception of semiotics terminated in the idea of “man as a sign” and the claim that “men and words reciprocally educate each other.” The self is an interpreting subject and an interpreted object. In its innermost being, the self is a communicative agent. The epistemological consequence of this conception is as follows: Truth is closely related to intersubjectivity and the private is synonymous with erroneous.

Source: Narrative Identity and the Semiotic Self in Dialogical Semiosis of Narrative

The self is known as a term notorious for grasping its meaning. There are many different approaches to the notion of the self. Among these are the phenomenological, hermeneutical, semiotic, linguistic, psychoanalytic, and narrative. It can also be understood through an interdisciplinary approach. The distinction between different or competing notions of the self lies in whether the self is constructive or transcendental and fictional or real. Peirce’s semiotic approach to the self is concerned not with what the self is but with how the concept of self is acquired in relation to other within linguistic community in that self-awareness is derived from errors and ignorance evident from other people’s testimony. This presupposes that the concept of the self is associated with intersubjectivity, implying experiential and social dimensions from the first-person perspective. Traditionally, the first-person access to the self has been widely recognized by philosophers. But a competing idea arises, challenging the first-person givenness, from those who argue that self-interpretation and self-knowledge are acquired through the third-person perspective. I argue that these two dichotomous perspectives of the self can be mediated by the second-person perspective through dialogical semiosis of narrative. This means that self-narrative will be achieved by dialogical processes of self and other in a biographical form of narrative with an autobiographical tone by which narrative form as medium and genre becomes operative for symbolic mediation of the self. From the context of discussion on the concept of the self in terms of semiotics, it is clear that the self is not accessible directly; the self is mediated by sign, which means that it is expressed by sign, so as to be interpreted by another sign, leading to the evolutionary self. Thus, Peirce’s semiotic perspective on the self emphasizes the role of a semiotic subject that participates in sign processes as an interpreting agent. In this sense, the concept of self is acquired through semiosis of narrative and at the same time it is interpreted in narrative world, taking the role of character. It is character which makes a person identifiable as a person, since character is not substance but quality as a recognized pattern or type through time, which becomes a habit of act and thought, thus forming personal identity. Within this context, I argue that from the first-person perspective a deliberate subject of self as “subjective I” and from the third-person perspective a dynamic object of self as “objective I” are mediated by the relationship between self and other as an imaginary relation in narrative world, just like an imaginary line of identity, connecting word with thing. From the second-person perspective, oneself as another forms teridentity(co-identity) in textual world. I shall illustrate the interlock point of the semiotic self and narrative identity through Peirce’s semiotic approach to the self and Ricoeur’s theory of narrative identity expressed in “oneself as another”.

Source: The Semiotic Self

This work offers a novel and challenging interpretation of the nature of the self. In opposition to currently fashionable theories, Wiley argues that the self is an integral and autonomous entity. The self is interpreted as a semiotic structure and on this basis the author presents an original analysis of the origins of self-identity. The book draws particularly upon two philosophical sources: the writings of Charles Sanders Peirce and George Herbert Mead. The result is a “trialogical” model in which the present self (“I”) talks to the future self (“you”) about the past self (“me”). A distinctive feature of Wiley’s view is that there is a mutually-supportive relation between the self and democracy, a view which he traces through American history. 

Providing as it does a means of interpreting the politics of identity in relation to such issues as class, gender, ethnicity, religion and sexual orientation, this book will stimulate wide interest.

Source: Inner Speech and the Dialogical Self

Inner speech, also known as self-talk, is distinct from ordinary language. It has several functions and structures, from everyday thinking and self-regulation to stream of consciousness and daydreaming. Inner Speech and the Dialogical Self provides a comprehensive analysis of this internal conversation that people have with themselves to think about problems, clarify goals, and guide their way through life. 

Norbert Wiley shrewdly emphasizes the semiotic and dialogical features of the inner speech, rather than the biological and neurological issues. He also examines people who lack control of their inner speech—such as some autistics and many emotionally disturbed people who use trial and error rather than self-control—to show the power and effectiveness of inner speech. 

Inner Speech and the Dialogical Self takes a humanistic social theorist approach to its topic. Wiley acknowledges the contributions of inner speech theorists, Lev Vygotsky and Mikhail Bakhtin, and addresses the classical pragmatism of Charles Sanders Peirce, John Dewey, William James, and George Herbert Mead to show the range and depth of this largely unexplored field.

Source: Towards a convergence of Dialogical Self Theory and Semiotic Self Theory through triadic phenomenology

We propose a theoretical convergence between Dialogical Self Theory and Semiotic Self Theory by using C. S. Peirce’s phenomenology as a metatheoretical framework. Peirce’s categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness account for all kinds of experience; they are distinct but intertwined. Our hypothesis is that this theoretical umbrella can combine complementary aspects of both theories, such as space and time, and the multivoicedness and integrative tendencies of the self. We apply the categories to analyze the externalization of the internal conversation of a participant in a qualitative study. The dialogue was elicited through a psychodramatic instrument that is based on J. L. Moreno’s empty-chair technique. In the resulting discourse, we observed aspects of Firstness: the fluctuating multiplicity of the I; of Secondness: the dyadic relation between pairs of I-positions; and of Thirdness: the self construed as a developing sign process that generates interpretants/voiced positions, and tends towards unity.

Source: Steps to a convergence of two dialogical theories of the self theories

In this paper, we aim to describe the elements that would enable researchers to bring together two different but complementary theories of the self in the dialogical psychology field: the theory of the semiotic self, based on C. S. Peirce’s triadic model of meaning generation, and the theory of the dialogical self, based on the work of H. Hermans, which derives from M. Bakhtin’s and W. James’s reflections on dialogism. The benefit of this theoretical convergence is argued through a discussion of the structural elements of triadic semiotic, including its phenomenological basis and its kinship with key concepts of the Dialogical Self Theory. We also present a case in which the internal dialogue of a person who has an important doubt regarding his life is observed through a psychodramatic method, and the posited theoretical convergence of dialogical theories is illustrated through the manifestation of opposite I-positions. Throughout the dialogue an attempt of synthesis through the emergence of a meta-position was observed.

My Related Posts

Dialogs and Dialectics

Networks, Narratives, and Interaction

Frames in Interaction

Narrative Psychology: Language, Meaning, and Self

Drama Therapy: Self in Performance

Semiotics, Bio-Semiotics and Cyber Semiotics

Cyber-Semiotics: Why Information is not enough

Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism

Socio-Cybernetics and Constructivist Approaches

Reflexivity, Recursion, and Self Reference

Key Sources of Research

Narrative Psychology: Identity, Transformation and Ethics

By Julia Vassilieva

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/978-1-137-49195-4_2

From Cybernetics to Semiotics to Cybersemiotics: The Question of Communication and Meaning Processes in Living Systems

Carlos Vidales

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-52746-4_3

Introduction to Cybersemiotics: A Transdisciplinary Perspective

Editors:

  • Carlos Vidales, 
  • Søren Brier

https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-52746-4

Psychology as a Dialogical Science: Self and Culture Mutual Development

edited by Maria Cláudia Santos Lopes-de-Oliveira, Angela Uchoa Branco, Sandra Ferraz Dourado Castillo Freire

Forms of Dialogical Relations and Semiotic Autoregulation within the Self

Jaan Valsiner
Aalborg University

Theory & Psychology · April 2002

DOI: 10.1177/0959354302012002633

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247743531

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0959354302012002633

Maintenance and Transformation of Problematic Self-Narratives: A Semiotic-Dialogical Approach

António P. Ribeiro & Miguel M. Gonçalves

Integr Psych Behav
DOI 10.1007/s12124-010-9149-0

2010

Narrative processes of innovation and stability within the dialogical self

Miguel M. Gonc ̧alves and Anto ́nio P. Ribeiro

Dialogism and Dialogicality in the Study of the Self

Michèle Grossen
University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Anne Salazar Orvig
University Sorbonne Nouvelle – Sorbonne Paris Cité, France

The ‘Narrative Turn’ in Psychology.

Vassilieva, J. (2016).

In: Narrative Psychology. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-49195-4_2

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/978-1-137-49195-4_2#citeas

Towards a convergence of Dialogical Self Theory and Semiotic Self Theory through triadic phenomenology

Mariela Michel, Fernando Andacht

Theory & Psychology , Volume 25 (6): 19 – Dec 1, 2015

https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354315613168

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0959354315613168

The ‘Semiotic Self’: From Peirce and Mead to Wiley and Singer

DOI:10.1007/s12108-011-9140-3

Johannes (“Hans”) Iemke Bakker
University of Guelph

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226730335_The_’Semiotic_Self’_From_Peirce_and_Mead_to_Wiley_and_Singer

Peirce’s Approach to the Self
A Semiotic Perspective on Human Subjectivity

Vincent Michael Colapietro

CONSCIOUSNESS AND SELF IN LANGUAGE. A VIEW FROM COGNITIVE SEMIOTICS

Ana Margarida Abrantes

Centro de Estudos de Comunicação e Cultura, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Lisboa

ana.margarida.abrantes@gmail.com

Self-Reference in the Media1

Winfried Nöth

The Branded Self: On the Semiotics of Identity

Author(s): Arthur Asa Berger
Source: The American Sociologist, Vol. 42, No. 2/3, Semiotics and Sociology (September 2011), pp. 232-237
Published by: Springer

http://s3.amazonaws.com/arena-attachments/1096407/3d7a170978ff60f2d46a29dcda7f24ab.pdf?1498501186

Yuri Lotman on metaphors and culture as self-referential semiospheres

WINFRIED NOTH

Semiotica 161–1/4 (2006), 249–263 0037–1998/06/0161–0249

DOI 10.1515/SEM.2006.065

https://philarchive.org/archive/NTHYLO

PRAGMATISM AND THE DIALOGICAL SELF

Norbert Wiley

University of Illinois, Urbana

International Journal for Dialogical Science Spring 2006. Vol. 1, No. 1, 5-21

http://cdclv.unlv.edu/pragmatism/wiley_biblio.html

The dialogical self and thirdness: A semiotic approach to positioning using dialogical triads. 

Raggatt, P. T. F. (2010).

Theory & Psychology, 20(3), 400–419. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354310364878

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0959354310364878

https://ur.booksc.eu/book/39637666/7982c9

Charles Sanders Peirce and the Semiotic Foundation of Self and Reason

Haci-Halil Uslucan

Mind, Culture, and Activity
Volume 11, 2004 – Issue 2

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1207/s15327884mca1102_2

Inner Speech and Agency

Norbert Wiley
University of Illinois, Urbana e-mail norbert@redshift.com

in Margaret Archer, ed., Conversations about Reflexivity, Routledge

THE CONSTRUCTION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF A DIALOGICAL SELF

HUBERT J. M. HERMANS

University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 16:89–130, 2003 Copyright  2003 Brunner-Routledge
1072-0537/03 $12.00 + .00
DOI: 10.1080/10720530390117902

Dialogical Self in a Complex World: The Need for Bridging Theories. 

Hermans, H. J. M. (2015).

Europe’s Journal of Psychology11(1), 1-4.

https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v11i1.917

https://ejop.psychopen.eu/index.php/ejop/article/view/917

Spiritual Transformation and Emotion: A Semiotic Analysis

LOUISE SUNDARARAJAN

Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 13:1–13, 2011
ISSN: 1934-9637 print/1934-9645 online
DOI: 10.1080/19349637.2011.547141

Click to access Spiritual%20Transformation.pdf

EXPOSING THE DIALOGICAL NATURE OF THE LINGUISTIC SELF IN INTERPERSONAL AND INTERSUBJECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS FOR THE PURPOSES OF LANGUAGE-AND-CONSCIOUSNESS-RELATED COMMUNICATION STUDIES

Elżbieta Magdalena Wąsik

Introduction: The self within the space–time of language performance

Marie-Cécile Bertau

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

Theory & Psychology 2014, Vol. 24(4) 433–441

DOI: 10.1177/0959354314532035

The Semiotic Self

Norbert Wiley

ISBN: 978-0-745-61503-5 

December 1994

https://www.wiley.com/en-sg/The+Semiotic+Self-p-9780745615035

Inner Speech and the Dialogical Self 

Norbert Wiley

SBN: 9781439913284
ISBN-10: 1439913285
Publisher: Temple University Press
Publication Date: June 3rd, 2016

https://www.mendocinobookcompany.com/book/9781439913284

Psychological Functions of Semiotic Borders in Sense-Making: Liminality of Narrative Processes

Raffaele De Luca Picione*a, Jaan Valsinerb

[a] Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy. [b] Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

Europe’s Journal of Psychology 2017, Vol. 13(3), 532–547 doi:10.5964/ejop.v13i3.1136

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590535/

Handbook of Dialogical Self Theory

https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/handbook-of-dialogical-self-theory/DDC97D5455FB94885D0380BA4D085885

New Semiotics

Between Tradition and Innovation
Semiotics between Peirce and Bakhtin

12th World Congress of Semiotics

Sofia 2014, 16-20 September
New Bulgarian University

https://semio2014.org/en/semiotics-between-peirce-and-bakhtin

Accessing the experience of a dialogical self: Some needs and concerns

Authors: Carla Cunha (University of Minho and ISMAI, Portugal) & Miguel M. Gonçalves (University of Minho, Portugal)

Time and the dialogical self

John Barresi

Click to access Barresi%20chap2%20DS.pdf

THE DIALOGICAL SELF: RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS

AnnA BAtory*, WAcłAW Bąk*,
Piotr k. oleś**, MAłgorzAtA PuchAlskA-WAsyl* * John Paul ii catholic university of lublin
** Warsaw school of social sciences and humanities

Psychology of Language and Communication 2010, Vol. 14, No. 1

DOI: 10.2478/v10057-010-0003-8

https://depot.ceon.pl/bitstream/handle/123456789/5078/The_dialogical_self_Research_and_applications.pdf;jsessionid=625B147C54198A6210767D604A6E8EC1?sequence=1

Dialogical self

WikiPedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialogical_self

Semiotic mechanisms and the dialogicality of the self

September 2013

Tiago Bento
Instituto Superior da Maia

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261758454_Semiotic_mechanisms_and_the_dialogicality_of_the_self

The Self Is A Semiotic Process.

  • J. Pickering
  • Source: Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 6, Number 4, 1 April 1999, pp. 31-47(17)

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/imp/jcs/1999/00000006/00000004/936

Narrative Identity and the Semiotic Self in Dialogical Semiosis of Narrative


Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, South Korea

yunheelee333@gmail.com

https://www.worldcongressofsemiotics2019.org/es/congreso-de-semiotica/sessions/narrative-identity-and-semiotic-self-dialogical-semiosis-narrative

Hubert Hermans

https://www.huberthermans.org

Voicing the self: From information processing to dialogical interchange

Steps to a convergence of two dialogical theories of the self theories. 

MICHEL, Mariela  and  ANDACHT, Fernando. 

Psicol. USP [online]. 2016, vol.27, n.2, pp.246-254. ISSN 0103-6564.  https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6564D20160007.

http://old.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0103-65642016000200246&lng=en&nrm=iso

Essay Review: The Self Positioned in Time and Space: Dialogical Paradigms

Peter T. F. Raggatt

DOI:10.1177/0959354310364206

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247743919_Essay_Review_The_Self_Positioned_in_Time_and_Space_Dialogical_Paradigms

BETWEEN SELF AND SOCIETIES

CREATING PSYCHOLOGY IN A NEW KEY

Jaan Valsiner

Edited by Maaris Raudsepp

TLU Press

Tallinn 2017

The Dialogic and the Semiotic:

Bakhtin, Volosinov, Peirce, and Sociolinguistics

Julie E. Gurdin

THE RELEVANCE OF SECONDNESS TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE DIALOGICAL SELF

Mariela Michel Fernando Andacht

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sol, Brazil

University of Ottawa, Canada

William B. Gomes

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sol, Brazil

International Journal for Dialogical Science

Fall, 2008. Vol. 3, No. 1, 301-334

A Semiotic Reflection on Self Interpretation and Identity

Fernando Andacht

Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS)

Mariela Michel

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

The Dialogical Self: Converging East-West Constructions

Commentary

David Yau-fai Ho and Shui-fun Fiona Chan
National Institute of Education, Singapore
Si-qing Peng
Peking University, China
Aik Kwang Ng
National Institute of Education, Singapore

Culture & Psychology
Vol. 7(3): 393-408 [1354-067X(200109) 7:3; 393-408; 018673]

Is inner speech dialogic?

January 2017

Daniel Gregory
University of Tuebingen

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316512390_Is_inner_speech_dialogic

Between Nature and Culture: Dialogicality as a Basic Human Feature

Piotr Oleś, Małgorzata Puchalska-Wasyl

Studies in the Psychology of Language and Communication. Warszawa: Matrix 2010

Types of Inner Dialogues and Functions of Self-Talk: Comparisons and Implications

Piotr K. Oleś1*, Thomas M. Brinthaupt2, Rachel Dier2 and Dominika Polak1

Front. Psychol., 06 March 2020
Sec.Cognitive Science
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00227

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00227/full

“The Missing Person in the Conversation: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., and the Dialogical Self.” 

Leary, David E.

International Journal for Dialogical Science 1, no. 1 (2006): 33-39.

Semiotic Sociology

Semiotic Sociology

Key Terms

  • Semiotics
  • Sociology
  • Cyber Semiotics
  • Soren Brier
  • Relational Sociology
  • Semiotic Sociology
  • Phenomenological Sociology
  • Erving Goffman
  • Alfred Schutz
  • Risto Heiskala
  • Charles Sanders Peirce
  • American Pragmatism
  • Ferdinand de Saussure
  • French Structuralism
  • Action Theory
  • Meaning Analysis
  • Max Weber
  • Talcott Parsons
  • Social Systems Theory
  • Phenomenology
  • Culture
  • Life World
  • Society
  • Subjectivity
  • Intersubjectivity
  • Triadic Relations
  • Social Reflexivity
  • Socio Cybernetics

Society as Semiosis
Neostructuralist Theory of Culture and Society

Action theory, phenomenological sociology, pragmatism and (post)structuralism are often seen as mutually exclusive currents of meaning analysis. This book shows that these traditions are actually complementary, and builds a neostructuralist synthesis on this finding. It also outlines the implications of this cultural theoretical synthesis for the field of social theory. What emerges is a variant of the theory of practice, habit and structuration of society. It shares the contemporary common belief that social theory should be based on cultural theory. Its distinctive mark is that this is done in systematic semiotic terms within a conception which provides mediation between the two most influential schools of semiotics, namely Charles Peirce’s American pragmatism and Ferdinand de Saussure’s French structuralism.

Contents: Critique of Action Theory and Phenomenological Sociology: Meaning and Rational Action in Weber’s Sociology · Quarrelling Heirs: Parsons and Schutz · Meaning and Intentional Acts: Schutz’s Phenomenological Sociology · Ethnomethodology: Garfinkel’s Reconstruction of Schutz and Parsons · From Intentional Action to Structuralism · Neostructuralist Theory of Culture: Saussure’s Structuralism Reconstructed · The Specificity of the Saussurean Approach · Neostructuralist Semiotics · Towards a Neostructuralist Social Theory: The Levels of Cultural Analysis · Beyond the Culture/Society Split · Symbolic Signs, Socialization, and the Sacred · Power · Conclusion

SEMIOTIC SOCIOLOGY

Book plan
Risto Heiskala, Summer 2020

Outline: The cultural current that at the turn of the 19th century gave birth to the three basic modern social sciences of economics, political science and sociology that all study ‘us’ in the deluge called ‘modernity’ and to anthropology that studies ‘them’ in the wake of colonialism, the other side of the coin called ‘modernity’, somehow managed to bypass semiotics. This is a weird thing because one would imagine that in an era that many have for a good reason called the ‘time of communication’ or the ‘time of the sign’ there would be great demand for a discipline studying the general patterns of signification. In some sense, this general discipline did emerge because the time gave birth to a great deal of semiotic conceptions, including the Saussurean tradition of semiology and the Peircean tradition of semiotics. Yet semiotics has always been flooded with too many conceptions that have too often been thought to be contradictory, as is often said about the relationship between the structuralist and the pragmaticist tradition. The discipline, therefore, has not managed to be consolidated but has been left into the state of hesitation and anomie. This book is an attempt to construct a synthetic conception covering the pragmaticist and the structuralist tradition and extending within social theory to the fields of phenomenological sociology and action theory as well. The core idea is that an equation can be made between the structuralist conception of articulation, the pragmaticist conception of interpretant, and the phenomenological conception of prereflective intentional act. The chapters included can be no more than prolegomena but they form a research programme for a unified semiotic cultural theory and a social theory building on it.

Rationale: There are two basic reasons to present a book like this. First, if semiotics wants to consolidate and spread as an academic discipline, it needs to leave behind those balkanized internal wars that have characterized its history thus far. To make this happen, synthetic conceptions are needed, and this book offers itself as one candidate for such a synthetic conception. Second, as the great popularity of cultural studies in all social sciences shows, there is a great need for conceptions capable of analysing signification in the social sciences. It also seems that ‘cultural studies’ left alone without semiotics will not be capable to come up with an adequate toolbox for that task. The time might therefore be ripe for someone to present a research programme for semiotic sociology. With this book plan, I volunteer.

Structure:

Preface

  1. Introduction: toward semiotic sociology and social theory
  2. A synthesis of semiology, semiotics and phenomenological sociology
  3. Economy and society in semiotic institutionalism
  4. Power and signification in neostructuralism
  5. Modernity and the intersemiotic condition
  6. Modernity, postmodernity and reflexive modernization
  7. Modernity and the articulation of the gender system
  8. Gender as an institution
  9. From Goffman to semiotic sociology
  10. Conclusion and the next steps

Rationale for the structure: Chapter 1 opens the book with a project outline and its contextualization within current academia. Chapter 2 presents the culture theoretical basic idea of building mediation between semiology, semiotics and phenomenology (articulation = interpretant = intentional act), thus forming the cultural theoretical base for semiotic social theory and sociology. Chapters 3 and 4 extend the programme to the core of sociology, i.e., to a macrosociological description of society (Chapter 3) and the strategy to study the division of power in society (Chapter 4). The four following chapters then give two examples of the way the programme can be applied, Chapters 5 and 6 in covering the modernity/postmodernity debate and Chapters 7 and 8 by way of presenting an interpretation of the changing gender system. Finally Chapter 9 discusses microsociology. Focusing on Erwing Goffman’s work, it shows how the semiotic approach can improve analyses of signification also in the field of microsociology. Chapter 10 then closes with a programme for future research in semiotic sociology.

Detailed synopsis:

Chapter 1: Introduction: toward semiotic sociology and social theory. This chapter opens the book with a project outline drafted above in sections ‘Outline’, ‘Rationale’ and ‘Rationale for the structure’.

Chapter 2: A synthesis of semiology, semiotics and phenomenological sociology. Departing from the common view according to which structuralist semiology (the Saussurean tradition), pragmatist semiotics (the Peircean tradition) and phenomenological sociology (Husserl, Schutz, Berger and Luckmann, Garfinkel) are seen as mutually exclusive alternatives, the chapter attempts to outline their synthesis. The net result of the synthesis is that a conception emerges wherein action theories (rational choice, Weber, etc.) are based on phenomenological sociology, and phenomenological sociology is based on neo-structuralist semiotics, which is a synthesis of the Saussurean and the Peircian traditions of understanding habits of interpretation and interaction. The core idea in the field of cultural theory providing the base for the rest is that an equation can be made between the structuralist conception of articulation, the pragmaticist conception of interpretant, and phenomenological conception of prereflective intentional act.

Chapter 3: Economy and society in semiotic institutionalism. The great transformation to modernity made the economy the major organizing factor of the social synthesis, thus bringing forth the issue of the economy/society relationship as the central problem of modern social theory. This chapter deals with two broad approaches to this problem: Parsons’s and Habermas’s variants of structural-functionalism, on the one hand, and the various currents of (neo)institutionalism on the other. An attempt to synthesize the benefits of these conflicting approaches is made from the point of view of semiotic institutionalism. What emerges is a general theoretical framework, which is better equipped than the original structural functionalist and institutionalist conceptions for the analysis of the economy/society relationship.

Chapter 4: Power and signification in neostructuralism. The chapter develops a synthetic conception of power based on Weber’s, Parsons’s and Foucault’s writings. The aim is, first, to build a bridge between the so-called resource theories of power (Weber, Parsons) and the structural approach (Foucault) and, second, to do this in the form of a conception which would be usable on both macro- and micro-levels at the same time. Four theories are discussed: (1) the distributive approach (Weber); (2) the collective approach (Parsons); (3) the structural approach (Foucault); and (4) the neostructuralist approach developed here. It is argued that these approaches can be ordered on a scale on which the complexity of analysis increases as one moves from (1) to (4), and that the selection of an appropriate level of analysis in an empirical study is a practical issue relative to the aim of the study. The types of analyses characteristic of the more complex levels are illustrated by a discussion of the problem posed by Big Case Comparison in historical sociology (level 3) and everyday conversation (level 4), including a discussion on phenomenological sociology and conversational analysis.

Chapter 5: Modernity and the intersemiotic condition. The chapter is a semiotic account of the early postmodernity debate. It makes a distinction between modernity as a process of institutional reformulation of the structure of society at large, which is a relatively constant factor once it has emerged, and postmodernism as a cultural style, which is characterized by ambivalence and celebrates it. It also shows that what has been called ‘postmodern condition’ is not something unique but has been faced many times in history whenever heterogeneous populations have gathered in urban centres and cultural messages from several sources have mixed and brought up ‘cultural chiasms’. The chapter proposes the term ‘intersemiotic condition’ for an analytic term under which the analysis of such cultural phenomena can proceed.

Chapter 6: Modernity, postmodernity and reflexive modernization. In the sociological tradition, modernization has usually been understood as increasing differentiation. Theorists as different as Marx, Durkheim, Weber and Parsons all shared the view that modernization meant the opening of new horizons. The publication of Lyotard’s The Postmodern Condition transformed the discursive universe: contrary to the tradition of differentiation theoretical sociology the pamphlet interpreted modernization as a process in which the plurality of local cultural traditions was destroyed and their various narratives were rearticulated into a unified modern canon under the repressive metanarratives of science, progress and the Enlightenment. At first, sociologists were at odds with this new interpretation until Beck, Giddens and Lash brought up the idea of modernity in two phases in their Reflexive Modernization and related publications. According to them, ‘traditional modernity’ was based on cultural closures, such as unified class- identities, nationalities and fixed gender identities, but it was followed by a ‘second’ or ‘reflexive modernity’, where several traditions lived side by side, just as the postmodernists claimed. An intense debate emerged. In addition to describing the debate, the chapter asks: did we learn anything from the debate on reflexive modernization and if so, can the learnt lessons be used fruitfully in the study of contemporary society? The answer seems to be negative for the most part. However, the modernization theoretical approach can still be seen as a useful tool for framing research questions and contributing to the diagnosis of the era. This is how it can still provide a point of departure for research but not deliver all the answers, which is the task of empirical social research rather than abstract theoretical schemes of orientation.

Chapter 7: Modernity and the articulation of the gender system. The gender system can be understood as a cultural system rooted in biological differences. Semiotically speaking, it is a binary sign system (male : female) with some variation involved (transsexuals, homosexuals, etc.). In the process of modernity, the biological motivation of the gender system is being loosened by technological innovations such as contraception and mother’s milk substitute. At the same time, the state has replaced family and kin as the organizing structure of society and the cultural ideal of equality has gained a strong position. These and similar changes together have made gender flow in ‘post-traditional’ societies. The chapter deals with this process in paying attention to the three theoretically possible constellations in the determination of semiotic identities in social process: functional order in the Parsonian sense, formation of struggling parties in the sense of Weber and Bourdieu, and anomie in the sense of Durkheim and Berger and Luckmann. It turns out that elements of all of these three theoretical constellations are present in the current transformation of the gender system. This is elaborated with empirical material drawn from the change of the Finnish gender system from the 1950s to the 1990s.

Chapter 8: Gender as an institution. The simplest versions of the interpretation of agency rely on biological dispositions, often supplemented with rational choice explanations. The chapter shows that better explanations can be reached if biological and rational choice explanations are supplemented with different forms of institutionalism. These have been distinguished into regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive institutionalism, and later on, the last one of these has been further divided into discursive and habitual institutionalism. The chapter applies the distinction between the above six explanatory strategies to the analysis of gendered agency. Here the interest is, first, to develop a synthetic conception in which explanatory strategies complement each other, and second, to reduce the importance of the nature : culture binarity debate. The third task is to start applying the conception to other mechanisms of differentiation, such as age, ethnicity and class, which again can be linked back to the study of gender along the ideas presented in the debate on intersectionality.

Chapter 9: From Goffman to semiotic sociology. Erwing Goffman was an influential microsociologist whose work is not easy to classify. The chapter interprets different aspects of Goffman’s work in applying his own frame analysis to it and discusses five different ways to frame Goffman. The frames are dramaturgical sociology; micro-revolution and the rise of the study of co-presence in sociology; interaction order and ritual; self as a necessary illusion and the contingency of interaction; and, finally, frame analysis and the problem of presence. It turns out that all these framings reveal important features of Goffman’s work and open up fruitful paths for social research. Yet it is also shown that even if Goffman spoke about signs a lot, his understanding of signification was pre-semiotic in the sense that in his analyses the vital question is always the subject’s relationship to a present sign. To escape the ‘metaphysics of presence’, his conceptions should be opened up for analysis of the relationship of present signs, not only of the subject and other signs present, but also of absent signs. Such a change would bring this important predecessor of semiotic sociology genuinely to its ground. That again would make it easier to link the field of microsociology to that of macrosociology, i.e., to make the mediation that Goffman himself was both reluctant and unable to do.

Chapter 10: Conclusion and the next steps. The closing chapter makes a conclusion and outlines some of the obvious future research tasks in the field of cultural theory (a more thorough study of the relationship between semiology, semiotics and phenomenology) and social theory (a more thorough study of the relationship between semiotics, phenomenological sociology and action theory as well as further development of semiotic institutionalism). It also emphasizes the role of semiotic empirical social research or social semiotics not discussed much in this book because, even if it is true that phenomena without concepts are blind, it is also true that concepts without phenomena are empty, as Kant put it.

Implementation: Most of the chapters are based on articles published in the process of writing my Society as Semiosis (Peter Lang 2003) or after it. The book is therefore a supplement and companion of that other book in the endeavour of establishing semiotic sociology. The most probable publication time seems to be year 2022.

Source: Toward semiotic sociology. A synthesis of semiology, semiotics and phenomenological sociology

Source: Toward semiotic sociology. A synthesis of semiology, semiotics and phenomenological sociology

My Related Posts

Meta Integral Theories: Integral Theory, Critical Realism, and Complex Thought

Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism

Phenomenological Sociology

Cyber-Semiotics: Why Information is not enough

Semiotics, Bio-Semiotics and Cyber Semiotics

Erving Goffman: Dramaturgy of Social Life

Key Sources of Research

SEMIOTIC SOCIOLOGY

Risto Heiskala, Summer 2020

Click to access SeSoSyn2020verkko.pdf

Toward semiotic sociology. A synthesis of semiology, semiotics and phenomenological sociology. 

Risto Heiskala

Social Science Information

2014, Vol. 53(1) 35–53

DOI: 10.1177/0539018413509434

https://www.academia.edu/12973518/Toward_semiotic_sociology_A_synthesis_of_semiology_semiotics_and_phenomenological_sociology

The meaning of meaning in sociology. The achievements and shortcomings of Alfred Schutz’s sociology.

Risto Heiskala

Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 41:3

0021-8308

https://www.academia.edu/12973614/The_meaning_of_meaning_in_sociology_The_achievements_and_shortcomings_of_Alfred_Schutz_s_sociology

Semiotic Sociology

by Risto Heiskala

ISBN-13:9783030793661

Publisher:Springer International Publishing

Publication date:11/01/2021

Series:Palgrave Studies in Relational Sociology

From Goffman to semiotic sociology

HEISKALA, RISTO

vol. 124, no. 3-4, 1999, pp. 211-234.

 https://doi.org/10.1515/semi.1999.124.3-4.211

Society as Semiosis – Neostructuralist Theory of Culture and Society

Risto Heiskala

Translated by Akseli Virtanen in collaboration with Kaisa Sivenius and the Author

Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2003. 387 pp., num fig. ISBN 978-3-631-39828-9

https://www.furet.com/livres/society-as-semiosis-risto-heiskala-9783631398289.html

https://www.peterlang.com/document/1095183

The semiotics of social life: Risto Heiskala Society as Semiosis (Peter Lang, 2003); Rein Raud Meaning in Action (Polity, 2016); Bob Hodge Social Semiotics for a Complex World (Polity, 2017)

  • July 2017
  • American Journal of Cultural Sociology 6(5)

DOI:10.1057/s41290-017-0038-6

Werner Binder

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318602426_The_semiotics_of_social_life_Risto_Heiskala_Society_as_Semiosis_Peter_Lang_2003_Rein_Raud_Meaning_in_Action_Polity_2016_Bob_Hodge_Social_Semiotics_for_a_Complex_World_Polity_2017

Cracking the Code: The Challenge of a Semiotic Sociology

(Book manuscript, currently under contract)

Andrea Cossu

Assistant Professor of Sociology

Department of Sociology and Social Research

University of Trento

Via Verdi 26 – 38123 Trento – Italy

Bourdieu and phenomenology A critical assessment

C. Jason Throop

University of California, Los Angeles, USA

Keith M. Murphy

University of California, Los Angeles, USA

Anthropological Theory
2002 SAGE Publications
Vol 2(2): 185–207
[1463-4996(200206)2:2;185–207;023630]

Ethnomethodology reconsidered: The practical logic of social systems theory

Liu Yu Cheng

National Chengchi University, Taiwan

Current Sociology

60(5) 581 –598 2012

DOI: 10.1177/0011392111426193

The Methodological Implications of the Schutz-Parsons Debate

Christian Etzrodt

Department of Basic Education, Akita International University, Akita, Japan

Open Journal of Philosophy

2013. Vol.3, No.1, 29-38

Published Online February 2013 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojpp)

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojpp.2013.31006

The Multiple Reality:

A Critical Study on Alfred Schutz’s Sociology of the Finite Provinces of Meaning

MARIUS ION BENTA

A Thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

National University of Ireland, Cork

Department of Sociology July 2014

Life-World, Intersubjectivity and Culture

Contemporary Dilemmas

Elibieta Haias (ed.)

Studies in Sociology: Symbols, Theory and Society

Edited by Elibieta Hatas and Risto Heiskala

Volume 8

Alfred Schutz

JOCHEN DREHER

Publ. in: The Wiley-Blackwell companion to major social theorists / ed. by George Ritzer

1. Classical social theorists. – Malden, Mass. [u.a.] :

Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. – S. 489-510. – (Wiley-Blackwell companions to sociology ; [27]). – ISBN 978-1-444-33078-6

The Theoretical Quandary of Subjectivity: An Intellectual Historical Note on the Action Theories of Talcott Parsons and Alfred Schutz

Matthew M. Chew

Department of Sociology, Hong Kong Baptist University

Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, HKSAR, China

Tel: 852-3411-7132 Email: mmtchew@hkbu.edu.hk

Review of Europen Studies

Vol 1 No 1, June 2009

Between the Subject and Sociology: Alfred Schutz’s Phenomenology of the Life-World

TIMOTHY M. COSTELLOE

Department of Philosophy, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, U.S.A.

Human Studies 19: 247-266, 1996.

Phenomenological Sociology – The Subjectivity of Everyday Life

Søren Overgaard & Dan Zahavi

Originally published in M. Hviid Jacobsen
(ed.): Encountering the Everyday: An Introduction to the
Sociologies of the Unnoticed.

Palgrave Macmillan. Basingstoke, 2009, 93-115.

The meaning of meaning in biology and cognitive science: A semiotic reconstruction

Göran Sonesson

Department of Semiotics, Lund University

Box 117, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden

e-mail: goran.sonesson@semiotik.lu.se

Sign Systems Studies 34.1, 2006

Semiotics Inside-Out and/or Outside-In.

How to Understand Everything and (with Luck) Inluence People

Goran Sonesson

Centre for Cognitive Semiotics, Lund University

Revue Signata 2 (2011)
annales des Sémiotiques/
annals of Semiotics
La sémiotique, entre autres
Semiotics, among others
Presses Universitaires de Liège – Sciences humaines
2011

Charles Sanders Peirce and Anthropological Theory

Mark A. Sicoli, Matthew Wolfgram

LAST MODIFIED: 27 JUNE 2018

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199766567-0187

Oxford Bibliographies

Sociosemiotic Frontiers. Achievements, Challenges, and Prospects of Converging Semiotic and Social

Ivan Fomin

National Research University Higher School of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Politics and Governance. Institute of Scientific Information for Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Center for Advanced Methods of Social Studies and Humanities

Linguistic Frontiers • 3(2) • 34—43 • 2020 DOI: 10.2478/lf-2020-0012

https://sciendo.com/pdf/10.2478/lf-2020-0012

Affiffirmation and reaction: Towards a critical biosemiotic sociology 

Benjamin Dreyer

MS Thesis in Sociology

Eastern Michigan University

2020

Cybersemiotics:
A New Foundation for Transdisciplinary Theory of Information, Cognition, Meaningful Communication and the Interaction Between Nature and Culture

Søren Brier

INTEGRAL REVIEW  June 2013  Vol. 9, No. 2

Click to access Brier,%20Cybersemiotics,%20Vol.%209,%20No.%202.pdf

Social semiotics: communicative and socio-cultural practices. The Russian-speaking contribution to the development of social semiotics in 1970–2000s

page2image2097114416 page2image2097114672G. L. Tulchinskii

Higher School of Economics, St. Peresburg, Russian Federation

RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION https://doi.org/10.1080/19409419.2021.1972829

Social Semiotics: Paths Towards Integrating Social and Semiotic Knowledge 

DOI:10.19181/socjour.2019.25.4.6822

Ivan Fomin
National Research University Higher School of Economics

Mikhail Ilyin
National Research University Higher School of Economics

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338208311_Social_Semiotics_Paths_Towards_Integrating_Social_and_Semiotic_Knowledge_Socialnaa_semiotika_traektorii_integracii_sociologiceskogo_i_semioticeskogo_znania

The Sociology of the Self

Author(s): Peter L. Callero
Source: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 29 (2003), pp. 115-133 Published by: Annual Reviews
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30036963

A SEMIOTIC THEORY OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION 

YUAN LI

Saint Mary’s College of California

Academy of Management Review 2017, Vol. 42, No. 3, 520–547. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2014.0274

The ‘Semiotic Self’: From Peirce and Mead to Wiley and Singer

J. I. (Hans) Bakker

Am Soc
DOI 10.1007/s12108-011-9140-3

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226730335_The_’Semiotic_Self’_From_Peirce_and_Mead_to_Wiley_and_Singer

Social and Symbolic Boundaries

Social and Symbolic Boundaries

Key Terms

  • Charles Tilly
  • Michele Lamont
  • Andrew Abbott
  • Pierre Bourdieu
  • Emile Durkheim
  • Max Weber
  • Harrison White
  • Jan A. Fuhse
  • Ann Mishe
  • Mustafa Emirbayer
  • N Crossley
  • Dirk Baecker
  • Athanasios Karafillidis
  • Boundaries
  • Distinction
  • Networks
  • Interaction
  • Relations
  • Drama Theory
  • Game Theory
  • Inequality
  • Inside and Outside
  • Relational Sociology
  • Processual Sociology
  • Culture
  • Meaning
  • Symbolic Boundaries
  • Social Boundaries
  • Inter-subjectivity
  • Inter-objectivity
  • Collective Identity
  • Individual
  • Groups
  • Us vs Them
  • I, We, It

What are Social and Symbolic Boundaries?

Source: THE STUDY OF BOUNDARIES IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

This renewed interest builds on a well-established tradition since boundaries are part of the classical conceptual tool-kit of social scientists. Already in The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Durkheim (1965) defined the realm of the sacred in contrast to that of the profane. While Marx often depicted the proletariat as the negation of the capitalist class, The Eighteenth Brumaire (Marx 1963) is still read for its account of the dynamics between several class boundaries. As for Weber, his analysis of ethnic and status groups continues to stand out as one of the most influential sections in Economy and Society (1978) (on the history of the concept, see Lamont 2001a and Schwartz 1981).

Unsurprisingly, the multifarious recent developments around the concept of boundaries have yet to lead to synthetic efforts. Greater integration is desirable because it could facilitate the identification of theoretically illuminating similarities and differences in how boundaries are drawn across contexts and types of groups, and at the social psychological, cultural, and structural levels. Whereas empirical research almost always concerns a particular dependent variable or a subarea of sociology, focusing on boundaries themselves may generate new theoretical insights about a whole range of general social processes present across a wide variety of apparently unrelated phenomena—processes such as boundary-work, boundary crossing, boundaries shifting, and the territorialization, politicization, relocation, and institutionalization of boundaries. We do not pretend to provide such a grand synthesis in the limited space we have at our disposal: Given the current stage of the literature, such a summing-up is impossible, at least in a review article format. Instead, we endeavor to begin clearing the terrain by sketching some of the most interesting and promising developments across a number of disciplines. We also highlight the value added brought by the concept of boundaries to specific substantive topics, and we point to a few areas of possible theory building. These tasks are particularly important because citation patterns suggest that researchers who draw on the concept of boundaries are largely unaware of the use to which it is put beyond their own specialties and across the social sciences.

One general theme that runs through this literature across the disciplines is the search for understanding the role of symbolic resources (e.g., conceptual distinctions, interpretive strategies, cultural traditions) in creating, maintaining, contesting, or even dissolving institutionalized social differences (e.g., class, gender, race, territorial inequality). In order to capture this process better, we think it is useful to introduce a distinction between symbolic and social boundaries. Symbolic boundaries are conceptual distinctions made by social actors to categorize objects, people, practices, and even time and space. They are tools by which individuals and groups struggle over and come to agree upon definitions of reality. Examining them allows us to capture the dynamic dimensions of social relations, as groups compete in the production, diffusion, and institutionalization of alternative systems and principles of classifications. Symbolic boundaries also separate people into groups and generate feelings of similarity and group membership (Epstein 1992, p. 232). They are an essential medium through which people acquire status and monopolize resources.

Social boundaries are objectified forms of social differences manifested in unequal access to and unequal distribution of resources (material and nonmaterial) and social opportunities. They are also revealed in stable behavioral patterns of association, as manifested in connubiality and commensality. Only when symbolic boundaries are widely agreed upon can they take on a constraining character and pattern social interaction in important ways. Moreover, only then can they become social boundaries, i.e., translate, for instance, into identifiable patterns of social exclusion or class and racial segregation (e.g., Massey & Denton 1993, Stinchcombe 1995, Logan et al. 1996). But symbolic and social boundaries should be viewed as equally real: The former exist at the intersubjective level whereas the latter manifest themselves as groupings of individuals. At the causal level, symbolic boundaries can be thought of as a necessary but insufficient condition for the existence of social boundaries (Lamont 1992, Ch. 7).

While the relationship of symbolic and social boundaries is at the heart of the literature under review here, it most often remains implicit. Whereas the earlier literature tended to focus on social boundaries and monopolization processes—in a neo-Weberian fashion—the more recent work points to the articulation between symbolic and social boundaries. In the conclusion, we highlight how a focus on this relationship can help deepen theoretical progress. We also formulate alternative strategies through which this literature could, and should, be pushed toward greater integration in the study of cultural mechanisms for the production of boundaries, of difference and hybridity, and of cultural membership and group classifications.

If the notion of boundaries has become one of our most fertile thinking tools, it is in part because it captures a fundamental social process, that of relationality (Somers 1994, Emirbayer 1997). This notion points to fundamental relational processes at work across a wide range of social phenomena, institutions, and locations. Our discussion focuses on the following substantive areas, moving from micro to macro levels of analysis: (a) social and collective identity; (b) class, ethnic/racial and gender/sexual inequality; (c) professions, science and knowledge; and () communities, national identities, and spatial boundaries. Together, these topics encompass a sizable portion of the boundary-related research conducted in anthropology, history, political science, social psychology, and sociology. Because we are covering a vast intellectual terrain, our goal is not to provide an exhaustive overview but to inform the reader about various trends across a range of fields. Due to space limitations, we focus on how boundaries work in social relations, and we do not discuss important developments in the growing literature on cognition and on spatial, visual, and temporal cognitive distinctions in particular, since these have been discussed recently in Howard (1995), DiMaggio (1997), and Zerubavel (1997). Also, given our multi-disciplinary focus, we cover only part of the important sociological literature on changes in boundaries—this topic receives attention elsewhere (e.g., Tilly 2001).

My Related Posts

Boundaries and Distinctions

Boundaries and Networks

Boundaries and Relational Sociology

Production Chain Length and Boundary Crossings in Global Value Chains

Boundary Spanning in Multinational and Transnational Corporations

Kenneth Burke and Dramatism

Erving Goffman: Dramaturgy of Social Life

Cybernetics, Autopoiesis, and Social Systems Theory

Society as Communication: Social Systems Theory of Niklas Luhmann

Key Sources for Research:

Boundary processes: Recent theoretical developments and new contributions

Mark A. Pachucki *, Sabrina Pendergrass, Miche`le Lamont (Guest Editors)

Poetics 35 (2007) 331–351

Click to access Pachucki%20Pendergrass%20Lamont%202007%20Boundary%20Processes.pdf

Networks and Boundaries

Athanasios Karafillidis
RWTH Aachen University Correspondence: atha@karafillidis.com

Paper presented at the International Symposium „Relational Sociology: Transatlantic Impulses for the Social Sciences“, Berlin, September 25-26, 2008

Click to access Netbound.pdf

Click to access karafillidis.pdf

Making and Remaking the Transnational: Of Boundaries, Social Spaces and Social Mechanisms

Faist, Thomas 2015

(COMCAD Working Papers, 132). Bielefeld: Universität Bielefeld, Fak. für Soziologie, Centre on Migration, Citizenship and Development (COMCAD). https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-50817-9

https://d-nb.info/1186304227/34

The Making and Unmaking of Ethnic Boundaries: A Multilevel Process Theory

Andreas Wimmer

University of California, Los Angeles

AJS Volume 113 Number 4 (January 2008): 970–1022

Click to access WimmerMakingUnmaking.pdf

The social organization of difference,

Steven Vertovec (2021)

Ethnic and Racial Studies, 44:8, 1273-1295,

DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2021.1884733

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/01419870.2021.1884733?needAccess=true

Relational Sociology, Culture, and Agency

(Forthcoming in the Sage Handbook of Social Network Analysis, edited by John Scott and Peter Carrington, Sage 2011)

Ann Mische Rutgers University

Social Boundary Mechanisms

CHARLES TILLY

Columbia University

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.183.6983&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Identities, Boundaries and Social Ties 

Charles Tilly

First Published 2005

eBook Published 16 November 2015

DOI https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315634050 

https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/mono/10.4324/9781315634050/identities-boundaries-social-ties-charles-tilly

THE STUDY OF BOUNDARIES IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

Miche`le Lamont and Vira ́g Molna ́r

Department of Sociology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540;

e-mail: Mlamont@princeton.edu, vmolnar@phoenix.princeton.edu

Annu. Rev. Sociol. 2002. 28:167–95

doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.28.110601.141107

Symbolic Boundaries

Miche`le Lamont, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
Sabrina Pendergrass, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA 

Mark Pachucki, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition, Volume 23

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.10416-7

Cultivating Differences: Symbolic Boundaries and the Making of Inequality.

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Cultivating-Differences%3A-Symbolic-Boundaries-and-of-Bowler-Lamont/ff6565bf6493730d208b00810ec2b14fddd005ac

National identity and national boundary patterns in France and the United States.

Lamont, Michèle. 1995.

French Historical Studies 19(2): 349-365.

From ‘having’ to ‘being’: self-worth and the current crisis of American society

Michèle Lamont

The British Journal of Sociology 2019 Volume 70 Issue 3

Negotiating Deservingness: Marginalised Roma, Inclusion Policies and the Local State

Status distinctions and boundaries

Murray Milner, Jr.

Handbook of Cultural Sociology

Edited by John R. Hall, Laura Grindstaff, and Ming-Cheng Lo

Symbolic Boundaries

Bethany Bryson

Sage Handbook of Cultural Sociology

Click to access bryson_boundaries_rev2016.pdf

Cultivating Differences

Symbolic Boundaries and the Making of Inequality

Edited by Michèle Lamont and Marcel Fournier

1992

https://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/C/bo3628644.html

Bridging Boundaries:
The Equalization Strategies of
Stigmatized Ethno-racial Groups Compared

Center for European Studies Working Paper Series #154 (2007) 

Michèle Lamont
Christopher Bail

Click to access Lamont_Bail_154.pdf

Boundaries in the study of organization

Loizos Heracleous

Human Relations

DOI: 10.1177/0018726704042716

Volume 57(1): 95–103 2004

http://www.heracleous.org/uploads/1/1/2/9/11299865/boundaries_-hum_rel-_article.pdf

How Culture Matters for Poverty: Thickening our Understanding

Michèle Lamont, Harvard University

Mario Luis Small, Princeton University

Click to access working_paper06-10.pdf

Accounting for Global Value Chains/Global Supply Chains

Accounting for Global Value Chains/Global Supply Chains

Source: Asian infrastructure finance 2021 : Sustaining global Value Chains

Key Terms

  • Global Value Chains
  • Global Supply Chains
  • Global Production Networks
  • Supply and Use Tables
  • Production and Trade Networks
  • Production and Distribution Planning
  • Supply Chain Management
  • Transparency in Networks
  • Cooperation in Networks
  • Collaboration in Networks
  • Net Chains
  • Risks
  • Resiliency
  • Fragility
  • Rebalancing
  • Reconfiguration
  • Networks
  • Contagion
  • Failure Cascades
  • Failure Avalanche
  • Spillovers
  • Supply Chain Disruption
  • Demand Collapse
  • Supply Collapse
  • Offshoring
  • Outsourcing
  • Strategic Coupling
  • Fragmentation of Production
  • Great Unbundling
  • Global Financial Crisis
  • COVID 19 Pandemic
  • SMILE Curve
  • Forward Propagation
  • Backword Propagation
  • Distributed Production
  • Ripple Effect
  • Bullwhip Effect
  • VAX ratio
  • Backward linkage
  • Forward linkage
  • GVC participation rate
  • GVC position index
  • GTAP
  • WIOD
  • ADB MRIO
  • UNCTAD EORA
  • Fragmentation
  • Disintegration of Production
  • Vertical Specialization
  • Global Sourcing
  • Trade in Value Added (TiVA)
  • Global Commodity Chains
  • Credit Chains
  • Payments Flows
  • Supply chain management
  • Supply chain resilience
  • Sustainable supply chain
  • Industry 4.0
  • Agility
  • Leanness
  • Digital twin
  • Reconfigurable supply chain
  • Average Production Length

Accounting and Measurement in Global Value Chains

Source: Handbook on Accounting for Global Value Chains

Meeting of the Expert Group on international trade and economic globalization statistics

Economic globalization has created new opportunities for businesses to organize their production chains more efficiently. This has increased the complexity of compiling economic statistics, as it is more difficult to break down production activities on a country-by-country basis. There is a need to understand the cross country benefits and risks by being able to “look through” the global firms in the global value chains (GVCs) and see their contributions in the production networks of resident enterprises in multiple countries. These emerging global production arrangements pose challenges to macroeconomic and business statistics, including the supporting business registers. The challenges include the choice of the statistical unit, the classification of the (global value chain satellite) accounts, the implementation of the principle of economic control and ownership, and the recording of domestic and cross-border transactions and positions in national accounts and balance of payments statistics.

In its decision 46/107, the Statistical Commission established the Expert Group on International Trade and Economic Globalization Statistics to address these measurement challenges. The main task of the Expert Group is to develop a handbook that will account for the measurement of GVCs, as described in various reports to the Commission on this topic in the past five years. Both the GVC perspective and the perspective of the national data compiler are fundamental to understanding the composition of the handbook. However, with the realization of the cross-country impact of GVCs on the economic structure of partner countries, a multi-country perspective for those national industries that are included in major GVCs is encouraged in the handbook. 

The GVC approach builds on the integrated collection of business statistics from large global enterprises (across countries) for a select set of GVC-related economic activities, including trade in intermediate goods and services and foreign direct investments. In addition, inter-country supply and use tables, as well as inter-country input-output tables, can help to chart and understand relations at a macroeconomic level. To properly and correctly measure the cross-border statistics, some data-sharing with important economic partner countries may be necessary. The Commission also agreed with the development of a global enterprise group register to help national statisticians better understand business strategies and the relations between enterprises in various economies.

Source: Global Value Chain Analysis: Concepts and Approaches

What Are Global Value Chains?

Source: The impact of Covid-19 on global value chains

Source: Drivers and benefits of Enhancing participation in global Value Chains: Lessons for India

ManagEment and Governance of Global Value Chains

Source: Accounting for Global Value Chains:
Extended System of National Accounts and Integrated Business Statistics

Source: Global value chains: A review of the multi- disciplinary literature

Source: GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS IN THE AGE OF UNCERTAINTY: ADVANTAGES, VULNERABILITIES, AND WAYS FOR ENHANCING RESILIENCE

Configuration, Reconfiguration, and Design of Supply Chains

  • Digital Supply Chain
  • Resilient Supply Chain
  • Efficient Supply Chain
  • Sustainable Supply Chain

Source: Reconfigurable supply chain: the X-network

Source: Reconfigurable supply chain: the X-network

Source: Reconfigurable supply chain: the X-network

Source: Reconfigurable supply chain: the X-network

Source: Reconfigurable supply chain: the X-network

RISKS AND RESILIENCY IN GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS

Source: Risk, resilience, and rebalancing in global value chains

Source: Reimagining industrial supply chains

Megatrends of International Production

  • Technology
  • Economic Governance
  • Sustainability
  • Unbundling/Rebundling
  • Outsourcing/Insourcing
  • Offshoring/Reshoring

Source: World Investment Report 2020 : International Production Beyond the Pandemic

At the start of a new decade, the global system of international production is experiencing a perfect storm, with the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic arriving on top of existing challenges arising from the new industrial revolution (NIR), growing economic nationalism and the sustainability imperative.

This year’s World Investment Report (WIR) comes in the midst of a global crisis. The coronavirus pandemic has forced governments around the world to implement strict measures to limit the spread of the virus, ranging from social distancing and closures of public spaces and offices to complete lockdowns. These measures have resulted in production stoppages and severe supply chain disruptions in most sectors, virtually complete closures of entire industries, and unprecedented demand shocks in almost all economies. The immediate impact on international production and cross-border investment has been severe, with delayed implementation of investment projects and the shelving of new projects, as well as the drying up of foreign affiliate earnings of which normally a significant share is reinvested in host countries. Longer term, the need for multinational enterprises (MNEs) to create more resilient supply chains, combined with greater pressure from governments and the public to increase national or regional autonomy in productive capacity, especially of essential (e.g. health care related) goods and services, will have a lasting effect on global production networks.

However, COVID-19 is not the only gamechanger for international production. International trade, investment and global value chains (GVCs) were already entering a period of transformation as a result of several “megatrends”. These megatrends emerged and gradually increased in intensity over the course of the last decade, contributing to the slowdown of international production. The megatrends driving the transformation of international production can be grouped under three main themes:

• Technology trends and the NIR. 

The application of new technologies in the supply chains of global MNEs has far-reaching consequences for the configuration of international production networks. This has already raised important concerns for policymakers, with the realization that growth will depend on promoting investment in new sectors and that structural transformation through the build-up of the manufacturing sector is becoming more difficult.

• Global economic governance trends. 

Fragmentation in international economic policymaking and especially in trade and investment policy is reflected in a shift away from multilateral cooperation towards regional and bilateral solutions and increased protectionism. It is compounded by systemic competition between economic powers, as well as by a general shift in national economic policymaking in many countries towards more regulation and intervention.page138image201587360

• Sustainable development trends. 

The implementation of a broad range of sustainability measures, including climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, in the global operations of MNEs and differential speeds in the adoption and implementation of rules, regulations and practices aimed at sustainability will have important implications for international production networks. The need to channel investment to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will also affect patterns of foreign direct investment (FDI).

While the COVID-19-induced crisis is certainly a major challenge for international production on its own, it may also represent a tipping point, accelerating the effects of pre-existing megatrends. At the start of the new decade, due to the combined effect of the pandemic and existing trends reaching their boiling point, the system of international production finds itself in a “perfect storm” (figure IV.1). The decade to 2030 is likely to prove a decade of transformation.

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2020

Source: World Investment Report 2017

Source: World Investment Report 2017

Source: World Investment Report 2017

Source: Reimagining industrial supply chains

Source: Governance of global value chains after the Covid-19 pandemic: A new wave of regionalization?

Accounting For Global Carbon Emission Chains

Understanding Global Value Chains – G20/OECD/WB Initiative

Production Chain Length and Boundary Crossings in Global Value Chains

USA and China: What are Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Balances

Measuring Globalization: Global Multi Region Input Output Data Bases (G-MRIO)

Credit Chains and Production Networks

Balance Sheet Economics – Financial Input-Output Analysis (using Asset Liability Matrices) – Update March 2018

Trading Down: NAFTA, TPP, TATIP and Economic Globalization

Development of Global Trade and Production Accounts: UN SEIGA Initiative

The Collapse of Global Trade during Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009

Supply Chain Finance (SCF) / Financial Supply Chain Management (F-SCM)

Production and Distribution Planning : Strategic, Global, and Integrated

FDI vs Outsourcing: Extending Boundaries or Extending Network Chains of Firms

Resource Flows: Material Flow Accounting (MFA), Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Input Output Networks and other methods

Towards the Circular Economy

Intra Industry Trade and International Production and Distribution Networks

Understanding Trade in Intermediate Goods

The Hidden Geometry of Trade Networks

Trends in Intra Firm Trade of USA

Economics of Trade Finance

Oscillations and Amplifications in Demand-Supply Network Chains

Quantitative Models for Closed Loop Supply Chain and Reverse Logistics

The Strength of Weak Ties

Relational Turn in Economic Geography

Regional Trading Blocs and Economic Integration

Wassily Leontief and Input Output Analysis in Economics

Classical roots of Interdependence in Economics

Key Sources of Research

GVCs

OECD

https://www.oecd.org/sti/ind/global-value-chains.htm

Global Value Chains

Global Value Chains (GVC’s) WDR 2020

World Bank

https://wits.worldbank.org/gvc/global-value-chains.html

Handbook on Accounting for Global Value Chains

4th Meeting of the Expert Group on international trade and economic globalization statistics
Jointly organized by ISTAT and UNSD

Rome, Italy 7-9 May, 2018

https://unstats.un.org/unsd/trade/events/2018/rome/default.asp

Ist ITEGS Meeting

2016

http://unstats.un.org/unsd/trade/events/2016/newyork-egm/default.asp

2nd ITEGS Meeting

2016

https://unstats.un.org/unsd/trade/events/2016/nov-newyork/default.asp

3rd ITEGS Meeting

2017

https://unstats.un.org/unsd/trade/events/2017/luxembourg/default.asp

Global Value Chain Development Report

BEYOND PRODUCTION

NOVEMBER 2021

WTO

Global Value Chain Development Report

WTO 2019

https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/gvcd_report_19_e.htm

Global Value Chain Development Report

WTO 2017

Global value chain transformation to 2030: Overall direction and policy implications 

James Zhan, Richard Bolwijn, Bruno Casella, Amelia U. Santos-Paulino  13 August 2020

https://voxeu.org/article/global-value-chain-transformation-decade-ahead

Governance of global value chains after the Covid-19 pandemic: A new wave of regionalization?

José Pla-Barber1, Cristina Villar1 and Rajneesh Narula2

Business Research Quarterly 2021, Vol. 24(3) 204–213

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/23409444211020761

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/23409444211020761

GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS

Pol Antràs Davin Chor

Working Paper 28549

NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
March 2021

http://www.nber.org/papers/w28549

Click to access w28549.pdf

PART III
Global Value Chains

ADB

2021

https://www.adb.org/publications/key-indicators-asia-and-pacific-2021

Gary Gereffi: How Research on Global Value Chains Can Help U.S. Competitiveness

August 9, 2021

Duke University

https://igs.duke.edu/news/gary-gereffi-how-research-global-value-chains-can-help-us-competitiveness

Determinants of Global Value Chain Participation: Cross-country Analysis

Globalization in transition: The future of trade and value chains

January 16, 2019 | Report

MGI

By Susan Lund, James ManyikaJonathan Woetzel, Jacques Bughin, Mekala KrishnanJeongmin Seong, and Mac Muir

https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/innovation-and-growth/globalization-in-transition-the-future-of-trade-and-value-chains

Global Value Chains – a Panacea for Development?

Author: Petra Dünhaupt & Hansjörg Herr

Working Paper, No. 165/2021

Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE)

The impact of Covid-19 on global value chains

Heli Simola

BOFIT Policy Brief 2/2021 14.01.2021

Shifting Global Value Chains: The India Opportunity

WHITE PAPER

JUNE 2021

WEF

Rebuilding inclusive global value chains as Pathway to global economic Recovery

IsDB

Risk, resilience and recalibration in global value chains

UNIDO

2020

https://iap.unido.org/articles/risk-resilience-and-recalibration-global-value-chains

Decoupling Global Value Chains*

Peter Eppinger University of Tübingen

Oliver Krebs University of Tübingen

Gabriel Felbermayr
Kiel Institute for the World Economy

Bohdan Kukharskyy City University of New York

February 15, 2021

Shooting Oneself in the Foot? Trade War and Global Value Chains

Cecilia Bellora & Lionel Fontagné

No 2019-18 – April 20

Click to access cb_lf_tradewar.pdf

Efficiency and risks in global value chains in the context of COVID-19

Christine Arriola, Sophie Guilloux-Nefussi, Seung-Hee Koh, Przemyslaw Kowalski, Elena Rusticelli, Frank van Tongeren

OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 1637

https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/3e4b7ecf-en

Managing Risks in Global Value Chains: Strengthening Resilience in the APEC Region

By Divya Sangaraju and Akhmad Bayhaqi

APEC Policy Support Unit POLICY BRIEF No. 37 December 2020

UNCTAD-Eora Global Value Chain Database

https://worldmrio.com/unctadgvc/

Introduction to Accounting for Global Value Chains (GVCs) – GVC Satellite Accounts and Integrated Business Statistics

National Accounts Seminar for Latin America and the Caribbean 28-30 May 2019
Guatemala City, Guatemala

United Nations Statistics Division

“Accounting for Globalisation: Frameworks for Integrated International Economic Accounts,” 

Nadim Ahmad, 2018.

NBER Chapters, in:  The Challenges of Globalization in the Measurement of National Accounts,

National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

https://www.nber.org/books-and-chapters/challenges-globalization-measurement-national-accounts/accounting-globalisation-frameworks-integrated-international-economic-accounts

Improving the accounting frameworks for analyses of global value chains

Nadim Ahmad (OECD)

Chapter 8 of GVC Development Report 2019

WTO

MaPPing gLoBaL VaLUe CHainS

Koen De Backer and Sébastien Miroudot

Working Paper Series

no 1677 / May 2014

ECB

Accounting for Global Value Chains:
Extended System of National Accounts and Integrated Business Statistics

Ivo Havinga
United Nations Statistics Division

25th Conference of International Input-Output Association (IIOA) June 19-23, 2017
Atlantic City, NJ, USA

WORLD KLEMS Initiative

http://www.worldklems.net/index.htm

Conceptual Aspects of Global Value Chains∗

 Pol Antràs

Harvard University February 4, 2020

Global Value Chain Analysis: Concepts and Approaches 

Lin Jones, Meryem Demirkaya, and Erika Bethmann

United States International Trade Commission

Journal of International Commerce and Economics April 2019

The Age of Global Value Chains: Maps and Policy Issues

A VoxEU.org eBook
Edited by João Amador and Filippo di Mauro
CEPR Press 2015

Click to access GVCs-ebook.pdf

Global value chains: A review of the multi- disciplinary literature

Liena Kano1, Eric W. K. Tsang2 and Henry Wai-chung Yeung3

Journal of International Business Studies (2020)

Modelling Global Value Chains: Approaches and Insights from Economics1

Davin Chor
Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College & National University of Singapore

January 2019

“The Margins of Global Sourcing: Theory and Evidence from U.S. Firms.”

Antràs, Pol, Teresa C. Fort, and Felix Tintelnot. 2017.

American Economic Review 107 (9): 2514-64.

https://scholar.harvard.edu/antras/publications/margins-global-sourcing-theory-and-evidence-us-firms

Disentangling Global Value Chains∗ 

Alonso de Gortari

adegortaribriseno@fas.harvard.edu

First version: August 12, 2016 This version: November 26, 2017

Global Value Chains: Overview and Issues for Congress

December 16, 2020

Congressional Research Service

https://crsreports.congress.gov R46641

Rachel F. Fefer, Coordinator
Analyst in International Trade and Finance

Andres B. Schwarzenberg

Analyst in International Trade and Finance

Liana Wong

Analyst in International Trade and Finance

Economic Bulletin

Issue 5 / 2020

ECB

ECB Economic Bulletin, Issue 5 / 2020 – Update on economic and monetary developments Summary

Risk, resilience, and rebalancing in global value chains

MGI

August 2020

James Manyika
Director and Co-chair, McKinsey Global Institute Senior Partner, McKinsey & Company
San Francisco

Sven Smit
Director and Co-chair, McKinsey Global Institute Senior Partner, McKinsey & Company Amsterdam

Jonathan Woetzel
Director, McKinsey Global Institute Senior Partner, McKinsey & Company Shanghai

GLOBALIZATION IN TRANSITION: THE FUTURE OF TRADE AND VALUE CHAINS

MGI

JANUARY 2019

By Susan Lund, James Manyika, Jonathan Woetzel, Jacques Bughin, Mekala Krishnan, Jeongmin Seong, and Mac Muir

https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/innovation-and-growth/globalization-in-transition-the-future-of-trade-and-value-chains

Accounting for growth and productivity in global value chains

Marcel TimmerXianjia Ye

2020

In B. Fraumeni (Ed.), 

Measuring Economic Growth and Productivity: Foundations, KLEMS Production Models, and Extensions (pp. 413-426). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-817596-5.00018-4

https://research.rug.nl/en/publications/accounting-for-growth-and-productivity-in-global-value-chains

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128175965000184?via%3Dihub

by Lumba, Angelo Jose, Mahintan Joseph Mariasingham and Kristina Baris 


Center for Global Trade Analysis
Department of Agricultural Economics
Purdue University
403 West State Street
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2056 USA 

https://www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu/resources/res_display.asp?RecordID=6090

Determinants of Global Value Chain Participation: Cross- country Analysis

Biswajit Banerjee, Juraj Zeman

NBS Working paper 1/2020

http://www.nbs.sk

Drivers and benefits of Enhancing participation in global Value Chains: Lessons for India

Sabyasachi Mitra, Abhijit Sen Gupta, and Atul Sanganeria

No. 79 | December 2020

ADB

Sustaining global Value Chains

AIIB

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank 2021
AIIB Headquarters, Tower A, Asia Financial Center
No. 1 Tianchen East Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 China Tel: +86-10-8358-0000
econ@aiib.org

https://www.aiib.org/en/news-events/asian-infrastructure-finance/2021/introduction/index.html

Understanding the Impact of Global Value Chains – A Workshop

https://www.nationalacademies.org/our-work/understanding-the-impact-of-global-value-chains-a-workshop

Resilience in Global Value Chains: A Systemic Risk Approach 

sherwat@aucegypt.edu

Global Perspectives (2021) 2 (1): 27658

.https://doi.org/10.1525/gp.2021.27658

https://online.ucpress.edu/gp/article-abstract/2/1/27658/118661/Resilience-in-Global-Value-Chains-A-Systemic-Risk?redirectedFrom=fulltext

The mutual constraints of states and global value chains during COVID-19: The case of personal protective equipment

Mark P. Dallas a,⇑, Rory Horner b,c, Lantian Li d

a Department of Political Science & Asian Studies, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308, USA
b Global Development Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
c Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, Johannesburg, South Africa d Department of Sociology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA

World Development 139 (2021) 105324

Statement of U.S. Global Value Chain Coalition

House Committee on Ways and Means
Hearing on the 2020 U.S. Trade Policy Agenda on June 17, 2020 July 1, 2020

GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS IN THE AGE OF UNCERTAINTY: ADVANTAGES, VULNERABILITIES, AND WAYS FOR ENHANCING RESILIENCE

N. V. Smorodinskaya D. D. Katukov V. E. Malygin

Institute of Economics Russian Academy of Sciences 32 Nakhimovskiy Prospekt, Moscow, 117218, Russia

Received 20 April 2021

doi: 10.5922/2079-8555-2021-3-5

COVID-19 and Trade Policy:

Why Turning Inward Won’t Work

Edited by Richard Baldwin

and Simon J. Evenett

A CEPR Press VoxEU.org eBook

Handbook on Global Value Chains

Edited by

Stefano Ponte, Professor of International Political Economy, Director, Centre for Business and Development Studies, Copenhagen Business School (CBS), Denmark,

Gary Gereffi, Founding Director, Global Value Chains Center and Emeritus Professor, Department of Sociology, Duke University, US and

Gale Raj-Reichert, Bard College Berlin, Germany 

Publication Date: 2019 ISBN: 978 1 78811 376 2 Extent: 640 pp

https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/usd/handbook-on-global-value-chains-9781788113762.html

Dynamics in chains and networks

edited by H.J. Bremmers, S.W.F. Omta, J.H. Trienekens

Maureen S. Golan,1Laura H. Jernegan,1 and  Igor Linkov2

Environ Syst Decis. 2020 May 30 : 1–22. 

doi: 10.1007/s10669-020-09777-w [Epub ahead of print]

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261049/

OR-methods for coping with the ripple effect in supply chains during COVID-19 pandemic: Managerial insights and research implications

Dmitry Ivanova,∗ and  Alexandre Dolguib

Int J Prod Econ. 2021 Feb; 232: 107921.
Published online 2020 Sep 15.

doi: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2020.107921

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491383/

Ripple effect in the supply chain network: Forward and backward disruption propagation, network health and firm vulnerability

Yuhong Li,aKedong Chen,aStephane Collignon,b and  Dmitry Ivanovc,⁎

Eur J Oper Res. 2021 Jun 16; 291(3): 1117–1131.
Published online 2020 Oct 10.

doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2020.09.053

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546950/

The Emerging World of Chains and Networks, Bridging Theory and Practice

Th. Camps (Editor), P.J.M. Diederen (Editor), G.J. Hofstede (Editor), B. Vos (Editor)

Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
PublisherReed Business Information
Number of pages348
ISBN (Print)9789059019287
Publication statusPublished – 2004

Experimental learning in chains and networks,

G. J. Hofstede (2006)

Production Planning & Control, 17:6, 543-546,

DOI: 10.1080/09537280600866561

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09537280600866561

Integrating supply chain and network analyses: The study of netchains

Sergio Lazzarini

John M. Olin School of Business, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1133, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899, USA

Fabio Chaddad

Agribusiness Research Institute, University of Missouri – Columbia, 138A Mumford Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA

Michael Cook

Agribusiness Research Institute, University of Missouri – Columbia, 125C Mumford Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA

Journal on Chain and Network Science: 1 (1)- Pages: 7 – 22

https://doi.org/10.3920/JCNS2001.x002
Published Online: December 10, 2008

https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/10.3920/JCNS2001.x002

Network Science approach to Modelling Emergence and Topological Robustness of Supply Networks: A Review and Perspective

Supun S. Perera 1,*
(E-mail: s.perera@econ.usyd.edu.au Telephone: +61291141893, Fax: +61291141863)
Michael G.H. Bell 1
(E-mail: michael.bell@sydney.edu.au Telephone: +61291141816, Fax: +61291141863)
Michiel C.J. Bliemer 1
(E-mail:michiel.bliemer@sydney.edu.au Telephone: +61291141840, Fax: +61291141863)
1 Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies, University of Sydney, Australia

Trust and Transparency in Supply Netchains: A Contradiction?

Gert Jan Hofstede

Wageningen University & Research

Supply Chain Management: Issues in the New Era of Collaboration and Competition, (2007) William Y.C. Wang, Michael S.H. Heng & Patrick Y.K. Chau (eds), a book by Idea Group Inc., pp 105-126
This version: V2, May 2005

Strategic Planning and Management of Food and Agribusiness Chains: The ChainPlan Method (Framework)

Marcos Fava Neves1

1University of São Paulo and Fundação Getulio Vargas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Rafael Bordonal Kalaki2

2University of São Paulo and Socicana, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

Jonny Mateus Rodrigues3

3University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

Allan Wayne Gray4

4Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA

World Development Report 2020: Trading for Development in the Age of Global Value Chains

World Bank IBRD 2020

https://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/wdr2020

Reconfigurable supply chain: the X-network.

Alexandre Dolgui, Dmitry Ivanov, Boris Sokolov.

International Journal of Production Research, Taylor & Francis, 2020, 58 (13), pp.4138-4163.

10.1080/00207543.2020.1774679 . hal-02882722

COVID-19 and global value chains: Policy options to build more resilient production networks

3 June 2020

OECD

https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/covid-19-and-global-value-chains-policy-options-to-build-more-resilient-production-networks-04934ef4/

Global value chains: Efficiency and risks in the context of COVID-19

11 February 2021

OECD

https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/global-value-chains-efficiency-and-risks-in-the-context-of-covid-19-67c75fdc/

https://www.oecd.org/sti/ind/global-value-chains.htm

World Investment Report 2020

CHAPTER IV
INTERNATIONAL PRODUCTION: A DECADE OF TRANSFORMATION AHEAD

UNCTAD

World Investment Report 2013: Global Value Chains: Investment and Trade for Development

Chapter 4

UNCTAD

World Investment Report 2017

UNCTAD

Reimagining industrial supply chains

Thomas Baumgartner, Yogesh Malik, and Asutosh Padhi

McKinsey August 11, 2020

https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/advanced-electronics/our-insights/reimagining-industrial-supply-chains#

The Strength of Weak Ties

The Strength of Weak Ties

Key Terms

  • Loosly Coupled Systems
  • Weak Ties
  • Strong Ties
  • Connections
  • Networks
  • Diffusion
  • Lockdown
  • Isolation
  • Quarantine
  • Separation
  • Preferences
  • Epidemiology
  • Tightly Coupled Systems
  • Slack
  • Buffer
  • Communities in Networks
  • Ties
  • Borders
  • Boundaries
  • Brokers
  • Boundary Spanners
  • Cooperation
  • Competition
  • Divisions
  • Risks
  • Contagion
  • Interconnectedness
  • Clusters

The Strength of Weak Ties is quite a relevant topic currently due to focus on

  • Diffusion of Innovation and Ideas
  • Spread of Diseases
  • Global Supply Chains
  • Community Formation in Networks
  • Communication in Networks
  • Relations between Groups
  • Resilience
  • Risks and Fragility
  • Contagion and Spillovers

The Strength of Weak Ties

Mark Granovetter

The Strength of Weak Ties – Continued

My Related Posts

Boundaries and Networks

Contagion in Financial (Balance sheets) Networks

Boundaries and Relational Sociology

Boundaries and Distinctions

Boundary Spanning in Multinational and Transnational Corporations

FDI vs Outsourcing: Extending Boundaries or Extending Network Chains of Firms

Global Flow of Funds: Statistical Data Matrix across National Boundaries

Balance Sheets, Financial Interconnectedness, and Financial Stability – G20 Data Gaps Initiative

Micro Motives, Macro Behavior: Agent Based Modeling in Economics

Multiplex Financial Networks

Multilevel Approach to Research in Organizations

On Holons and Holarchy

Networks and Hierarchies

Production Chain Length and Boundary Crossings in Global Value Chains

Understanding Global Value Chains – G20/OECD/WB Initiative

Key Sources of Research

The Strength of Weak Ties

Mark Gronovetter

The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No. 6. (May, 1973), pp. 1360-1380

Click to access granovetterTies.pdf

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Strength-of-Weak-Ties-Granovetter/c9aece346139711b8c65c618da99cdbecb162575

THE STRENGTH IN WEAK TIES

WILLIAM T. LIU,  ROBERT W. DUFF

Public Opinion Quarterly, Volume 36, Issue 3, FALL 1972, Pages 361–366, https://doi.org/10.1086/268018

Published: 01 January 1972

https://academic.oup.com/poq/article-abstract/36/3/361/1875803

The Future of Weak Ties

Aral, Sinan. “The Future of Weak Ties.”

American Journal of Sociology 121, no. 6 (May 2016): 1931–1939.

MIT

Attention on Weak Ties in Social and Communication Networks

Lilian Weng, Ma ́rton Karsai, Nicola Perra, Filippo Menczer and Alessandro Flammini

2017

Algebraic Analysis of Social Networks: Models, Methods and Applications Using R

By J. Antonio R. Ostoic

A test of structural features of granovetter’s strength of weak ties theory

Noah Friedkin

Department of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, U.S.A.

Social Networks
Volume 2, Issue 4, 1980, Pages 411-422

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0378873380900064

Social network Analysis
Lecture 5–Strength of weak ties paradox

Donglei Du

Faculty of Business Administration, University of New Brunswick, NB Canada Fredericton E3B 9Y2 (ddu@unb.ca)

Click to access Lec5_weak_tie_handout.pdf

THE STRENGTH OF WEAK TIES: A NETWORK THEORY REVISITED

Mark Granovetter

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK, STONY BROOK

Sociological Theory, Vol. 1 (1983), pp. 201-233
John Wiley & Sons
http://www.jstor.org/stable/202051 .

Social Interactions and Well-Being: The Surprising Power of Weak Ties

Gillian M. Sandstrom, Elizabeth W. Dunn
First Published April 25, 2014
https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167214529799

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0146167214529799

Information Flow Through Strong and Weak Ties in Intraorganizational Social Networks

Noah E Friedkin

UCSB

Social Networks 3, 1982

Click to access SNIflow.PDF

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

Márton KarsaiNicola PerraAlessandro Vespignani

https://arxiv.org/abs/1303.5966

https://www.technologyreview.com/2013/03/28/83867/how-strong-social-ties-hinder-the-spread-of-rumours/

Strong and Weak Ties

Web Science (VU) (707.000)

Elisabeth Lex
KTI, TU Graz
April 20, 2015

Click to access strongweakties.pdf

Communication boundaries in networks

Trusina, Ala 

Rosvall, Martin 

Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.

Sneppen, Kim 

2005 (English)

In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 94, no 23, p. 238701-

System Archetypes: Stories that Repeat

System Archetypes: Stories that Repeat

Source: Archetypes

Archetypes in stories express patterns.

While plots may be “archetypal” when they exhibit certain forms, in this post we are concerned with character archetypes.

In modern storytelling, to consider them as archetypes might suggest a bit of a corset, perhaps even a straightjacket for the characters. For today’s author, to present a character as an archetype does not seem conducive to achieving psychological verisimilitude.

But an archetype is not the same as a stereotype. An advisor or mentor does not need to be a wise old man like Obi-Wan Kenobi. And an antagonist does not need to be a baddy.

Consider archetypes as powers within a story. Like planets in a solar system, they have gravity and they therefore exert force as they move.

Archetypes denote certain general roles or functions for characters within the system of the story. There is ample room for variation within each role or function. Boundaries between one archetype and another may be fuzzy. And it is possible for one character to stand for more than one archetype.

Archetypes Through The Ages

Certain archetypes are ancient and have been around as long as stories have been told. Others may have a Christian background. Some are modern interpretations of ancient archetypes seen in the light of dramaturgical principles.

We may distinguish between three sorts of archetypes.

  • Ancient – archetypes that we find in the very oldest stories, and in very modern ones
  • Classical – archetypes that we find in works of literature of the past two thousand years
  • Role-based – modern variants that consider the dramaturgical function of characters

This categorisation has overlaps. The ancient, original archetypes, such as the Mentor, are of course also classical. And certain role-based archetypes, such as the Protagonist, may correspond to ancient ones, such as the Prince.

The Protagonist is sometimes called the Hero, a word which in terms of ancient archetypes might refer to a number of archetypes, for instance Warrior (Achilles) or Trickster (Odysseus). In the modern sense of role-based archetypes, this is the person (or rabbit, or robot, or whatever) the story is primarily about, the one whose travails the recipient, the audience or reader, follows through to the end of the story.

The Protagonist’s opposing power is the antagonism, which may be personified in an individual Antagonist. It helps to remember that in terms of function within the story, an antagonist does not necessarily have to be a villain, but is a counterforce to the protagonist (for an ancient example, consider Agamemnon and Achilles in the Iliad).

The antagonistic force is sometimes referred to as the “Shadow”. This can be misleading, since really almost every archetype has its own shadow side. A Patriarch may be presented as benevolent or “light”, or as tyrannical and “dark”. Indeed, in one story the character (or characters) representing such an archetype might show signs of both.

Characters Wearing Hats

Several of the roles or functions that you find in all sorts of stories – such as the Mentor, the Ally, the Patriarch – do not always have to be riveted to one specific character. For instance, it is quite possible that one character may have the Mentor hat on at one point in the story, and the Ally hat at another.

The point is that such forces or functions tend to be present in stories, and characters express these forces through their role or function within the story at each point in the narrative.

There is even an archetype for a character that explicitly changes roles in the story, where it becomes part of that character’s function to jump role at one or more points along the story. That is a Shapechanger.

Some archetypes are gender specific. The Patriarch/Father/King stands for different values from the Matriarch/Mother/Queen. For other archetypes, whether the character is male or female is not the point. A Shapechanger or a Trickster is defined by what the character does in the story.

So archetypes are really little more than signposts. Assigning a character an archetype is not to pressure that character into behaving in a certain way. Calling a character an archetype is merely to give us a pointer to that character’s role and function in the story. Characters that can be labelled as several archetypes tend to be multi-facetted. Hamlet, for instance, fulfils the criteria for several archetypes. So thinking about characters in terms of which archetypal roles they may play is actually a way of making the characters richer, giving them more depth, making them appear psychologically real and ultimately human.

System archetypes are the pattern which are recurrent.

Key Terms

  • Systems
  • System Archetypes
  • Feedback
  • Causal Loops
  • Delays
  • Leveraged Networks
  • The Systems Thinker
  • Daniel H Kim
  • Peter Senge
  • Barry Richmond
  • STELLA
  • VENSIM
  • ITHINK
  • Ventana Systems
  • Isee Systems

WHAT IS A SYSTEMS ARCHETYPE?

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Without having to climb beanstalks or push anyone into an oven, children learn lessons from fairy tales about how to hide from powerful, cruel beings, build solid dwellings, and be respectful of old people. Literary themes also show us the hero’s journey, the trials of hard work, the outcomes of faithful love and misguided passion, and the ennui of a materialistic life. In these examples from literature, the term archetype signifies a recurring, generic character, symbol, or storyline. In systems thinking, the term has a very similar meaning. It refers to recurring, generic systemic structures that are found in many kinds of organizations, under many circumstances, and at different levels or scales, from internal personal dynamics to global international relations.

Captured in the stories, structures, and behavior over time of the archetypes are similar teachings about competition, addiction, the perils of quick fixes, and the high flyer’s downfall. And as we do with stories and fairy tales, we can use the archetypes to explore generic problems and hone our awareness of the organizational dramas unfolding around us. We can even use archetypes to sharpen our ability to anticipate difficulties, communicate about them with our colleagues, and find ways to address them together.

The systems archetypes, as a group, make up one of the 10 current categories of systems thinking tools. (See Appendix B for a complete list of these tools.) Each archetype features a storyline with a distinctive theme, a particular pattern of behavior over time that can be graphed, and a unique systemic structure that can be depicted in a causal loop diagram. The value of archetypes is that we can study them apart from a specific story, problem, or organizational situation and take away generic, transferable learnings that we can then apply to many situations in our own lives.

WHERE DID ARCHETYPES COME FROM?

In the 1960s and 1970s, Jay Forrester, Dennis Meadows, Donella Meadows, and other pioneers of systems thinking observed several recurring systemic structures. In the 1980s, Michael Goodman, Charles Kiefer, Jenny Kemeny, and Peter Senge built on that work, in part with the help of notes developed by John Sterman, by describing, diagramming, and cataloguing these generic systemic structures as systems templates. When Peter Senge authored The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, he referred to those structures as systems archetypes. Since then, the notion of systems archetypes has become quite popularized, and systems thinking practitioners have continued to teach, apply, and write about these recurring generic structures as well as investigate and test the potential of identifying new ones.

List of Key System Archetypes

  • Drifting Goals
  • Escalation
  • Fixes that Fail
  • Growth and Underinvestment
  • Limits to Success
  • Shifting the Burden/Addiction
  • Success to the Successful
  • Tragedy of the Commons

Source: Systems Thinking Tools: A User’s Reference Guide

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES I

Source: Systems Thinking Tools: A User’s Reference Guide

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES I

System Archetypes and Their Storylines

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES AND THEIR APPLICATION

Archetypes and their Applications

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES AND THEIR APPLICATION

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Growth Archetypes

Source: A theory of spatial system archetypes

➤ A Glossary of Systems Thinking Tools

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Systems thinking can serve as a language for communicating about complexity and interdependencies. To be fully conversant in any language, you must gain some mastery of the vocabulary, especially the phrases and idioms unique to that language. This glossary lists many terms that may come in handy when you’re faced with a systems problem.

Accumulator 

Anything that builds up or dwindles; for example, water in a bathtub, savings in a bank account, inventory in a warehouse. In modeling software, a stock is often used as a generic symbol for accumulators. Also known as Stock or Level.

Balancing Process/Loop 

Combined with reinforcing loops, balancing processes form the building blocks of dynamic systems. Balancing processes seek equilibrium: They try to bring things to a desired state and keep them there. They also limit and constrain change generated by reinforcing processes. A balancing loop in a causal loop diagram depicts a balancing process.

Balancing Process with Delay 

A commonly occurring structure. When a bal- ancing process has a long delay, the usual response is to overcorrect. Over- correction leads to wild swings in behavior. Example: real estate cycles.

Behavior Over Time (BOT) Graph 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. BOT graphs capture the history or trend of one or more variables over time. By sketching several variables on one graph, you can gain an explicit understanding of how they interact over time. Also called Reference Mode.

Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. Causal loop diagrams capture how variables in a system are interrelated. A CLD takes the form of a closed loop that depicts cause-and-effect linkages.

Drifting Goals 

A systems archetype. In a “Drifting Goals” scenario, a gradual downward slide in performance goals goes unnoticed, threatening the long- term future of the system or organization. Example: lengthening delivery delays.

Escalation 

A systems archetype. In the “Escalation” archetype, two parties compete for superiority in an arena. As one party’s actions put it ahead, the other party “retaliates” by increasing its actions. The result is a continual ratcheting up of activity on both sides. Examples: price battles, the Cold War.

Feedback 

The return of information about the status of a process. Example: annual performance reviews return information to an employee about the quality of his or her work.

Fixes That Fail 

A systems archetype. In a “Fixes That Fail” situation, a fix is applied to a problem and has immediate positive results. However, the fix also has unforeseen long-term consequences that eventually worsen the problem. Also known as “Fixes That Backfire.”

Flow 

The amount of change something undergoes during a particular unit of time. Example: the amount of water that flows out of a bathtub each minute, or the amount of interest earned in a savings account each month. Also called a Rate.

Generic Structures 

Structures that can be generalized across many different settings because the underlying relationships are fundamentally the same. Systems archetypes are a class of generic structures.

Graphical Function Diagram (GFD) 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. GFDs show how one variable, such as delivery delays, interacts with another, such as sales, by plotting the relationship between the two over the entire range of relevant values. The resulting diagram is a concise hypothesis of how the two variables interrelate. Also called Table Function.

Growth and Underinvestment 

A systems archetype. In this situation, resource investments in a growing area are not made, owing to short-term pressures. As growth begins to stall because of lack of resources, there is less incentive for adding capacity, and growth slows even further.

Learning Laboratory 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. A learning lab- oratory embeds a management flight simulator in a learning environment. Groups of managers use a combination of systems thinking tools to explore the dynamics of a particular system and inquire into their own understand- ing of that system. Learning labs serve as a manager’s practice field.

Level 

See Accumulator.

Leverage Point 

An area where small change can yield large improvements in a system.

Limits to Success 

A systems archetype. In a “Limits to Success” scenario, a company or product line grows rapidly at first, but eventually begins to slow or even decline. The reason is that the system has hit some limit— capacity constraints, resource limits, market saturation, etc.—that is inhibiting further growth. Also called “Limits to Growth.”

Management Flight Simulator (MFS) 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. Similar to a pilot’s flight simulator, an MFS allows managers to test the outcome of different policies and decisions without “crashing and burning” real companies. An MFS is based on a system dynamics computer model that has been changed into an interactive decision-making simulator through the use of a user interface.

Policy Structure Diagram 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. Policy structure diagrams are used to create a conceptual “map” of the decision- making process that is embedded in an organization. It highlights the fac- tors that are weighed at each decision point.

Rate 

See Flow.

Reference Mode 

See Behavior Over Time Graph.

Reinforcing Process/Loop 

Along with balancing loops, reinforcing loops form the building blocks of dynamic systems. Reinforcing processes com- pound change in one direction with even more change in that same direc- tion. As such, they generate both growth and collapse. A reinforcing loop in a causal loop diagram depicts a reinforcing process. Also known as vicious cycles or virtuous cycles.

Shifting the Burden 

A systems archetype. In a “Shifting the Burden” situa- tion, a short-term solution is tried that successfully solves an ongoing prob- lem. As the solution is used over and over again, it takes attention away from more fundamental, enduring solutions. Over time, the ability to apply a fundamental solution may decrease, resulting in more and more reliance on the symptomatic solution. Examples: drug and alcohol dependency.

Shifting the Burden to the Intervener 

A special case of the “Shifting the Burden” systems archetype that occurs when an intervener is brought in to help solve an ongoing problem. Over time, as the intervener successfully handles the problem, the people within the system become less capable of solving the problem themselves. They become even more dependent on the intervener. Example: ongoing use of outside consultants.

Simulation Model 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. A computer model that lets you map the relationships that are important to a problem or an issue and then simulate the interaction of those variables over time.

Stock 

See Accumulator.

Structural Diagram 

Draws out the accumulators and flows in a system, giving an overview of the major structural elements that produce the system’s behavior. Also called flow diagram or accumulator/flow diagram.

Structure-Behavior Pair 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. A structure- behavior pair consists of a structural representation of a business issue, using accumulators and flows, and the corresponding behavior over time (BOT) graph for the issue being studied.

Structure 

The manner in which a system’s elements are organized or interre- lated. The structure of an organization, for example, could include not only the organizational chart but also incentive systems, information flows, and interpersonal interactions.

Success to the Successful 

A systems archetype. In a “Success to the Success- ful” situation, two activities compete for a common but limited resource. The activity that is initially more successful is consistently given more resources, allowing it to succeed even more. At the same time, the activity that is initially less successful becomes starved for resources and eventually dies out. Example: the QWERTY layout of typewriter keyboards.

System Dynamics 

A field of study that includes a methodology for constructing computer simulation models to achieve better understanding of social and corporate systems. It draws on organizational studies, behavioral decision theory, and engineering to provide a theoretical and empirical base for structuring the relationships in complex systems.

System 

A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements form- ing a complex whole. Almost always defined with respect to a specific pur- pose within a larger system. Example: An R&D department is a system that has a purpose in the context of the larger organization.

Systems Archetypes 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. Systems archetypes are the “classic stories” in systems thinking—common patterns and structures that occur repeatedly in different settings.

Systems Thinking 

A school of thought that focuses on recognizing the inter- connections between the parts of a system and synthesizing them into a unified view of the whole.

Table Function 

See Graphical Function Diagram.

Template 

A tool used to identify systems archetypes. To use a template, you fill in the blank variables in causal loop diagrams.

Tragedy of the Commons 

A systems archetype. In a “Tragedy of the Commons” scenario, a shared resource becomes overburdened as each person in the system uses more and more of the resource for individual gain. Eventually, the resource dwindles or is wiped out, resulting in lower gains for everyone involved. Example: the Greenhouse Effect.

The above glossary is a compilation of definitions from many sources, including:

  • Innovation Associates’ and GKA’s Introduction to Systems Thinking coursebooks
  • The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, by Peter Senge
  • High Performance Systems’ Academic User’s Guide to STELLA
  • The American Heritage Dictionary and The Random House Dictionary.

Systems Thinking Tools

Source: THE “THINKING” IN SYSTEMS THINKING: HOW CAN WE MAKE IT EASIER TO MASTER?

Source: Systems Thinking Tools: A User’s Reference Guide

Source: Systems Thinking Tools: A User’s Reference Guide

Systems Thinking Publications

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES I

The Systems Thinker

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES I

The Language of Links and Loops

Source: System Archetypes I

My Releated Posts

Jay W. Forrester and System Dynamics

Feedback Thought in Economics and Finance

Stock Flow Consistent Models for Ecological Economics

What are Problem Structuring Methods?

Law of Dependent Origination

Oscillations and Amplifications in Demand-Supply Network Chains

Systems and Organizational Cybernetics

Stock Flow Consistent Input Output Models (SFCIO)

Stock-Flow Consistent Modeling

Myth of Invariance: Sound, Music, and Recurrent Events and Structures

Systems Biology: Biological Networks, Network Motifs, Switches and Oscillators

Key Sources of Research

CAUSAL LOOP CONSTRUCTION: THE BASICS

COLLEEN LANNON

Systems Archetype Basics

From Story to Structure

Daniel H. Kim
Virginia Anderson

Introduction to Systems Thinking

Daniel H. Kim

Systems Archetypes I: Diagnosing Systemic Issues and Designing High-Leverage Interventions

The System Thinker

Pegasus Communications

Systems Archetypes II: Using Systems Archetypes to Take Effective Action

The System Thinker

Pegasus Communications

Systems Archetypes III: Understanding Patterns of Behavior and Delay

by Daniel H. Kim
© 2000 by Pegasus Communications, Inc.
First edition.

First printing March 2000

Systems Thinking Tools: A User’s Reference Guide

DANIEL H. KIM

THE “THINKING” IN SYSTEMS THINKING: HOW CAN WE MAKE IT EASIER TO MASTER?

BY

BARRY RICHMOND

THE THINKING IN SYSTEMS THINKING: EIGHT CRITICAL SKILLS

BY BARRY RICHMOND

Click to access Vol.%2021%20No.%203,%20abr.%202010.pdf

Systems Thinking Basics: From Concepts to Causal Loops

Book by Virginia Anderson

MOVING FROM KNOWER TO LEARNER

BRIAN HINKEN

Tools for Systems Thinkers: The 12 Recurring Systems Archetypes

Disruptive Design

The System Archetypes 

By William Braun

SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES AND THEIR APPLICATION

By Jorge Taborga

Saybrook Forum, Human Experience – Monday, August 15, 2011

https://www.saybrook.edu/unbound/systems-archetypes/

Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg: Using Systems Archetypes to Understand Common and Recurring Issues in Sports Coaching

Scott McLean1*Gemma J. M. Read1Adam Hulme1Karl Dodd1Adam D. Gorman2Colin Solomon1,3 and Paul M. Salmon1

  • 1Centre for Human Factors and Sociotechnical Systems, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia
  • 2School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
  • 3School of Health and Sports Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fspor.2019.00049/full

Archetypes

Interaction Structures of the Universe

https://www.systems-thinking.org/arch/arch.htm

Systems: Schools of Thought and Traditions of Practice

W. Barnett Pearce
Fielding Graduate University
Public Dialogue Consortium
Pearce Associates
CMM Institute for Personal and Social Evolution

On systems thinking in logistics management – A critical perspective

Magnus Lindskog

June 2012

Department of Science and Technology Linköpings universitet, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden

Applying resilience thinking

Seven principles for building resilience in social-ecological systems

http://www.stockholmresilience.su.se

An Introduction to Systems Thinking

by Barry Richmond

Chapter 1 Featuring Stella

ISBN 0-9704921-1-1

isee systems
Phone: (603) 643.9636 http://www.iseesystems.com

Systems Thinking: A Review and Bibliometric Analysis 

Niamat Ullah Ibne Hossain , Vidanelage L. Dayarathna, Morteza Nagahi and Raed Jaradat *

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA; ni78@msstate.edu (N.U.I.H.); vld66@msstate.edu (V.L.D.); mn852@msstate.edu (M.N.)
Correspondence: jaradat@ise.msstate.edu

SYSTEMIC THINKING FOR POLICY MAKING – THE POTENTIAL OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS FOR ADDRESSING GLOBAL POLICY CHALLENGES IN THE 21st CENTURY

OECD

17-18 September 2019, OECD Conference Centre

Edited by Gabriela Ramos, William Hynes, Jan-Marco Müller and Martin Lees

SYSTEMS THINKING

A Dissertation
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School
of Cornell University
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

by
Derek Anthony Cabrera May 2006

https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/2860/DerekCabreraDissertation.pdf;sequence=1

Systems thinking: critical thinking skills for the 1990s and beyond

Barry Richmond

System Dynamics Review Vol. 9, no. 2 (Summer 1993):113-133

System Dynamics/Systems Thinking: Let’s Just Get On With It

by
Barry Richmond

Delivered at the 1994 International Systems Dynamics Conference in Sterling, Scotland

Thinking in Systems

Donella H. Meadows

TEACHING SYSTEMIC THINKING: EDUCATING THE NEXT GENERATION OF BUSINESS LEADERS

BY J. BRIAN ATWATER, VIJAY KANNAN, AND ALAN A. STEPHENS

APPLYING SYSTEM DYNAMICS TO PUBLIC POLICY: THE LEGACY OF BARRY RICHMOND

BY STEVE PETERSON

Systems Thinking Resources

Using generic system archetypes to support thinking and modelling

Eric Wolstenholme

System Dynamics Review Volume 20 Number 4 Winter 2004

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.390.6202&rep=rep1&type=pdf#/

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Using-generic-system-archetypes-to-support-thinking-Wolstenholme/daed8d5c3a1081addf196543e9fa4ca228c42185

System Archetypes as Diagnostic Tools

Daniel H Kim

Using System Archetypes to Identify Failure Patterns in Acquisition

Diane Gibson Linda Levine, PhD William E. Novak
May 2, 2006

An Approach for the Development of Complex Systems Archetypes

Walter Lee Akers
Old Dominion University, akers.walt@gmail.com

(2015). Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Dissertation, Engineering Management & Systems Engineering, Old Dominion University, DOI: 10.25777/6xmx-r674
https://digitalcommons.odu.edu/emse_etds/18

Thinking systemically about ecological interventions: what do system archetypes teach us?

Lauren M. HallettRichard J. Hobbs

First published: 11 June 2020

 https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13220

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/rec.13220

Use of System Archetypes to Accelerate, Advance, and Deepen Systems Thinking Skills of Nurses

Daniel J Pesut PhD RN FAAN
Professor of Nursing Population Health and Systems Cooperative Unit Director of the Katharine Densford International Center for Nursing Leadership University of Minnesota School of Nursing
308 Harvard St. SE

MPLS MN 55455 USA

Judith Pechacek, DNP, RN, CENP University of Minnesota, School of Nursing

Clinical Associate Professor
Director, Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Program 308 Harvard St. SE

MPLS MN 55455 USA

https://sigma.nursingrepository.org/bitstream/handle/10755/18454/Pesut_94821_A10.pdf?sequence=1

System Archetypes

System Innovation

Youtube

How to Guides

The System Thinker

https://thesystemsthinker.com/category/how-to-guides/

Using the Archetypes

System Archetypes at a Glance

Palette of System Thinking Tools

SYSTEMS ARCHETYPE BASICS: FROM STORY TO STRUCTURE

A theory of spatial system archetypes

Todd K. BenDor* and Nikhil Kaza

System Dynamics Review

System Dynamics Review vol 28, No 2 (April-June 2012): 109–130

Archetypes

Single, Double, and Triple Loop Organizational Learning

Single, Double, and Triple Loop Organizational Learning

Key Terms

  • Learning
  • Organizational Learning
  • Chris Argyris
  • David Schon
  • Peter Senge
  • Single Loop Learning
  • Double Loop Learning
  • Triple Loop Learning
  • Quadruple Loop Learning
  • Error Correction
  • Feedback Loop
  • Gregory Bateson
  • Action Learning
  • Cybernetic Loop
  • Reflexivity
  • Reflection and Learning
  • Systems Thinking
  • Cause and Effects
  • Organizational Adaptability
  • Organizational Culture
  • Theory In Use Models I and II
  • Action Science
  • Ed Schein
  • Levels of Learning
  • Planning as Learning
  • Cybernetics
  • Second Order Cybernetics
  • Third Order Cybernetics
  • Perceptual Flaws
  • Cognitive Learning
  • Hierarchical Planning
  • Management Control Systems
  • Management Planning and Control Systems
  • Planning and Control Systems
  • Manufacturing Planning and Control Systems
  • Advanced Planning Systems (APS)
  • Balanced Scorecards
  • Strategic Management
  • Social Learning
  • Learning to Plan, Planning to learn
  • Deutero Learning
  • Meta Learning
  • Explicit Knowledge
  • Tacit Knowledge

Single and Double Loop Learning

Source: Deradicalization through Double-Loop Learning? How the Egyptian Gamaa Islamiya Renounced Violence

Argyris and Schon thereby start with the assumption that “all deliberate action ha[s] a cognitive basis, that it reflect[s] norms, strategies, and assumptions or models of the world.”21 These mental models work as a “frame of reference” which determine expectations regarding cause and effect relationships between actions and outcomes.22 According to Argyris and Schon, organizational learning becomes necessary when there is an “error,” a mismatch between intended outcomes of strategies of action and actual results; consequently, they define learning as the “detection and correction of error.”23 This correction of errors happens through a continuous process of organizational inquiry of varying depth. Argyris and Schon distinguish two types of learning:24 In single-loop learning systems, the detection and correction of error connects the outcome in a single loop only to strategies of action whereas the governing variables remain unchanged. In double-loop learning systems, a double feedback loop “connects the detection of error not only to strategies and assumptions for effective performance, but to the very norms which define effective performance.”25 Hence, double-loop learning modifies the governing variables underlying objectives.

Single-loop learning to increase the effectiveness of actions is the dominant response to error and ingrained in routine procedures in any organization. Unfortunately, due to organizational inertia and a tendency to become defensive when confronted with failure, organizations have a tendency to produce learning systems that inhibit double-loop learning that would question their objectives and governing variables.26 Single-loop learning systems are characterized by attempts to increase effectiveness without questioning norms underlying objectives. When organizations initiate change to curb activities under existing norms, a conflict in the norms themselves can emerge. For example, requirements for change can come into conflict with the requirement of predictability.27 Argyris and Schon suggest that in order to double-loop learn, leaders must first recognize the conflict between conflicting requirements itself. They must become aware that they cannot correct the error by doing better what they already know how to do. They must engage in deep organizational inquiry: in this process the focus has to shift from learning concerned with improvement in the performance of organizational tasks to inquiry through which an organization explores and restructures the values and criteria through which it defines what it means by improved performance.28 This is often inherently conflictual. Double-loop learning can namely be inhibited when norms are undiscussable within organizations. That leaders may be unaware of the conflict between conflicting requirements may be one reason why norms become undiscussable within organizations, leading to a double-bind situation for individuals. If they expose an error, they question covert or unquestionable norms. If they do not expose an error, they perpetuate a process that inhibits organizational learning.29 Individuals thus face lose/losepage6image1381222848

STUDIES IN CONFLICT & TERRORISM 5 situations in which the rules of the game are not open to discussion.30 Commonly,

organizational norms also make the double binds themselves undiscussable:

Such procedure means that the very information needed to detect and correct errors becomes undiscussable. If one wanted to design a strategy to inhibit double-loop learning and to encourage error, a better one could not be found.31

Argyris and Schon conclude that organizations have a tendency to produce learning systems that inhibit double-loop learning as it would question their objective and norms.32 Double binds indicate such single-loop learning systems. Does the lack of cognitive abilities, as well as perceptual flaws, explain why individuals become locked in double binds, and why learning in organizations becomes inhibited? According to Argyris and Schon, the problem lies with organizational defenses that lead to a lack of error perception, rendering errors uncorrectable. Defensive organizational routines come into play when threatening or embarrassing issues arise, preventing lessons from being learned.33 Defensive routines – such as sending mixed messages or being overly diplomatic – are frequently activated when they are most counterproductive. Defensive routines can create binds:

On the one hand, […] [p]articipants are not supposed to bypass errors. Moreover, the bypass is undiscussable […] On the other hand, if the errors, their undiscussability, and the cover-ups surface, the participants are subject to criticism … 34

Defensive routines therefore prevent members of organizations from discovering the root causes of the problem and lead to paradoxes because individuals design inconsistencies of meaning and camouflage them by producing mixed messages: “to be consistent, act inconsistently, and act as if that is not the case.”35 A second consequence is that people start creating attributions to make sense of other peoples’ actions – attributions which are frequently wrong but remain unquestioned. As a result, reactions lead to unintended consequences. So why do people create consequences that contradict their intentions?36 Argyris and Schon consider that people are responsible for their actions, and that individuals who deny responsibility usually put the blame on others.37

In contrast, in double-loop learning systems productive reasoning takes place, following a logic that is not self-referential, where people take responsibility, acknowledge when there is a mismatch between intention and outcome, share awareness of organizational dilemmas, engage such conflicts through inquiry, and decrease double binds.38 In this second learning loop, the focus shifts from learning how to better accomplish tasks within a given frame of reference to learning what to do by questioning the frame of reference itself.39 In other words, while single-loop learning focuses on improving what an organization already does, or “doing the things right,” double-loop learning is concerned with what organizations ought to do, or “doing the right things.”40 However, Argyris and Schon find only limited empirical evidence for double-loop learning systems and remark that it depicts an ideal type that can be approached, making it possible to speak of organizations learning in a more or less double-loop way.41 The dynamics described above explain how double-loop systems become inhibited and how people hide their responsibility by blaming the environment for their inability to double-loop learn. Argyris and Schon also address intervention strategies that help organizations approach double-loop learning. One tool is the drawing of a diagnostic map describing how the organization learns. Such a map, they suggest, can help with predictions if certain changes were to be implemented,42 and can be used to depict alternative scenarios and their consequences.

Single Loop Learning

Source: Wikipedia

Double Loop Learning

Source: Wikipedia

Single and Double Loop Learning

Triple Loops of Learning

Source: The origins and conceptualizations of ‘triple-loop’ learning: A critical review

Many scholars have considered the concept of organizational learning as a dichotomy. In its basic, primary form they have described it as action oriented, routine and incremental, occurring within existing (mental) frameworks, norms, policies and rules. In the face of profound change in organizational environments, these scholars argue that a qualitatively distinct, secondary form of learning is necessary. This aims to change the (mental) frameworks, norms, policies and routines underlying day-to-day actions and routines (Cope, 2003).

This dichotomy has been expressed in a variety of terms: single-loop and double-loop (e.g. Argyris and Schön, 1974); lower-level and higher-level (Fiol and Lyles, 1985); first-order and second-order (Arthur and Aiman-Smith, 2001); exploitation and exploration (Levinthal and March, 1993; March, 1991); incremental and radical (Miner and Mezias, 1996); and adaptive and generative learning (Senge, 1990). Although these dichotomous terms stem from different perspectives on organizational learning, a reasonable consensus seems to have been established that they refer to comparable learning processes and outcomes (Argyris, 1996; Arthur and Aiman-Smith, 2001; Miner and Mezias, 1996). Thus, as defined by Argyris (1999: 68), single-loop learning occurs ‘whenever an error is detected and corrected without questioning or altering the underlying values of the system’, and double-loop learning occurs ‘when mismatches are corrected by first examining and altering the governing variables and then the actions’.

A number of authors have conceived of a further type of organizational learning, for which the most prominent term is ‘triple-loop’ learning (Flood and Romm, 1996; Isaacs, 1993; Romme and Van Witteloostuijn, 1999; Snell and Chak, 1998; Swieringa and Wierdsma, 1992; Yuthas et al., 2004). Typically, this is described as additional to, and metaphorically at a ‘higher’ or ‘deeper’ level than, primary and secondary forms of learning, the metaphor implying that this level has greater significance and profundity. Yet, in spite of its perceived importance, conceptualizations of this form of learning do not always make clear how it differs from, or relates to, primary or secondary forms. Scholars of organizational learning might look first to Argyris and Schön; significantly, though, we have established that whilst triple-loop learning has been inspired by Argyris and Schön, the term does not appear explicitly in their published work.

Within this we explore the original work of Argyris and Schön, and of the anthropologist and cybernetician Gregory Bateson, the major influences cited by authors who propose these conceptualizations. This enables us to make a theoretical contribution through identifying three distinct conceptualizations of triple-loop learning. These are:

A. a level beyond, and considered by proponents to be superior to, Argyris and Schön’s single-loop and double-loop learning;

B. an equivalent to Argyris and Schön’s (1978, 1996) concept of ‘deutero-learning’;

C. a proposed third level inspired by Bateson’s (1973)1 framework of levels of learning (specifically ‘Learning III’).

We discuss why these conceptualizations should be regarded as distinct from each other, and highlight some implications for practice.

Source: The origins and conceptualizations of ‘triple-loop’ learning: A critical review

Source: Levels of learning: hither and whither

Source: Coping with Uncertainty in River Management: Challenges and Ways Forward

Source: TOOL | Single, Double and Triple Loop Learning

Quadruple Loops of Learning

Source: Policy learning and crisis policy-making: quadruple-loop learning and COVID-19 responses in South Korea

Levels of Learning

Source: The origins and conceptualizations of ‘triple-loop’ learning: A critical review

Org. Culture, Learning, Performance

Source:A Configuration Model of Organizational Culture

Source:A Configuration Model of Organizational Culture

Source:A Configuration Model of Organizational Culture

Source:A Configuration Model of Organizational Culture

Source:A Configuration Model of Organizational Culture

Source:A Configuration Model of Organizational Culture

Source:A Configuration Model of Organizational Culture

Source:A Configuration Model of Organizational Culture

Source: A GENERIC THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Source: A GENERIC THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Source: Approaches for Organizational Learning: A Literature Review

Management Planning and Control Systems

Source: Performance management: a framework for management control systems research

Hierarchical Production Planning and Control

Source: A bibliography of Hierarchical Production Planning

Production Planning and Control Systems

Source: Google Images

Strategic, Tactical, and Operational Decisions

Source: Hierarchical Production Planning / Bitran/Tirupati/1989

My Related Posts

Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Recursive Vision of Gregory Bateson

Cybernetics, Autopoiesis, and Social Systems Theory

Autocatalysis, Autopoiesis and Relational Biology

Multilevel Approach to Research in Organizations

Second Order Cybernetics of Heinz Von Foerster

Feedback Thought in Economics and Finance

Third and Higher Order Cybernetics

Systems and Organizational Cybernetics

Hierarchical Planning: Integration of Strategy, Planning, Scheduling, and Execution

Hierarchy Theory in Biology, Ecology and Evolution

Jay W. Forrester and System Dynamics

Production and Distribution Planning : Strategic, Global, and Integrated

Key Sources of Research

Triple-loop learning : theoretical framework, methodology & illustration

(An example from the railway sector)

Guillaume BarbatPhilippe BoigeyIsabelle Jehan

Dans Projectics / Proyéctica / Projectique 2011/2-3 (n°8-9), pages 129 à 141

https://www.cairn.info/revue-projectique-2011-2-page-129.htm

What is Social Learning?

Author(s): Mark S. Reed, Anna C. Evely, Georgina Cundill, Ioan Fazey, Jayne Glass, Adele Laing, Jens Newig, Brad Parrish, Christina Prell, Chris Raymond and Lindsay C. Stringer

Source: Ecology and Society , Dec 2010, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Dec 2010) Published by: Resilience Alliance Inc.

Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/26268235

The learning organization and the level of consciousness 

Ricardo Chiva

http://repositori.uji.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10234/169412/54786.pdf?sequence=1

Policy learning and crisis policy-making: quadruple-loop learning and COVID-19 responses in South Korea

Sabinne Leea, Changho Hwangb and M. Jae Moonc

aAssociate Research Fellow, Korea Institute of Public Administration, Seoul, South Korea; 

bAssistant Professor, Dong-A University, Busan, South Korea; 

cCollege of Social Science, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea

POLICY AND SOCIETY
2020, VOL. 39, NO. 3, 363–381 https://doi.org/10.1080/14494035.2020.1785195

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/14494035.2020.1785195

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14494035.2020.1785195

“A systemic approach to processes of power in learning organizations: Part I – literature, theory, and methodology of triple loop learning”,

Robert L. Flood, Norma R.A. Romm, (2018)

The Learning Organization, Vol. 25 Issue: 4, pp.260-272, https://doi.org/10.1108/TLO-10-2017-0101
Permanent link to this document:
https://doi.org/10.1108/TLO-10-2017-0101

“A systemic approach to processes of power in learning organizations: Part II – triple loop learning and a facilitative intervention in the “500 schools project””,

Robert L. Flood, Norma R.A. Romm, (2018)

The Learning Organization, https://doi.org/10.1108/TLO-11-2017-0106
Permanent link to this document:
https://doi.org/10.1108/TLO-11-2017-0106

A Mighty Step: Critical Systemic Interpretation of the Learning Organization

Robert Louis Flood and Hanne Finnestrand

The Oxford Handbook of the Learning Organization Edited by Anders Ragnar Örtenblad

Print Publication Date: Dec 2019
Subject: Business and Management, Organizational Theory and Behaviour
Online Publication Date: Jan 2020 DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198832355.013.11

Click to access A-Mighty-Step-Critical-Systemic-Interpretation-of-the-Learning-Organization.pdf

LEVELS OF LEARNING: HITHER AND WHITHER

“Guest editorial”,

Max Visser, Ricardo Chiva, Paul Tosey, (2018)

The Learning Organization, Vol. 25 Issue: 4, pp.218-223, https://doi.org/10.1108/TLO-02-2018-0021
Permanent link to this document:
https://doi.org/10.1108/TLO-02-2018-0021

http://repositori.uji.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10234/176446/60253.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Learning from the future meets Bateson’s levels of learning

Alexander Kaiser

Institute for Information Business, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna, Austria

The Learning Organization Vol. 25 No. 4, 2018 pp. 237-247

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/TLO-06-2017-0065/full/html

The origins and conceptualizations of ‘triple-loop’ learning: A critical review

Paul Tosey, Max Visser and Mark NK Saunders

Management Learning 2012 43: 291

originally published online 2 December 2011 DOI: 10.1177/1350507611426239

The online version of this article can be found at:

http://mlq.sagepub.com/content/43/3/291

Click to access The-origins-and-conceptualizations-of-triple-loop-learning-A-critical-review.pdf

Why aren‟t we all working for Learning Organisations?

Professor John Seddon and Brendan O‟Donovan

e-ORGANISATIONS & PEOPLE, MAY 200910, VOL 17. NO 2

Click to access why-arent-we-all-working-for-learning-organisations.pdf

The Culture of Learning Organizations: Understanding Argyris’s Theory through a Socio- Cognitive Systems Learning Model

Laura Friesenborg

University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Thesis PhD 2013

https://ir.stthomas.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1030&context=caps_ed_orgdev_docdiss

FROM ORGANISATIONAL LEARNING TO SOCIAL LEARNING: A TALE OF TWO ORGANISATIONS IN THE MURRAY-DARLING BASIN

Michael Mitchell, School of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania

http://dx.doi.org/10.5172/rsj.2013.22.3.230

Rural Society · June 2013

Shifting from Unilateral Control to Mutual Learning

By Fred Kofman

The executive mind and double-loop learning

ChrisAgryris

Available online 6 February 2004.

Organizational Dynamics
Volume 11, Issue 2, Autumn 1982, Pages 5-22

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/009026168290002X

Problem-Solving as a Double-Loop Learning System 

by Jeff Dooley
© 1999 Adaptive Learning Design

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.35.44&rep=rep1&type=pdf

chris argyris: theories of action, double‐loop learning and organizational learning

Double Loop Learning in Organizations

Chris Argyris
Harvard Business Review
No. 77502

Harvard Business Review (September 1977)

Click to access Chris-Argyris-Double-Loop-Learning-in-Organisations.pdf

https://hbr.org/1977/09/double-loop-learning-in-organizations

Single-Loop and Double-Loop Models in Research on Decision Making

Author(s): Chris Argyris


Source: Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 363-375 Published by: Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2391848

A Primer on Organizational Learning

By Olivier Serrat

ADB

Modes of Organizational Learning

by Soren Eilertsen, Ph.D., with Kellan London, M.A.

Click to access single_and_double_loop_learning.pdf

The origins and conceptualizations of ‘triple-loop’ learning: A critical review

July 2012

Management Learning 43(3):291-307
DOI:10.1177/1350507611426239

Paul Tosey
Max Visser
Mark NK Saunders

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258171998_The_origins_and_conceptualizations_of_%27triple-loop%27_learning_A_critical_review

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-origins-and-conceptualizations-of-‘triple-loop’-Tosey-Visser/ea24da54380dc3cabdac74deb6cc57132a470c8a

TOOL | Single, Double and Triple Loop Learning

Good Communication That Blocks Learning

by Chris Argyris

Harvard Business Review 1994
Reprint 94401

Click to access Chris-Argyris-Good-Communication-that-Blocks-Learning.pdf

Double loop learning in organizations

By uncovering their own hidden theories of action, managers can detect and correct errors

Chris Argyris

Harvard Business Review September-October 1977

https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/33422921/08_Argyris_doublelooplearning.pdf?1396993260=u0026amp;response-content-disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DDouble_loop_learning_in_organizations.pdfu0026amp;Expires=1627165288u0026amp;Signature=GOY4COga2LJKGnc3XAB5ge8ybpWvBBmeO779XhTzktEKTrIQREbkh9V8apE6z2QMCT2vufBoTq1NSSHNDJj0GGXu66VeCS8D37cTi-onZECbPUF5wXZ7Oa2U5Ih54fN-muWcED9BKEmV4G0e7kF3kDeAWrCs0jX5zC63JnOOvAyRL0ZjCcDGeF2~7T7WeNSnNZBKFJZW49tXy~LjhoRil2s7HBZxYI-Fjjp~fylKpDgDRZnfouPkCSnLU1rpeQBQOgrPnb8qmF0Bl6APCc-edECHKgsDYYBiqViUQ4epMm1yZbCSeUlYV6ODDm1dzWbfarwnOtRBnGWozuUbTYwIYg__u0026amp;Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA

Analyzing the loops and taking the steps on the journey toward a learning organization

Simon Reese

University of Maryland University College, Seoul, Korea

The Learning Organization Vol. 24 No. 3, 2017 pp. 194-197

DOI 10.1108/TLO-01-2017-0004

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/TLO-01-2017-0004/full/pdf?title=analyzing-the-loops-and-taking-the-steps-on-the-journey-toward-a-learning-organization

N-loop learning: part II – an empirical investigation

Bernard L. Simonin 

The Learning Organization

ISSN: 0969-6474

May 2017

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/TLO-12-2016-0100/full/html

N-loop learning: part I – of hedgehog, fox, dodo bird and sphinx

Bernard L. Simonin 

The Learning Organization

ISSN: 0969-6474

Article publication date: 10 April 2017 

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/TLO-12-2016-0099/full/html

Challenges of the levels of learning

Nataša Rupčić 

The Learning Organization

ISSN: 0969-6474

Article publication date: 14 May 2018

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/TLO-03-2018-0037/full/html

Deradicalization through Double-Loop Learning? How the Egyptian Gamaa Islamiya Renounced Violence

Carolin Goerzig

To cite this article: Carolin Goerzig (2019): Deradicalization through Double-Loop Learning? How the Egyptian Gamaa Islamiya Renounced Violence, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2019.1680193

To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2019.1680193

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/epub/10.1080/1057610X.2019.1680193?needAccess=true

Systems Thinkers

  • Magnus Ramage
  • Karen Shipp

2009

https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-84882-525-3?page=2#toc

Reframing Conflict: Intercultural Conflict as Potential Transformation

Beth Fisher-Yoshida

Journal of Intercultural Communication No.8, 2005

Developing the Leader’s Strategic Mindset: Establishing the Measures

John Pisapia, Daniel Reyes-Guerra, and Eleni Coukos-Semmel,

Kravis Leadership Institute, Leadership Review, Spring 2005, Vol. 5, pp. 41-68

What is Social Learning?

DOI:10.5751/ES-03564-1504r01

Authors:

Mark S. Reed

Anna Clair Evely

Georgina Cundill

Ioan Fazey

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259638979_What_is_Social_Learning

The social learning discourse: Trends, themes and interdisciplinary influences in current research.

Environmental Science and Policy, 25, 157-166.

Strategic Learning

MICHAEL L. BARNETT

University of Oxford
Saïd Business School, Room 30.015 Park End Street
Oxford, OX1 1HP
United Kingdom +44(0)1865 288844 michael.barnett@sbs.ox.ac.uk

The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Strategic Management

David Teece and Mie Augier (eds.)

The Overview on Evolution of Learning Organization Theories

Sara. Ghaffari,1 Dr. Ishak. Mad Shah,2, and Jeveria Fazal3

Universiti Tecknologi Malaysia

Ishak@utm.my Saragh7@yahoo.com, Javb107@yahoo.com

Modes of Knowing and Modes of Coming to Know Knowledge Creation and Co-Construction as Socio-Epistemological Engineering in Educational Processes

Markus F. Peschl

Constructivist Foundations

Volume 1 · Number 3 · Pages 111–123

Constructivist Foundations 1(3): 111–123.

http://constructivist.info/1/3/111

https://constructivist.info/1/3/111.peschl

Triple-loop learning as foundation for profound change, individual cultivation, and radical innovation: Construction processes beyond scientific and rational knowledge.

Peschl M. F. (2007)

Constructivist Foundations 2(2-3): 136–145.

http://constructivist.info/2/2-3/136

A Configuration Model of Organizational Culture **

Daniel Dauber1, Gerhard Fink2, and Maurice Yolles

SAGE Open 1–16
2012
DOI: 10.1177/2158244012441482

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2158244012441482

Exploring adaptability through learning layers and learning loops

Löf, Annette 

Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.

DOI:10.1080/13504622.2010.505429

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241715151_Exploring_adaptability_through_learning_layers_and_learning_loops

Kolb’s Model of Experiential Learning: A framework for Collaboration

Dr. Michael Manning

CAAHE Academics Conference October, 2011
Austin, TX

Click to access KolbsModelofExperientialLearning.pdf

A GENERIC THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Daniel Dauber, WU -Vienna University of Economics and Business (daniel.dauber@wu.ac.at)

Gerhard Fink, WU -Vienna University of Economics and Business (gerhard.fink@wu.ac.at)

Maurice Yolles, Centre for the Creation of Coherent Change & Knowledge (C4K) (m.yolles@ljmu.ac.uk)

Cross-disciplinary collaboration and learning. 

Pennington, D. D. 2008.

Ecology and Society 13(2): 8. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art8/

Barriers to organizational learning: An integration of theory and research

Jan Schilling1 and Annette Kluge

International Journal of Management Reviews (2009)

doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2370.2008.00242.x

Organizational learning in complex world

Agnieszka Dziubińska

Faculty of Management, University of Economics in Katowice, POLAND, Katowice, 1 Maja street 50,
E-mail: agnieszka.dziubińska@ue.katowice.pl

Click to access 87-246-249.pdf

Coming to a New Awareness of Organizational Culture ,

Schein, Edgar H., 

Sloan Management Review, 25:2 (1984:Winter) p.3

https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/coming-to-a-new-awareness-of-organizational-culture/

The Real Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Learning

Fumie ANDO

School of Business Administration, Nanzan University

E-mail:fumiea@nanzan-u.ac.jp

Annals of Business Administrative Science Vol.1, No.2 (July 2002)

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/abas/1/2/1_25/_pdf

A Review of the Concept of Organisational Learning

By Catherine L Wang & Pervaiz K Ahmed

Working Paper Series 2002 Number WP004/02

ISSN Number ISSN 1363-6839

Catherine L Wang

Research Assistant
University of Wolverhampton, UK Tel: +44 (0) 1902 321651
Email: C.Wang@wlv.ac.uk

Professor Pervaiz K Ahmed

Chair in Management
University of Wolverhampton, UK Tel: +44 (0) 1902 323921
Email: pkahmed@wlv.ac.uk

Double-Loop Learning, Teaching, and Research

DOI:10.5465/AMLE.2002.8509400

Chris Argyris

Performance management: a framework for management control systems research

David Otley􏰆

Management Accounting Research, 1999, 10, 363􏰀382

Article No. mare.1999.0115

Management Control Systems: A Historical Perspective

  • January 2010

Jordi Carenys

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/293221830_Management_Control_Systems_A_Historical_Perspective

MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEMS: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Peter Lorange

Michael S. Scott Morton

1974 MIT

Double-loop learning

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-loop_learning

Approaches for Organizational Learning: A Literature Review **

Dirk BastenThilo Haamann

First Published August 12, 2018 

https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018794224

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244018794224

A bibliography of Hierarchical Production Planning

Click to access A_BIBLIOGRAPHY.PDF

HIERARCHIES

IN PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL: A SURVEY

Camille M. Libosvar

Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems 

January 7. 1988

LIDS-P-1734

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge. Massachusetts

HIERARCHICAL PRODUCTION PLANNING SYSTEMS

by
ARNOLDO C. MAX
and JONATHAN J . GOLOVIN


August 1977

Technical Report No. 135
Work Performed Under
Contract N00014—75—C—0556, Office of Naval Research
Multilevel Logistics Organization Models
NR 347—027
M.I.T. OSP 82491
Operations Research Center
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
cambridge , Massachusetts 02139

“Hierarchical Production Planning”

Gabriel R. Bitran*t Devanath Tirupati**

MIT Sloan School Working Paper #3017-89-MS

May 1989

*Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139

**Department of Management, The University of Texas at Austin

tThis research has been partially supported by the Leaders for Manufacturing Program.

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Hierarchical-production-planning-Bitran-Tirupati/ca83a1bab3540162c2b19f19d3d08a99a18c0165

HIERARCHICAL INTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND SCHEDULING

by
Arnoldo C. Hax and Harlan C. Meal

May 1973

656-73

Hierarchical Production Planning: A Single Stage System

Gabriel R. Bitran, Elizabeth A. Haas and Arnoldo C. Hax

Operations Research
Vol. 29, No. 4, Operations Management (Jul. – Aug., 1981), pp. 717-743 (27 pages)
Published By: INFORMS
Operations Research
https://www.jstor.org/stable/170387

Hierarchical planning systems — a production application

Hax A.C., Bitran G.R. (1979)

In: Ritzman L.P., Krajewski L.J., Berry W.L., Goodman S.H., Hardy S.T., Vitt L.D. (eds) Disaggregation. Springer, Dordrecht.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7636-9_5

  • Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht
  • Print ISBN 978-94-015-7638-3
  • Online ISBN 978-94-015-7636-9

Hierarchical Production Planning: A Two Stage System

DOI:10.1287/opre.30.2.232

Gabriel R. Bitran

Elizabeth A. Haas

Arnoldo C. Hax

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235064925_Hierarchical_Production_Planning_A_Two_Stage_System

Analytical Evaluation of Hierarchical Planning Systems

M. A. H. DEMPSTER

Balliol College, Oxford, England

M. L. FISHER

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

L. JANSEN, 8. J. LAGEWEG, J. K. LENSTRA Mathematisch Centrum, AmsterdamThe Netherlands

A. H. G. RINNOOY KAN

Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

(Received December 1979; accepted March 1981)

Click to access RR-84-04.pdf

Deutero-Learning in Organizations: A Review and a Reformulation

DOI:10.5465/AMR.2007.24351883

Max Visser

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228975720_Deutero-Learning_in_Organizations_A_Review_and_a_Reformulation

https://repository.ubn.ru.nl/bitstream/handle/2066/19481/19481.pdf?sequence=1

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Scenarios: Frames of Possibilities and Plausibilities

Scenarios: Frames of Possibilities and Plausibilities

Key Terms

  • Scenarios
  • Scenario Planning
  • Futures
  • Intuitive Logics method
  • Shell
  • GBN
  • Oxford Scenarios Program
  • Predetermined Elements
  • Critical Uncertainty
  • Weak Signals
  • SRI International (Stanford Research Institute)
  • RAND Corporation
  • Hudson Institute
  • DNI US MoD
  • UK MoD
  • Scenario Quadrant
  • Multiple Scenarios
  • Bounded Rationality
  • Cognitive Biases
  • Frames
  • Availability Bias
  • Overconfidence
  • Anchoring
  • Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, and Ambiguous (VUCA)

Key Concepts

Source: UNDP FORESIGHT: THE MANUAL Page 11

Black swans

Rare and discontinuous events that are unprecedented, unexpected and have major effects. They are often inappropriately rationalised after the fact with the benefit of hindsight, but this tendency to see coherence can obscure future threats.

Cognitive bias

A pattern of deviation in judgment that influences the way information is received, processed, retained or called. Cognitive biases influence how inferences, judgements and predictions are drawn.

Cognitive dissonance

The mental stress or discomfort one experiences when confronted with new information or views that contradicts existing values or beliefs. Because humans strive for internal consistency, individuals tend to reduce cognitive dissonance by denying or devaluing new information and views, or rationalising their own values and beliefs.

Complexity

Complex systems are non-linear and diverse networks made up of multiple interconnected elements. Cause and effect relationships within the system are not easily discernable or predictable. Historical extrapolation is futile for predicting emergence (new patterns and behaviours) in complex systems.

Cross-‐cutting issues

Issues or challenges that affect more than a single interest area, institution or stakeholder, and that need to be addressed from all points of view. A Whole-of-Government or Networked approach is useful for addressing cross-cutting issues.

Design thinking

An end-user centred approach to problem-solving that places the final experience at the heart of developing solutions. Following an iterative approach, the rapid prototyping component of design thinking allows for quick adaptation in uncertain environments and continual improvement.

Experimentation and prototyping

Experimentation is a process that seeks to test and validate competing hypotheses. Prototyping refers to creating models or sketches to test ideas and spot problems. Experimentation and prototyping are effective ways to navigate and test hypotheses and ideas in complex or rapidly changing environments.

Interdependence

A relationship of mutual reliance between two or more factors within a system such that changes in one area affect the other(s). 

Path dependency

Describes the inclination to stick to past practice despite the availability of newer, more efficient practices as a result of cognitive biases such as risk aversion, or concerns over sunk costs. Designing contingency plans with ample space for flexibility can reduce the constraints of path dependency.

Resilience

A system’s ability to cope with and recover from shocks or disruptions, either by returning to the status quo or by transforming itself to adapt to the new reality. Resilient systems view change as inevitable and failure as opportunities to learn from. Social cohesion, trust in government and national pride can be indicators of resilience.

Retrospective coherence

The act of assigning coherence in hindsight in order to make sense of what is happening. Practicing retrospective coherence presents the danger of making decisions for the future based on the lessons of history that may not apply in similar situations.

Signposts

Milestone markers between a given future and the present day that aid visualisation by breaking up the path to the future into manageable blocks of time. They can help to gauge the extent to which a particular scenario has materialised, and can be events, thresholds or trends and patterns.

Systems thinking

An analytical problem solving approach that looks at a system as a whole rather than in isolation, and that considers the interactions between various elements. The big-picture overview helps decision makers see linkages across different sections within the system and can foster collaboration and shared understanding within an organisation. Systems thinking also helps policymakers identify cause-effect relationships and how they might manifest in the larger system.

Unknown unknowns

Issues and situations in organisations that have yet to surface and which are blind spots for planners who are unaware that they do not know about them.

Whole-‐of-‐Government (WG)

A ‘joined-up’ or networked approach to governance that represents a shift from vertical to horizontal decision-making, and which is built on inter-agency collaboration and collective problem-solving. Whole-of-government involves a process of identifying, analysing and managing wide-ranging and cross-cutting issues.

Wicked problems

Large and intractable issues and challenges that have no immediate or obvious solutions and whose causes and influencing factors are not easily determined. Wicked problems are characterised by many agents interacting with each other in often mystifying ways, and involve multiple stakeholders operating with different perspectives and goals. 

Purpose of Scenarios

Source: Does the intuitive logics method – and its recent enhancements – produce “effective” scenarios?

Van der Heijden [15] argues that there is a confusing assortment of reasons as to why one should engage in scenarios. He advocates the importance of clearly identifying the purpose of undertaking scenario work — in order to make the appropriate selection of scenario methodology. Van der Heijden argues that “purpose” can be divided along two dimensions; the first dimension is to establish the extent of the scenario work i.e. whether the scenario work is to be a one-off project, or part of on an on-going scenario-based planning process. The second dimension is that of the primary aim of the scenario work, this being either to raise questions, or to answer them — and thus aid decision making.

The combination of these two dimensions results in four purposes of scenario work, namely:

• Sense-making: a one-off ‘exploratory question-raising scenario project’;
• Developing strategy: a one-off ‘decision-making scenario project’;
• Anticipation: an ‘on-going exploratory scenario activity’; and
• Action-based organizational learning: an ‘on-going decision-making activity’.

Van der Heijden continues by suggesting that these four purposes represent a hierarchy of interconnected aims serving the ultimate goal of “strategic success” in which organizational learning is the “overarching broad organisational skill” achieved when the scenario work is an on-going decision-making activity [15, page 162].

Benefits of Scenarios

Source: Does the intuitive logics method – and its recent enhancements – produce “effective” scenarios?

The (mainly practitioner-based) literature contains many testimonials as to the use and organizational benefits of scenarios, which we group under the following headings:

3.1. Enhanced perception


Scenario techniques reportedly enhance corporate and individual perception as they provide a framework for managers to understand and evaluate trends and events as they happen [16], and managers involved in scenario exercises supposedly become better observers of the business environment, more attuned to discerning changes [17]. Porter [18] suggests that scenarios help managers to make explicit their implicit assumptions about the future, and to think beyond the confines of conventional wisdom. This, combined with the fact that scenarios often challenge conventional wisdom and complacency by shifting the “perceptual anchors” from which people view the future, reduces the likelihood of managers and organizations making big mistakes in the future and/or of being caught unaware [19,20].


3.2. A structure for dealing with uncertainty


Scenarios provide a structure for thinking aimed at attacking complexity by allowing managers to deal more openly and explicitly with acknowledged uncertainty [21,16], to arrive at a deeper understanding of what is significant, and to identify what needs to be dealt with – and what is transient and can be ignored [11,22]. Bunn and Salo [23] suggest that, by emphasizing that there are a range of possible futures rather than a single-point future, scenarios reduce the bias for underestimating uncertainties. This is echoed by Docherty and McKiernan [24] who state that “the greatest contribution of scenario planning lies in its active engagement of actors in its process and its power to enable them to think about complexity and uncertainty in external contexts, and then how they might shape the external environment to their own strategic ends” (p. 10).


3.3. Integration of corporate planning functions


Scenario techniques provide a good middle ground between relying on informal and intuitive techniques, and being bound by the methodological constraints of more formal, quantitative techniques. As a result, a greater variety of information and wider company participation can be incorporated into the forecasting and planning process when scenario planning is used [16]. Other authors [25,26] add that scenarios are also able to combine topical intelligence and structure seemingly disparate environmental factors into a useful framework for decision making in a way that no other planning models can.


3.4. A communications tool


According to Allen [21], the communications qualities of scenarios are overwhelming as they provide a rational and non-threatening framework for discussion, even with those outside of the organization [27]. Durance and Godet [28] state that scenarios are also an effective means of rallying employees and communicating strategy across the organization. Bezhold [29] suggests that the scenarios can be used as a marketing and educational campaign throughout the organization. Ringland [25] adds that, by sharing its scenarios with the outside world, an organization can provide the context for dialog with its stakeholders — enabling it to influence its external environment. An added benefit [30] is that the collegiality which usually emerges in a scenario planning exercise does not evaporate once the scenario exercise is complete. Van der Heijden [15,31] reports that Royal Dutch Shell’s scenarios emerged as a powerful management tool by which senior management was able to influence decision-making at all levels throughout the organization, without becoming directly involved in the process or minutiae of the subsequent, scenario-based, evaluation of decisions. This was achieved by making the scenarios the context for key strategic decisions — thus uniting the geographically dispersed, disparate, and decentralized business units in developing a common strategy [28].


3.5. Organizational learning


Although scenario planning was initially understood as a tool for “thinking the unthinkable” [32], a body of literature has subsequently developed around the value of scenarios in terms of individual and organizational learning [11]. This is because scenario exercises ostensibly provide a politically-safe team learning environment and a rich learning process that stimulates creativity [11,15,33–37]. As models of future business environments, scenarios provide a vehicle for pseudo-experimentation in terms of formulating strategic options and then examining the consequences of these options in a range of future environments [15,30,31,38]. By having to articulate their assumptions in a scenario exercise, managers can identify inconsistencies in their own thinking and that of their colleagues in a non-threatening environment [25,37]. At the same time, the necessity in scenario work to undertake detailed analysis of environmental driving forces and their causal relationships, forces individuals to examine their perceptions, stretch their mental models and to develop a shared view of uncertainty [15,31]. All of the foregoing leads to an increased confidence in decision-making [16] and moves the organization towards becoming, what has been termed, a “learning organization” [15].

Based upon our consideration of the above purposes and benefits of the use of scenario methods, we distil from the literature three main objectives of the application of scenario approaches, as follows:


1) Enhancing understanding: of the causal processes, connections and logical sequences underlying events — thus uncovering how a future state of the world may unfold;


2) Challenging conventional thinking: to reframe perceptions and change the mindsets of those within organizations; and


3) Improving decision making: to inform strategy development.

Support for this conclusion also comes from the work of Varum and Melo who, after undertaking a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the literature on scenario planning, argued that there is a consensus in the literature on three benefits of using scenarios, namely an “improvement of the learning process, improvement of the decision-making process, and identification of new issues and problems” [2, page.362].


Our three objectives are interlinked in that: firstly, understanding the connections, causal processes and logical sequences which determine how events may unfold to create different futures, will challenge conventional thinking and will also prove of benefit in improving organizational decision making and strategy; secondly, challenging conventional thinking, reframing perceptions and changing mind-sets should result in collective organizational learning; and, thirdly, collective organization learning should enhance organizational decision making and strategy — which in turn should enhance collective organizational learning.

Types of Scenarios

Source: An uncertain future, deep uncertainty, scenarios, robustness and adaptation: How do they fit together?

  • Predictive
    • Trend
    • Whatif
  • Explorative
    • Framed
    • Unframed
  • Normative
    • Preserving
    • Transformational

Types of Uncertainty

Source: Nine lives of uncertainty in decision-making: strategies for dealing with uncertainty in environmental governance

Source: A Scenario-based Approach to Strategic Planning – Integrating Planning and Process Perspective of Strategy

Multiple Frames of Changes in Contextual Environment on the Transcational Environment

Source: Using Scenario Planning to Reshape Strategy

Source: Multiple Scenario Development: Its Conceptual and Behavioral Foundation

Source: Multiple Scenario Development: Its Conceptual and Behavioral Foundation

Source: Multiple Scenario Development: Its Conceptual and Behavioral Foundation

Institutions and Methods of Scenario Planning

  • Shell/GBN Intuitive Logics Method
  • Oxford Scenario Planning Approach
  • La Prospective / M Godet
  • Rand Corporation
  • SRI International
  • GBN/Monitor/Deloitte/Center for Long View/Market Sensing and Scenario Planning

Source: Plausibility and probability in scenario planning

Source: The current state of scenario development: an overview of techniques

Research Journals and Authors on Scenario Planning

Source: SCENARIOS IN BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT: THE CURRENT STOCK AND RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES

Source: SCENARIOS IN BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT: THE CURRENT STOCK AND RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES

Source: SCENARIOS IN BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT: THE CURRENT STOCK AND RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES

Source: SCENARIOS IN BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT: THE CURRENT STOCK AND RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES

Scenarios Application

  • Business
  • Non Profit Org
  • Philanthropic
  • Public Sector
  • Arts and Culture
  • Governance
  • National Security
  • Transnational Issues

My Related Posts

Shell Oil’s Scenarios: Strategic Foresight and Scenario Planning for the Future

Water | Food | Energy | Nexus: Mega Trends and Scenarios for the Future

Global Trends, Scenarios, and Futures: For Foresight and Strategic Management

On Anticipation: Going Beyond Forecasts and Scenarios

Art of Long View: Future, Uncertainty and Scenario Planning

Narrative, Rhetoric and Possible Worlds

What are Problem Structuring Methods?

Drama Theory: Acting Strategically

Frames in Interaction

Frames, Communication, and Public Policymaking

Frames, Framing and Reframing

Dialogs and Dialectics

Strategy | Strategic Management | Strategic Planning | Strategic Thinking

Key Sources of Research:

Augmenting the intuitive logics scenario planning method for a more comprehensive analysis of causation

James Derbyshire a,∗, George Wright b

a Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research, Middlesex University, UK 

b Strathclyde Business School, University of Strathclyde, UK

International Journal of Forecasting 33 (2017) 254–266

Does the intuitive logics method – and its recent enhancements – produce “effective” scenarios?

GeorgeWrighta

RonBradfieldb

GeorgeCairnsca

Warwick Business School, Scarman Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK

bStrathclyde Business School, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

cSchool of Management, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia

Received 30 August 2012, Accepted 2 September 2012, Available online 29 September 2012.

Technological Forecasting and Social Change
Volume 80, Issue 4, May 2013, Pages 631-642

The origins and evolution of scenario techniques in long range business planning

RonBradfielda

GeorgeWrightb1

GeorgeBurta2

GeorgeCairnsb3

KeesVan Der Heijdena4

aUniversity of Strathclyde, Graduate School of Business, 199 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0QU, UK

bUniversity of Durham, Durham Business School, Mill Hill Lane, Durham DH1 3LB, UK

Available online 24 May 2005.

Futures
Volume 37, Issue 8, October 2005, Pages 795-812

How plausibility-based scenario practices are grappling with complexity to appreciate and address 21st century challenges

AngelaWilkinsona

RolandKupersbc

DianaMangalagiude

aFutures Programme, Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford University, Hayes House, 75 George Street, Oxford OX1 2BQ, UK

bTHNK, Haarlemmerweg 8a, 1014 BE Amsterdam, The Netherlands

cSmith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford University, UK

dReims Management School, Reims, France

eSmith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford University, Hayes House, 75 George Street, Oxford OX1 2BQ, UK

Received 19 December 2011, Revised 28 September 2012, Accepted 1 October 2012, Available online 27 December 2012.

Technological Forecasting and Social Change
Volume 80, Issue 4, May 2013, Pages 699-710

Scenarios and early warnings as dynamic capabilities to frame managerial attention

RafaelRamírezac

RikuÖstermanb

DanielGrönquistc

aSaïd Business School, University of Oxford, Park End Street, Oxford, OX1 1HP, UK

bItäpaja Ltd., Urakkatie 10-12 A 2, 00680 Helsinki, Finland

cNormannPartners AB, Engelbrektsgatan 9-11, SE-114 32 Stockholm, Sweden

Received 4 November 2011, Revised 21 October 2012, Accepted 24 October 2012, Available online 19 November 2012.

Technological Forecasting and Social Change
Volume 80, Issue 4, May 2013, Pages 825-838

Rethinking the 2 × 2 scenario method: Grid or frames?

RafaelRamireza1

AngelaWilkinsonab1

aSaid Business School, Oxford, UK

bSmith School of Enterprise and Environment, Oxford, UK

Received 19 March 2013, Revised 9 October 2013, Accepted 17 October 2013, Available online 22 November 2013.

Technological Forecasting and Social Change
Volume 86, July 2014, Pages 254-264

Integrating organizational networks, weak signals, strategic radars and scenario planning

Paul J.H.Schoemaker

George S.Day

Scott A.Snyder

Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Received 18 December 2011, Revised 7 October 2012, Accepted 9 October 2012, Available online 20 December 2012.

Technological Forecasting and Social Change
Volume 80, Issue 4, May 2013, Pages 815-824

Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: the conjunctive fallacy in probability judgment.

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1983).

Psychological Review, 90, 293–315.

Scenarios and Forecasting: Two Perspectives

KeesVan Der Heijden

Received 1 December 1998, Accepted 1 January 1999, Available online 6 October 2000.

Technological Forecasting and Social Change
Volume 65, Issue 1, September 2000, Pages 31-36

Directions in scenario planning literature – A review of the past decades

Celeste Amorim

VarumCarlaMelo

Department of Economics, Management and Industrial Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal

Available online 18 November 2009.

Futures
Volume 42, Issue 4, May 2010, Pages 355-369

Decision making and planning under low levels of predictability: Enhancing the scenario method

GeorgeWrighta

PaulGoodwinb1

aDurham Business School, University of Durham, Mill Hill lane, Durham City, DH1 3lB, United Kingdom

bSchool of Management, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom

Available online 5 June 2009.

International Journal of Forecasting
Volume 25, Issue 4, October–December 2009, Pages 813-825

Living in the Futures

Harvard Business Review May 2013

https://hbr.org/2013/05/living-in-the-futures

Strategic reframing : the Oxford scenario planning approach

Rafael RamírezAngela Wilkinson

Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press, 2016.

Strategic Foresight Primer

Angela Wilkinson

Evolving practices in environmental scenarios: a new scenario typology

Angela Wilkinson and Esther Eidinow

James Martin Institute, Said Business School, University of Oxford, Park End Street, Oxford OX1 1HP, UK

Received 10 March 2008
Accepted for publication 20 August 2008 Published 15 December 2008
Online at stacks.iop.org/ERL/3/045017

2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 045017

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045017/pdf

HOW SCENARIOS BECAME CORPORATE STRATEGIES: ALTERNATIVE FUTURES AND UNCERTAINTY
IN STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

Bretton Fosbrook

A Dissertation submitted to
The Faculty of Graduate Studies
in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Graduate Program in Science and Technology Studies York University
Toronto, Ontario

December 2017

Uncertainty, Decision Science, and Policy Making: A Manifesto for a Research Agenda.

David Tucket, Antoine Mandel, Diana Mangalagiu, Allen Abramson, Jochen Hinkel, et al..

Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society, Taylor and Francis 2015, 27 (2), pp.213 – 242.

10.1080/08913811.2015.1037078 . hal-02057279

Scenarios Practices: In Search of Theory

Angela Wilkinson University of Oxford UK

Journal of Futures Studies, February 2009, 13(3): 107 – 114

Towards a relational concept of uncertainty: Incorporating the human dimension

Brugnach, M.1; A. Dewulf 2; C. Pahl-Wostl 1 and T. Taillieu 3

1. Universität Osnabrück, Germany
2. Wageningen University, The Netherlands
3. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
Contact author: Marcela Brugnach, mbrugnac@usf.uos.de

Ambiguity: the challenge of knowing and deciding together

M. Brugnach a,*, H. Ingram b,c

a Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, The Netherlands 

b Southwest Center, University of Arizona, United States
c School of Social Ecology, University of California Irvine, United States

environmental science & policy 15 (2012) 60–71

Toward a relational concept of uncertainty: about knowing too little, knowing too differently, and accepting not to know. 

Brugnach, M., A. Dewulf, C. Pahl-Wostl, and T. Taillieu.

2008.

Ecology and Society13(2): 30. [online]

URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art30/

http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art30/

Policy Analysis: A Systematic Approach to Supporting Policymaking in the Public Sector

WARREN E. WALKERa,b,*
a RAND Europe, Leiden, Netherlands
b Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands

JOURNAL OF MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS

 JMultiCritDecisAnal9: 11–27 (2000)

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.201.3202&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Integrated management of natural resources: dealing with ambiguous issues, multiple actors and diverging frames

A. Dewulf*, M. Craps*, R. Bouwen*, T. Taillieu* and C. Pahl-Wostl**

*Center for Organizational and Personnel Psychology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, 3000 Leuven, Belgium (E-mail: art.dewulf@psy.kuleuven.ac.be, marc.craps@psy.kuleuven.ac.be,rene.bouwen@psy.kuleuven.ac.be, tharsi.taillieu@psy.kuleuven.ac.be)
**Institute of Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabru ̈ck, Albrechtstrasse 28, Osnabru ̈ck, Germany (E-mail: pahl@usf.uni-osnabrueck.de)

More is not always better: Coping with ambiguity in natural resources management

M. Brugnach a, b, *, A. Dewulf c, H.J. Henriksen d, P. van der Keur d

a Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, The Netherlands
b Institute for Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabrück, Germany c Public Administration and Policy Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands d Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Denmark

Journal of Environmental Management xxx (2010) 1e7

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND MANAGERIAL SENSEMAKING: WORKING THROUGH PARADOX

LOTTE S. LU ̈ SCHER Clavis Consultancy

MARIANNE W. LEWIS University of Cincinnati

Academy of Management Journal 2008, Vol. 51, No. 2, 221–240.

Sustainable Development: Mapping Different Approaches

Bill Hopwood, Mary Mellor, Geoff O’Brien Sustainable Cities Research Institute
6 North Street East,
University of Northumbria,

Newcastle on Tyne, NE1 8ST
Tel: 0191 227-3500 Fax: 0191 227-3066

E-mails:
Bill Hopwood: william.hopwood@unn.ac.uk

Sustainable Development, 13. pp. 38-52. ISSN 0968-0802

Published by: Wiley-Blackwell
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sd.244 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sd.244&gt;

Click to access Mapping_Sustainable_Development.pdf

The Environmental Goffman: Toward an Environmental Sociology of Everyday Life

BRADLEY H. BREWSTER

Gaylord Nelson Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

MICHAEL MAYERFELD BELL

Department of Community & Environmental Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

Society and Natural Resources, 23:45–57 Copyright # 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 0894-1920 print=1521-0723 online
DOI: 10.1080/08941920802653505

An uncertain future, deep uncertainty, scenarios, robustness and adaptation: How do they fit together?

H.R. Maier a, *, J.H.A. Guillaume b, H. van Delden a, c, G.A. Riddell a, M. Haasnoot d, e, J.H. Kwakkel e

a School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia b Water & Development Research Group (WDRG), Aalto University, Tietotie 1E, Espoo 02150, Finland
c Research Institute for Knowledge Systems, Hertogsingel 11B, 6211 NC Maastricht, The Netherlands
d Deltares, Fresh Water Department, Delft, The Netherlands

e Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Technology Policy and Management, Delft, The Netherlands

Environmental Modelling & Software

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.03.014

https://ojs.unbc.ca/index.php/design/article/viewFile/1723/1324

Towards a user’s guide to scenarios – a report on scenario types and scenario techniques

Lena Borjeson1, Mattias Hojer1, Karl-Henrik Dreborg1,3, Tomas Ekvall2, Goran Finnveden1,3

Environmental strategies research – fms, Department of Urban studies, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm

Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.

Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm

https://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20688312

The current state of scenario development: an overview of techniques

Peter Bishop, Andy Hines and Terry Collins

foresight, Vol. 9 Iss: 1 pp. 5 – 25 2007

Identification and classification of uncertainties in the application of environmental models

J.J. Warmink a, *, J.A.E.B. Janssen a, b, M.J. Booij a, M.S. Krol a

a Department of Water Engineering and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, the Netherlands b Waterboard Rijn and IJssel, P.O. Box 148, 7000 AC Doetinchem, the Netherlands

Environmental Modelling & Software 25 (2010) 1518e1527

Wicked Problems: Implications for Public Policy and Management

Brian W. Head1 and John Alford2,3

Administration & Society 2015, Vol. 47(6) 711–739

DOI: 10.1177/0095399713481601

ORGANIZATIONS AS RHETORIC: KNOWLEDGE-INTENSIVE FIRMS AND THE STRUGGLE WITH AMBIGUITY

MATSALVESSON Universityof Gothenburg

Journal of Management Studies: 30:6 November 1993 0022-2380

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1993.tb00476.x

Forty years of wicked problems literature: forging closer links to policy studies,

Brian W. Head (2019)

Policy and Society, 38:2, 180-197, DOI: 10.1080/14494035.2018.1488797

https://doi.org/10.1080/14494035.2018.1488797

Uncovering the origin of ambiguity in nature-inclusive flood infrastructure projects

Ronald E. van den Hoek 1Marcela Brugnach 1Jan P. M. Mulder 1,2 and Arjen Y. Hoekstra 1

Ecology and Society 19(2): 51. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-06416-190251

Coping with Complexity, Uncertainty and Ambiguity in Risk Governance: A Synthesis

Ortwin Renn, Andreas Klinke, Marjolein van Asselt

AMBIO (2011) 40:231–246
DOI 10.1007/s13280-010-0134-0

Risk frames and multiple ways of knowing: Coping with ambiguity in oil spill risk governance in the Norwegian Barents Sea

Tuuli Parviainena,⁎, Annukka Lehikoinenb, Sakari Kuikkaa, P.ivi Haapasaaria

a University of Helsinki, Finland, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, FI-

00014 Helsinki Finland

b University of Helsinki, Finland, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Kotka Maritime Research Center,

Keskuskatu 10, FI-48100 Kotka, Finland

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2019.04.009

Environmental Science & Policy

Volume 98, August 2019, Pages 95-111

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S146290111930022X

Nine lives of uncertainty in decision-making: strategies for dealing with uncertainty in environmental governance

Art Dewulf and Robbert Biesbroek

Public Administration and Policy group, Wageningen University and Research, Netherlands

POLICY AND SOCIETY
2018, VOL. 37, NO. 4, 441–458 https://doi.org/10.1080/14494035.2018.1504484

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/14494035.2018.1504484

Coping with Uncertainty in River Management: Challenges and Ways Forward

J. J. Warmink1 & M. Brugnach1 & J. Vinke-de Kruijf2 & R. M. J. Schielen1,3 & D. C. M. Augustijn1

Received: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 /

Water Resour Manage (2017) 31:4587–4600 DOI 10.1007/s11269-017-1767-6

The Implications of Complexity for Integrated Resources Management

C. Pahl-Wostl

Institute of Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabrück, Germany

Click to access Keynote_Pahl.pdf

A relational approach to deal with ambiguity in multi-actor governance for sustainability

M. Craps1 & M. F. Brugnach2

1Centre for Economics and Corporate Sustainability,
KU Leuven, Belgium
2Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, The Netherlands

WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, Vol 199, © 2015 WIT Press www.witpress.com, ISSN 1743-3541 (on-line)
doi:10.2495/RAV150201

Futures Studies: Theories and Methods

Sohail Inayatullah

https://www.bbvaopenmind.com/en/articles/futures-studies-theories-and-methods/

Scenario thinking and usage among development actors

William Robert Avis

University of Birmingham 18 October 2017

Methods of Future and Scenario Analysis

Overview, assessment, and selection criteria

Hannah Kosow Robert Gaßner

DIE Research Project “Development Policy: Questions for the Future”

Bonn 2008

German Development Institute

SCENARIO PLANNING FOR STRATEGIC REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION PLANNING

Christopher Zegras1, Joseph Sussman2, Christopher Conklin3 Forthcoming (March 2004) in

ASCE Journal of Urban Planning and Development

How Scenario Planning Influences Strategic Decisions

A recent study sheds light on how the use of scenario planning affects executives’ strategic choices.

Shardul Phadnis, Chris Caplice, and Yossi Sheffi

May 27, 2016 MIT Sloan Management Review

https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/how-scenario-planning-influences-strategic-decisions/

How to Make Sense of Weak Signals

There’s no sense in denying it: interpreting weak signals into useful decision making takes time and focus. These three stages can help you see the periphery—and act on it—much more clearly.

Paul J.H. Schoemaker and George S. Day

April 01, 2009

https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/how-to-make-sense-of-weak-signals/

A Review of Scenario Planning Literature

T Chermack et al

Using Scenario Planning to Reshape Strategy

Rather than trying to predict the future, organizations need to strengthen their abilities to cope with uncertainty. A new approach to scenario planning can help companies reframe their long-term strategies by developing several plausible scenarios.

Rafael Ramírez, Steve Churchhouse, Alejandra Palermo, and Jonas Hoffmann

June 13, 2017

Sloan Management Review

https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/using-scenario-planning-to-reshape-strategy/

Scenario Planning: A Tool for Strategic Thinking

Paul J.H. Schoemaker

SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW/WINTER 1995

Chapter 10
The Learning Dimension of Adaptive Capacity: Untangling the Multi-level Connections

Alan Diduck

Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance

Derek Armitage l Ryan Plummer Editors

Using Trends and Scenarios as Tools for Strategy Development

Shaping the Future of Your Enterprise

by Ulf Pillkahn

ISBN 978-3-89578-304-3

Risk frames and multiple ways of knowing: Coping with ambiguity in oil spill risk governance in the Norwegian Barents Sea

Tuuli Parviainena,⁎, Annukka Lehikoinenb, Sakari Kuikkaa, P.ivi Haapasaaria

a University of Helsinki, Finland, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, FI-00014 Helsinki Finland

b University of Helsinki, Finland, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Kotka Maritime Research Center, Keskuskatu 10, FI-48100 Kotka, Finland

Environmental Science and Policy 98 (2019) 95–111

How Issues Get Framed and Reframed When Different Communities Meet: A Multi-level Analysis of a Collaborative Soil Conservation Initiative in the Ecuadorian Andes

ART DEWULF1*, MARC CRAPS1 and GERD DERCON2

1Centre for Organizational and Personnel Psychology, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium

2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibidan, Nigeria

Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology

J. Community Appl. Soc. Psychol., 14: 177–192 (2004)

Defining Uncertainty

A Conceptual Basis for Uncertainty Management in Model-Based Decision Support

W.E. WALKER1, P. HARREMO€EES2, J. ROTMANS3, J.P. VAN DER SLUIJS5, M.B.A. VAN ASSELT4, P. JANSSEN6 AND M.P. KRAYER VON KRAUSS2

1Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands,

2Environment & Resources DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark,

3International Centre for Integrative Studies (ICIS), Maastricht University, The Netherlands,

4Faculty of Arts and Culture, Maastricht University, The Netherlands,

5Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovations, Utrecht University, The Netherlands, and

6Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), The Netherlands

Integrated Assessment

2003, Vol. 00, No. 0, pp. 000–000

1389-5176/03/0000-000

A Structured Approach to Strategic Decisions

Reducing errors in judgment requires a disciplined process.

Daniel Kahneman, Dan Lovallo, and Olivier Sibony

MIT Sloan Management Review

March 04, 2019

https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/a-structured-approach-to-strategic-decisions/

A move toward scenario analysis

William R.Huss

Chronotopes of foresight: Models of time‐space in probabilistic, possibilistic and constructivist futures

Ilkka Tuomi

1Meaning Processing Ltd, Helsinki, Finland

2Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study (STIAS), Wallenberg Research Centre at Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Received:21November2018 |  Revised:15January2019 |  Accepted:15January2019

DOI: 10.1002/ffo2.11

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ffo2.11

A Scenario-based Approach to Strategic Planning
– Integrating Planning and Process Perspective of Strategy

Prof. Dr. Torsten Wulf, Philip Meißner and Dr. Stephan Stubner

2010

Click to access ap-no-6-scenario-based-approach-to-strategic-planning.pdf

The 4 Whys of Scenario Thinking

M Brain

About the Kearney-Oxford Scenarios Programme

AT Kearney

https://www.kearney.com/web/atkearney-oxford-scenarios-programme/scenarios-programme

Scenarios in the strategy process: a framework of affordances and constraints

Victor Tiberius

Tiberius European Journal of Futures Research (2019) 7:7 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40309-019-0160-5

Objectivity and a comparison of methodological scenario approaches for climate change research

Elisabeth A. Lloyd · Vanessa J. Schweizer

Synthese (2014) 191:2049–2088 DOI 10.1007/s11229-013-0353-6

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11229-013-0353-6

Cross-impact balances:
A system-theoretical approach to cross-impact analysis

Wolfgang Weimer-Jehle T,1
University of Stuttgart, Institute for Social Sciences V, Research Unit Risk and Sustainability, Seidenstr. 36,

70174 Stuttgart, Germany

Technological Forecasting & Social Change 73 (2006) 334–361

ScenarioWizard 4.3. Constructing Consistent Scenarios Using Cross-Impact Balance Analysis.

Manual.

Wolfgang Weimer-Jehle

https://docplayer.net/81069764-Scenariowizard-4-3-constructing-consistent-scenarios-using-cross-impact-balance-analysis-manual-wolfgang-weimer-jehle.html

Improving environmental change research with systematic techniques for qualitative scenarios

Vanessa Jine Schweizer and Elmar Kriegler

2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 044011

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044011/meta

Systematic construction of global socioeconomic pathways using internally consistent element combinations

DOI:10.1007/s10584-013-0908-z

Vanessa Jine Schweizer

Brian C. O’Neill

The current state of scenario development: An overview of techniques

DOI:10.1108/14636680710727516

Peter Bishop

Andy Hines

Terry Collins

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228623754_The_current_state_of_scenario_development_An_overview_of_techniques

Should Probabilities Be Used with Scenarios?

Stephen M. Millett Futuring Associates LLC USA

Plausibility and probability in scenario planning

DOI:10.1108/FS-08-2012-0061

Rafael Ramirez

Cynthia Selin

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263366784_Plausibility_and_probability_in_scenario_planning

Click to access ACCEPTED_Plausibility_and_Probability_in_Scenario_Planning_March_24_2013.pdf

Scenario development without probabilities — focusing on the most important scenario

Volker Grienitz & Michael Hausicke & André-Marcel Schmidt

Eur J Futures Res (2014) 15:27

DOI 10.1007/s40309-013-0027-0

Foundations of Scenario Planning: The Story of Pierre Wack

By Thomas J Chermack

2017

ROLE OF SCENARIO PLANNING AND PROBABILITIES
IN ECONOMIC DECISION PROBLEMS – LITERATURE REVIEW AND NEW CONCLUSIONS

Helena GASPARS-WIELOCH page1image38230256*

Department of Operations Research, Faculty of Informatics and Electronic Economy, Poznan University of Economics and Business, Al. Niepodleglosci 10, 61-875, Poznań, Poland

*E-mail: helena.gaspars@ue.poznan.pl

https://doi.org/10.3846/cibmee.2019.011

http://cibmee.vgtu.lt/index.php/verslas/2019/paper/viewFile/422/123

Overcoming obstacles to effective scenario planning

McKinsey on Finance Number 55, Summer 2015

https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/dotcom/client_service/Corporate%20Finance/MoF/Issue%2055/MoF55_Overcoming_obstacles_to_effective_scenario_planning.ashx

Increasing the effectiveness of participatory scenario development through codesign

Marissa F. McBride 1Kathleen F. Lambert 2Emily S. Huff 3Kathleen A. Theoharides 4Patrick Field 5 and Jonathan R. Thompson 1

1Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Petersham, Massachusetts, 2Harvard Forest, Harvard University and Science Policy Exchange, Petersham, Massachusetts, 3Michigan State University, Department of Forestry, East Lansing, Michigan, 4Climate and Global Warming Solutions, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, Boston, Massachusetts, 5Consensus Building Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts

 E&S HOME > VOL. 22, NO. 3 > Art. 16

https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol22/iss3/art16/

Scenarios in business and management: The current stock and research opportunities

Victor Tiberius a,⁎, Caroline Siglow a, Javier Sendra-García b

a University of Potsdam, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Potsdam, Germany

b Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467075/

Plotting Your Scenarios

Jay Ogilvy and Peter Schwartz

GBN

PROBABILISTIC APPROACHES: SCENARIO ANALYSIS, DECISION TREES AND SIMULATIONS

Click to access probabilistic.pdf

Navigating Uncertain Times
A Scenario Planning Toolkit for the Arts & Culture Sector

Literature Review

Multiple Scenario Development: Its Conceptual and Behavioral Foundation

DOI:10.1002/smj.4250140304

Paul Schoemaker

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220041993_Multiple_Scenario_Development_Its_Conceptual_and_Behavioral_Foundation

FORESIGHT: THE MANUAL

UNDP

UNDP Global Centre for Public Service Excellence (GCPSE) 

Foresight as a Strategic Long-Term Planning Tool for Developing Countries

UNDP

UNDP Global Centre for Public Service Excellence (GCPSE) 

https://www.undp.org/publications/foresight-strategic-long-term-planning-tool-developing-countries

Plausibility indications in future scenarios

Wiek, A., Withycombe Keeler, L., Schweizer, V. and Lang, D.J. (2013)

Int. J. Foresight and Innovation Policy, Vol. 9, Nos. 2/3/4, 2013

Plausibility and probability in scenario planning

Rafael Ramirez and Cynthia Selin

Foresight · March 2014

DOI: 10.1108/FS-08-2012-0061

Integrating organizational networks, weak signals, strategic radars and scenario planning

Paul J.H. Schoemaker ⁎, George S. Day, Scott A. Snyder Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Technological Forecasting & Social Change 80 (2013) 815–824

The current state of scenario development: an overview of techniques

Peter Bishop, Andy Hines and Terry Collins

Foresight · February 2007

DOI: 10.1108/14636680710727516

Chronotopes of foresight: Models of time‐space in probabilistic, possibilistic and constructivist futures

Ilkka Tuomi1,2

Futures Foresight Sci. 2019;1:e11.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ffo2.11

Using Trends and Scenarios as Tools for Strategy Development

Shaping the Future of Your Enterprise

by Ulf Pillkahn

Book

An Analysis and Categorization of Scenario Planning Scholarship from 1995-2016

Thomas J. Chermack Colorado State University USA

DOI:10.6531/JFS.201806.22(4).0004

Journal of Futures Studies, June 2018, 22(4): 45–60

https://jfsdigital.org/articles-and-essays/2018-2/vol-22-no-4-june-2018/an-analysis-and-categorization-of-scenario-planning-scholarship-from-1995-2016/

A review of scenario planning

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-review-of-scenario-planning-Amer-Daim/ad450aaf200096756634e84549da77c20963ae6a

Scenario analysis to support decision making in addressing wicked problems: pitfalls and potential

Innovation, Dynamic Capabilities and Leadership

Paul J.H. Schoemaker, Sohvi Leih, David J. Teece March 23, 2018

Scenario planning with a sociological eye: Augmenting the intuitive logics approach to understanding the Future of Scotland and the UK

Professor R. Bradley MacKay a,⁎, Dr. Veselina Stoyanova b

a The Gateway, North Haugh, School of Management, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland KY16 9RJ, UK

b Strathclyde Business School, University of Strathclyde, 199 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, Scotland G4 0QU, UK

Technological Forecasting & Social Change 124 (2017) 88–100

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162516302451

Scenarios in business and management: The current stock and research opportunities

Victor Tiberius a,⁎, Caroline Siglow a, Javier Sendra-García b 

University of Potsdam, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Potsdam, Germany

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Journal of Business Research 121 (2020) 235–242

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467075/

How plausibility-based scenario practices are grappling with complexity to appreciate and address 21st century challenges

AngelaWilkinsona

RolandKupersbc

DianaMangalagiude

aFutures Programme, Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford University, Hayes House, 75 George Street, Oxford OX1 2BQ, UK

bTHNK, Haarlemmerweg 8a, 1014 BE Amsterdam, The Netherlands

cSmith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford University, UK

dReims Management School, Reims, France

eSmith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford University, Hayes House, 75 George Street, Oxford OX1 2BQ, UK

Technological Forecasting and Social Change

Volume 80, Issue 4, May 2013, Pages 699-710

Special Issue: Scenario Method: Current developments in theory and practice

Edited by George Wright, George Cairns, Ron Bradfield

Volume 80, Issue 4, 

Pages 561-838 (May 2013)

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0040162512002971

Scenario methodology: New developments in theory and practice Introduction to the Special Issue

George Wright a,⁎, George Cairns b, Ron Bradfield c

a Warwick Business School, Coventry, UK
b RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
c Strathclyde Business School, Glasgow, UK

Technological Forecasting & Social Change xxx (2013) xxx–xxx

Scanning the Periphery

by 

HBR 2005

Scenario Planning Literature

Recent Articles

Bouhalleb, Arafet and Ali Smida, “Scenario Planning: An investigation of the construct and its measurements,” Wiley Online Library, February 9, 2018

Favato, Giampiero, “Embedding real options in scenario planning: A new methodological approach,” June 17, 2016

Gray, Jane, “Ofgem targets “flexible” scenario planning,” Network, October 12, 2016

Gray, Michael, “Scottish business scenario planning’ for independence over Brexit, minister confirms,” October 14, 2016

Hartung, Adam “The No. 1 Lesson from Hurricane Matthew and Brexit: Scenario Planning is Crucial,” October 7, 2016

Lang, Trudi, and Rafael Ramirez, “Building new social capital with scenario planning,” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Science Direct, July 8, 2017

Phadnis, Shardul, “How Scenario Planning Influences Strategic Decisions,” MIT Sloan Management Review, Summer 2016

Powch, Andrew, “Overcoming Uncertainty with the Aid of Scenario Planning,” Industry Week, October 17, 2017

Raford, Noah, “Online foresight platforms: Evidence for their impact on scenario planning and strategic foresight,” Elsevier, August 2015

Ramírez, R., & Selin, C., “Plausibility and probability in scenario planning,” Foresight, 16(1), 54-74, March 4, 2014

Ramirez, Rafael, Sheve Churchhouse, Alejandra Palermo, and Jonas Hoffman, Using Scenario Planning to Reshape StrategyMIT Sloan Management Review, June 13, 2017

Ramirez, Rafael, “How scenario planning makes strategy more robust,” Oxford Answers, January 28, 2020

Schoemaker, PJH, Scenario planning: A Tool for Strategic Thinking, MIT Sloan Management Review, 1995

Schwarze, Margaret and Lauren J. Taylor, “Managing Uncertainty—Harnessing the Power of Scenario Planning,” The New England Journal of Medicine, July 20, 2017  

Wilkinson, A. and Kupers, R. “Living in the Futures,” Harvard Business Review, May 2013

Wilkinson, A. and Ramirez, R. “2010 Canaries in the Mind,” Journal of Future Studies

Books

Cairns, George and George Wright, Scenario Thinking: Preparing Your Organization for the Future in an Unpredictable World, Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd ed., 2018 

Harris, Jared D. and Michael J. Lenox, The Strategist’s Toolkit, Darden Business Publishing, 2013

Laudicina, Paul, World Out of Balance: Navigating Global Risks to Seize Competitive Advantage, McGraw Hill, 2005

Ramirez, Rafael and Angela Wilkinson, Strategic Reframing: The Oxford Scenario Planning Approach, Oxford University Press, May 24, 2016

Ramirez, Rafael, John W. Selsky and Kees van der Heijden, Business Planning for Turbulent Times: New Methods for Applying Scenarios, earthscan, 2010

Schwartz, Peter, The Art of the Long View: Planning for the Future in an Uncertain World, Crown Business Publishing, 1996

Van Der Heijden, Kees, Scenarios: The Art of Strategic Conversation, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 2010

Wade, Woody, Scenario Planning: A Field Guide to the Future, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2012


Have question or additional suggestions? Please contact Terry Toland

Frames in Interaction

Frames in Interaction

Key Terms

  • Interaction
  • Frames
  • Frames in Interaction
  • Cognitive Frames
  • Media Frames
  • Audience Frame
  • Multiple Frames
  • Ambiguity
  • Uncertainty
  • Unpredictability
  • Incomplete Knowledge
  • Frame Production
  • Frame Alignment
  • Dialectics
  • Dialogical Interaction
  • Learning
  • Individual Learning
  • Social Learning
  • Agenda Setting
  • Priming

Interacting Frames

  • Frames in Interaction
    • Interaction as a cause of frame production, reflection, learning and frame alignment.
  • Competing Frames
    • Differing perspectives on a current issue. Contesting and competing.
  • Frames of Possibilities
    • Farmes of possible future due to uncertainty. Scenarios of future states.
  • Media Frames and Audience frames
    • Dielectics between media frames and audience frames

Frames – Sociological and Psychological

Source: CONCEPTUAL ISSUES IN FRAMING THEORY: A Systematic Examination of a Decade’s Literature

Conceptually, framing can be said to have two broad foundations—sociological (Entman, 1991; Gamson & Modigliani, 1987; Gitlin, 1980; Goffman, 1974) and psychological (Domke, Shah, & Wackman, 1998; Iyengar, 1991; Kahneman & Tversky, 1984). Framing research that grew from sociological foundations refers to the ‘‘frames in communication’’ (Chong & Druckman, 2007b, p. 106). In general, this research tends to focus on the ‘‘words, images, phrases, and presentation styles’’ (Druckman, 2001, p. 227) that are used to construct news stories and the processes that shape this construction.

Goffman (1974) was one of the first scholars to have developed the general concept of framing. As such, frames help people organize what they see in everyday life. Goffman calls frames the ‘‘schemata of interpretation,’’ a framework that helps in making an otherwise meaningless succession of events into something meaningful (p. 21). Gitlin (1980) defines frames as devices that facilitate how journalists organize enormous amounts of information and package them effectively for their audiences. He sees frames as ‘‘persistent patterns of cognition, interpretation, and presentation, of selection, emphasis, and exclusion,’’ organizing the information for both the journalists and their audiences (p. 7). According to Entman (1993), framing involves selection and salience—‘‘to frame is to select some aspects of perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation for the item described’’ (p. 52). Framing could have significant connotations as frames highlight some aspects of reality while excluding other elements, which might lead individuals to interpret issues differently.

Besides examining media frames, researchers have most enthusiastically studied the processes involved in the formation of the audience frame. There is much research that demonstrates how news framing influences information processing and the subsequent decision-making processes. Kahneman and Tversky (1979, 1984) were the first to demonstrate how different presentations of essentially the same information can have an impact on people’s choices. They found that individuals were inclined to take risks when ‘‘losses’’ are highlighted. But when the same information is presented in terms of ‘‘gains,’’ individuals shy away from risks. This approach, called ‘‘equivalency’’ (Druckman, 2001, p. 228), examines the influence of different but logically equivalent messages. In this approach, all factual and stylistic elements are comparable so that the pure influence of the frame can be observed. The ‘‘equivalency’’ perspective draws extensively on the experiments of risk-gain research (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979, 1984).

The ‘‘emphasis’’ (Druckman, 2001, p. 230) approach to framing demonstrates that accentuating certain considerations in a message can influence individuals to focus on those particular considerations. Scholars (Domke et al., 1998; Iyengar, 1991; McLeod & Detenber, 1999; Nelson, Clawson, & Oxley, 1997; Valkenburg, Semetko, & de Vreese, 1999) aligned to this interpretation of framing maintain that it is not always possible to manipulate a frame without changing some of the facts. Druckman (2004) aptly points out that in many cases, especially with political issues, there is not always a way to present a situation in different but equivalent ways. Instead, emphasis framing effects refer to situations when, by ‘‘emphasizing a subset of potentially relevant considerations,’’ individuals are led to focus on these considerations in the decision-making process (Druckman, 2004, p. 672). Thus, for political issues the concept of framing usually refers to ‘‘characterizations’’ of a course of action where a central idea provides meaning to the event (Sniderman & Theriault, 2004, p. 136). It is within ‘‘emphasis’’ framing that scholars have again differentiated frames—episodic versus thematic (Iyengar, 1991); strategy versus issue (Cappella & Jamieson, 1997); in terms of values (Brewer & Gross, 2005; Shah et al., 1996) to name a few.

The dual nature of framing research—frames in the news versus frames in the individuals’ minds—is evident. Scholars have examined both areas of literature in the past decades.

Frame competition

Source: CONCEPTUAL ISSUES IN FRAMING THEORY: A Systematic Examination of a Decade’s Literature

Moreover, in previous experimental research, scholars have focused largely on how different frames can affect the audiences’ attitudes, their learning, or political behavior. These studies have mainly focused on the difference of framing effects in single frame conditions, for instance, strategic versus value framing, loss versus gain, or episodic versus thematic (Iyengar, 1987, 1991; Nelson, Clawson, et al., 1997; Shah et al., 1996). However, there has been little research on the effects of multiple frame conditions, where the same subjects get alternative frames of an issue (Shah, Kwak, Schmierbach, & Zubric, 2004; Sniderman & Theriault, 2004). In general ‘‘the role of multiple competing frames has gone largely unexplored’’ (Chong & Druckman, 2007a, p. 101).

To be able to capture what actually happens in politics, ‘‘it is necessary to have an additional condition in framing experiments, in which opposing frames are presented together’’ (Sniderman & Theriault, 2004, p. 146). The authors consider ‘‘ambivalence’’ as key for framing effects (p. 137). They argue that the very nature of politics requires choices to be made between competing values. So value conflict is critical to the link between issue framing and political judgment. As such, the present study examined the published literature for the presence of studies exploring mixed frames.

Frames, Frame Effects, and Multiple Frames in Interaction

Sources: Toward a Relational Concept of Uncertainty: about Knowing Too Little, Knowing Too Differently, and Accepting Not to Know

Framing research has important roots in the work on cognitive biases and decision heuristics (Tversky and Kahneman 1981, De Martino et al. 2006). From this perspective, frames are representations of the external world, but these heuristic representations are biased when compared with accurate, decision theoretical representations (cf. Tversky and Kahneman 1981). This view has been adopted in classical decision-making theory, and served as a basis to study inconsistencies underlying judgment and choice (e.g., Kahneman and Tversky’s (1996) work on judgmental heuristics and limitations of intuitive choice). In this context, “framing effects” represent a violation of the standard economic account of human rationality. Having different formulations of what decision theory considers to be the same problem (in terms of expected utility) elicits different preferences: risk aversion can be encouraged by framing the situation in terms of gains, whereas risk seeking is encouraged by framing the situation in terms of losses (Tversky and Kahneman 1981). Although we do not share the assumption of the decision-heuristic approach that there is always a unique and correct decision theoretical formulation of a decision problem, this research does demonstrate that formulating a problem in a different way may elicit distinct decision preferences (Tversky and Kahneman 1981), affecting the meaning of and the importance attributed to uncertain information, and pointing toward different actions.

We understand frames as sense-making devices (Weick 1995) that mediate the interpretation of reality by adding meaning to a situation. The same situation can thus be framed in multiple, equally valid ways. For example, a situation of water shortage can be framed as a problem of “insufficient water supply” by one actor and, one of “excessive water consumption” by another. When a problem is framed as insufficient water supply, the most relevant uncertainties will be those associated with the amount of water available, and technical solutions that help avoiding water shortage can be favored (e.g., adopt a more efficient irrigation technology, Koundouri et al. 2006). However, when the problem is framed as an excessive water consumption issue, other solutions can be considered, such as changing the way in which water is used and consumed (e.g., diversification of crops). In this case, uncertainties associated with how society will react to a change in land use, or policies that stimulate the change (e.g., Common Agricultural Policy) will be the most important. In this way, frames significantly affect how meaning is inferred and how a situation is understood, serving to define a problem relative to core values and assumptions and to determine how to respond to it (Nisbet and Mooney 2007).

There have been two main approaches to framing research, namely, a cognitive approach where frames are defined as “cognitive representations,” and an interactional approach where frames are defined as “interactional co-constructions” (an in-depth comparison of both approaches can be found in Dewulf et al. (2008)). The cognitive approach has focused on frames as knowledge structures. It is based on the idea that frames are memory structures that help us organize and interpret incoming perceptual information by fitting it into pre-existing categories about reality (Minsky 1975). In contrast, the interactional approach focuses on how parties negotiate frame alignments in interactions. It considers frames as communicative devices, that is interactional alignments or co-constructions that are negotiated and produced in the ongoing interaction through “metacommunication” that indicates how a situation should be understood. From this perspective, frames are co-constructions of the meaning of the external world. This view has been adopted in multiparty collaborations and is exemplified in Dewulf et al. (2004) and Putnam and Holmer (1992).

Here, we adopt an interactional approach, where framing is defined as the process through which the meaning of a situation is negotiated among different actors (Putnam and Holmer 1992, Gray 2003a, Dewulf et al. 2004). Thus, framing is thought to be an interactive process where actors are engaged in developing an understanding of problems and alternative solutions. It is through the joint activities of framing, and reframing, that the actors can arrive at a joint problem definition. From this social experience, a common language and a new sense of community can emerge, opening up possibilities for further creativity and developments, and fostering learning and change (Bouwen 2001).

In our definition of uncertainty, we incorporate the concept of multiple frames, in order to capture the difference among multiple forms of knowledge. We consider each frame to represent a potentially valid view of a situation, reflecting the viewpoint of a particular community of practice (Bouwen 2001). Under the rationale of an interactional approach to framing research, we acknowledge the social processing of uncertain information and capture the interactions among actors during deliberative processes of framing and reframing. However, during these processes, encountering multiple frames that are incompatible is unavoidable, and results in ambiguity about the meaning and importance attributed to uncertain information.

Next, we discuss and describe some of the implications of ambiguity in the conceptualization of uncertainty.

Source: Towards a relational concept of uncertainty: Incorporating the human dimension

Source: Towards a relational concept of uncertainty: Incorporating the human dimension

Source: More is not always better: Coping with ambiguity in natural resources management

Strategies for dealing with Multiple Knowledge Frames

Source: Towards a relational concept of uncertainty: Incorporating the human dimension

Multiple or conflicting views about how to understand the system often represent different kinds of knowledge that are difficult to reconcile or integrate. The incompatibility in frames may result from different scientific backgrounds, from differences between context-specific experiential knowledge and general expert knowledge, from different societal positions of ideological backgrounds, and so forth.

In relational terms, actor A has a certain knowledge relation to phenomenon X, and actor B has a different knowledge relation to the same phenomenon X. In these kind of situations, relevant strategies address the relation between A and B and have something to do with dealing with differences.

We draw on a Table (Table 2) from Bouwen, Dewulf & Craps (2006) to give an overview of relevant strategies to deal with multiple knowledge frames.

Action PrincipleAccept. ofInterde- pendenceProcessCharac- teristicsPossible OutcomesContextContingen- cies
Persuasive Communic ationApproachPersuasionModerateExposure to persuasionAdoption or imitationUnequal involvement or competence
Dialogical LearningApproachMutual Interactive LearningHighJoint discovery and exchangeMutual understandi ng and synergyShared involvement
Negotiation ApproachTit for that, deal makingHigh/ moderateNegotiation tactical phasesFair deal, settlementCalculative involvement
Opposition al Modes ofActioncold or hot conflictLow or negationKeeping distance or escalationFreeze or dominanceMutual negation or fight

Table 2. Strategies to deal with multiple frames

The first strategy can be called the persuasive communication approach. This consists of trying to convince others of your own frame of reference, not by imposing it but by presenting it as attractive and worthwhile. This strategy is successful if others can be convinced to adopt your own frame of reference.

The second strategy is the dialogical learning approach, where the aim is to understand each other’s frames better through open dialogue and encourage learning on all sides. The literature on participation, organizational learning and consensual group decision making documents extensively this approach (Argyris and Schön, 1978; Wenger, 1998). The emphasis is on the interactive nature and reciprocal quality of the communication. Actors engage with each other as equally valuable partners and inclusion of all actors is the overall goal.

The negotiation approach aims at reaching a mutually beneficial and integrative agreement which makes sense from multiple perspectives or frames. Theories of conflict in organizations deal extensively with these negotiation strategies. Actors engage in a mutual calculative information sharing and positioning strategy. They develop alternative packages for giving and taking to come to a balanced sharing of positives and negatives. The negotiation can have a dominantly ‘integrating’ quality when both actors develop in common some synergetic win-win outcomes. The negotiation can rather be ‘distributive’ when the actors take a win-loose position and they distribute equally profits and gains in an antagonistic way.

The fourth strategy is the oppositional mode. When parties have a history of rivalry for resources or they don’t have any history of collaboration, taking or holding distance is likely. In conflict theory the distinction is made between cold and hot conflict. Cold conflict means that there is no recognition of mutual interdependence and distancing from each other is a dominant mode of operating. Hot conflict refers to heated opposition as a result of an adversarial experience of the mutual interdependency. Parties try by force a strategy to change the power difference in the relationship. When it comes to some form of collaboration, parties will move their strategy in the direction of a negotiation approach.

My Related Posts

Frames, Framing and Reframing

Frames, Communication, and Public Policymaking

What are Problem Structuring Methods?

Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism

Networks, Narratives, and Interaction

Erving Goffman: Dramaturgy of Social Life

Narrative, Rhetoric and Possible Worlds

Key Sources of Research

Framing mechanisms: the interpretive policy entrepreneur’s toolbox,

Ewert Aukes, Kris Lulofs & Hans Bressers (2017):

Critical Policy Studies, DOI: 10.1080/19460171.2017.1314219

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19460171.2017.1314219

“From Interactions to Institutions: Microprocesses of Framing and Mechanisms for the Structuring of Institutional Fields”

Gray, Barbara; Purdy, Jill M.; and Ansari, Shahzad (Shaz),

(2015). Business Publications. 79. https://digitalcommons.tacoma.uw.edu/business_pub/79

Contrasting frames in policy debates on climate change adaptation

Art Dewulf∗

Issue Framing in Conversations for Change: Discursive Interaction Strategies for “Doing Differences”

Art Dewulf1 and René Bouwen2

The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science XX(X) 1–26 2012

Deliberating Our Frames: How Members of Multi‑Stakeholder Initiatives Use Shared Frames to Tackle Within‑Frame Conflicts Over Sustainability Issues

Angelika Zimmermann1 · Nora Albers2 · Jasper O. Kenter3

Received: 11 December 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2021

Journal of Business Ethics

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-021-04789-1

Disentangling approaches to framing in conflict and negotiation research:

A meta-paradigmatic perspective

Art Dewulf, Barbara Gray, Linda Putnam, Roy Lewicki,

Noelle Aarts, Rene Bouwen and Cees van Woerkum

Human Relations

DOI: 10.1177/0018726708100356

Volume 62(2): 155–193 Copyright © 2009

Toward a Relational Concept of Uncertainty: about Knowing Too Little, Knowing Too Differently, and Accepting Not to Know

Marcela Brugnach 1Art Dewulf 2Claudia Pahl-Wostl and Tharsi Taillieu 3


1Institute for Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabrück, 2Public Administration and Policy Group, Wageningen University, 3Center for Work, Organizational and Personnel Psychology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art30/

Ambiguity: the challenge of knowing and deciding together

M. Brugnach a,*, H. Ingram b,c

a Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, The Netherlands b Southwest Center, University of Arizona, United States
c School of Social Ecology, University of California Irvine, United States

environmental science & policy 15 (2012) 60–71

Agenda-Setting, Priming, and Framing Revisited: Another Look at Cognitive Effects of Political Communication

Dietram A. Scheufele 

Pages 297-316 | Published online: 17 Nov 2009

Mass Communication and Society 

Volume 3, 2000 – Issue 2-3

Framing, Agenda Setting, and Priming: The Evolution of Three Media Effects Models

Dietram A. Scheufele1 & David Tewksbury2

1 Department of Life Sciences Communication and School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53706
2 Department of Speech Communication and Department of Political Science, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801

Journal of Communication ISSN 0021-9916

Framing as a Theory of Media Effects

by Dietram A. Scheufele

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.958.1933&rep=rep1&type=pdf

The End of Framing as we Know it . . . and the Future of Media Effects

Michael A. Cacciatore

Department of Advertising and Public Relations University of Georgia

Dietram A. Scheufele

Department of Life Sciences Communication University of Wisconsin and Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania

Shanto Iyengar

Department of Communication and Department of Political Science Stanford University

Mass Communication and Society, 19:7–23, 2016

The State of Framing Research: A Call for New Directions

Dietram A. Scheufele and Shanto Iyengar
The Oxford Handbook of Political Communication

Edited by Kate Kenski and Kathleen Hall Jamieson

Subject: Political Science, Political Methodology, Political Behavior
Online Publication Date: Oct 2014 DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199793471.013.47

News Framing Theory and Research

David Tewksbury and Dietram A. Scheufele

https://prod-com-bibliolabs-nuvique-app-content.s3.amazonaws.com/SID-0000003307846/SID-0000003307846.pdf?X-Amz-Security-Token=IQoJb3JpZ2luX2VjEFQaCXVzLWVhc3QtMSJHMEUCIQChctaF%2FK2CfiZr%2F38ZR5uN2EGzbwIfzQR4La8zK%2F%2F8NAIgYYHP8QeI2sRjjHKVDGcXgp1GNPcc8%2F%2B2v4K0XDOamHIq9wMITRAAGgwwMDY4NDgwOTEwMTQiDBXPo7zzeyaG3Tb4ySrUA6LgiuHTH%2F9KihxRLYkZCk7iMGRDGHP3GlRlF9CCE1I9R1DuxpAwLtuzydz2vJHAUKxOBKwYwKTo0E%2FJY%2FISYO1czRMdYwwZLXnHl2sRThYWhnv3b095JFIKFh%2BPu1d18JDbxmhwtLtEQeWw1I3abis%2F2C4ZZZ6rJs4YRW6UEIP2TxaLOa6dxkPnMJ83OZGJEF7Ez0LK3KuTIP0QVYsn14YBg5RG%2Fju75KBPta41vbg6bvcdhU%2BSTxN75smmCOhRtuL6h1pwBoBVbECTzcMueJ62tiEsmAuG3uHa062pMmGunouX%2F0uOvXXGD14dNnYKcYBK0Pf8nkrBwBeaxm8BVRWrGmvAjC6jkor54Azxxh7%2FNJkLqqmmBH2o6AG5mAD71sn1G6lyZAbBfzNjD%2FDSP2f5lAgd2Qr96U5iS3XcKkJI9xal%2BNquQuPp7CayjSol9YyqdrP%2FuI45%2FUOZP%2FshJHRmPgzesYxuWKK9icjU4HFXBKc%2FoTWnA95eA3aQx6EwqXAkBM2aX4CRxE7xdVcIaaXsFSv8%2FS15mFi7UIXZ2gnujn5ZQqDG32qwhQb%2B02FukuJ%2Fe2vdxjgfLoz2jctjLGfH2gzaB%2F2qWAdQ6OFzTfKK95AJQDDmu8eHBjqlAZLm2b0f0I%2BeldoQC44wvSHbMSL4Mw2tBNZzIYMSnKVWcupVxElsci6599Z4ONO6%2BUcMXbl%2F8%2FaeoAAKWLXZJOcW1byyV%2FDCo4x6CZr3W8rYhVPfIbpPK25iYhH76cHuPVSuqy5XgpBLLn%2Fpi2lFT97rD5JH5A4YAZ1jy%2BCf1qUbwyomv6h1R%2FY5j8XLOWBuXtgVIbaKcvy4h7iqywKHQX6jI%2F%2F5MQ%3D%3D&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210716T213140Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=120&X-Amz-Credential=ASIAQDGBNSODPMJ2V7ZO%2F20210716%2Fus-east-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=432bb6277efd8055bc4fb223e18e03afac6a84ff8801d1d4dfd4f61543dbf6d6#page=62

Social Movements

An Insider’s Critique of the Social Movement Framing Perspective”

Robert D. Benford, University of Nebrasku- Lincoln

Framing Social Interaction. Continuities and Cracks in Goffman’s Frame Analysis

  • August 2018

DOI:10.4324/9781315582931

  • ISBN: 9781315582931

Authors:

Anders Persson

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326753186_Framing_Social_Interaction_Continuities_and_Cracks_in_Goffman%27s_Frame_Analysis

MICROFOUNDATIONS OF FRAMING: THE INTERACTIONAL PRODUCTION OF COLLECTIVE ACTION FRAMES IN THE OCCUPY MOVEMENT

Juliane Reinecke

King’s Business School,

King’s College London, Bush House, 30 Aldwych London, WC2B 4BG United Kingdom
Phone: +44 20 7848 8753 Email: juliane.reinecke@kcl.ac.uk

Shahzad (Shaz) Ansari

Judge Business School University of Cambridge Cambridge, CB2 1AG United Kingdom Phone: +44 1223 768 128 Email: s.ansari@jbs.cam.ac.uk

Forthcoming in the Academy of Management Journal, Published Online: 1 Apr 2020

https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.1063

Are Logics Enough? Framing as an Alternative Tool for Understanding Institutional Meaning Making

Jill Purdy

Milgard School of Business University of Washington Tacoma

Shaz Ansari

Cambridge Judge Business School University of Cambridge

Barbara Gray

Smeal College of Business The Pennsylvania State University

https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1810/267326/Are+Logics+Enough+May+31+2017.pdf;jsessionid=67B97F57301F833C96876E1CD4078A5C?sequence=3

Priming and Framing

Chapter 13 in Book

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Sociology

edited by Wayne H. Brekhus, Gabe Ignatow

Thoughts on Agenda Setting, Framing, and Priming

David H. Weaver

School of Journalism, University of Indiana, Bloomington, IN 47405

Journal of Communication ISSN 0021-9916

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.473.4056&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Framing Bias: Media in the Distribution of Power

Robert M. Entman

School of Media and Public Affairs, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052

Journal of Communication ISSN 0021-9916

Click to access Media%20and%20framing%20bias.pdf

A Failure to Communicate: Agenda Setting in Media and Policy Studies,

Michelle Wolfe , Bryan D. Jones & Frank R. Baumgartner (2013)

Political Communication, 30:2, 175-192, DOI: 10.1080/10584609.2012.737419

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2012.737419

Media Effects Theory

PORISMITA BORAH

Washington State University, USA

The International Encyclopedia of Political Communication, First Edition. Edited by Gianpietro Mazzoleni. Published 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

DOI: 10.1002/9781118541555.wbiepc156

Attribute agenda setting, priming and the media’s influence on how to think about a controversial issue

Sei-Hill Kim

University of South Carolina, USA

Miejeong Han

Hanyang University, South Korea

Doo-Hun Choi

University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

Jeong-Nam Kim

Purdue University, USA

the International Communication Gazette 74(1) 43–59 a  2012

DOI: 10.1177/1748048511426991

A Theory of Framing and Opinion Formation in Competitive Elite Environments

Dennis Chong & James N. Druckman

Department of Political Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208

Journal of Communication ISSN 0021-9916

POLITICAL COMMUNICATION EFFECTS

Douglas M. McLeod University of Wisconsin-Madison

Gerald M. Kosicki The Ohio State University

Jack M. McLeod University of Wisconsin-Madison

Chapter in Book MEDIA EFFECTS Advances in Theory and Research Third Edition

FRAMING THEORY

Dennis Chong and James N. Druckman

Department of Political Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208; email: dchong@northwestern.edu; druckman@northwestern.edu

Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 2007. 10:103–26

doi: 10.1146/annurev.polisci.10.072805.103054

https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.polisci.10.072805.103054

Conceptual Issues in Framing Theory:

A Systematic Examination of a Decade’s Literature

Porismita Borah

School of Journalism & Mass Communication, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53726, USA

Journal of Communication ISSN 0021-9916

Click to access Conceptual-Issues-in-Framing-Theory-A-Systematic-Examination-of-a-Decades-Literature.pdf

Disentangling approaches to framing in conflict and negotiation research:

A meta-paradigmatic perspective

Art Dewulf, Barbara Gray, Linda Putnam, Roy Lewicki,

Noelle Aarts, Rene Bouwen and Cees van Woerkum

Human Relations 2009

DOI: 10.1177/0018726708100356

Volume 62(2): 155–193

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/37789783_Disentangling_Approaches_to_Framing_in_Conflict_and_Negotiation_Research_A_Meta-paradigmatic_Perspective

Towards a relational concept of uncertainty: Incorporating the human dimension

Brugnach, M.1; A. Dewulf 2; C. Pahl-Wostl 1 and T. Taillieu 3

1. Universität Osnabrück, Germany
2. Wageningen University, The Netherlands
3. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
Contact author: Marcela Brugnach, mbrugnac@usf.uos.de

Social Learning and Water Resources Management

Author(s): Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Marc Craps, Art Dewulf, Erik Mostert, David Tabara and Tharsi Taillieu

Source: Ecology and Society , Dec 2007, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Dec 2007) Published by: Resilience Alliance Inc.

Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/26267868

AN OVERVIEW OF INTEGRAL ECOLOGY

A Comprehensive Approach to Today’s Complex Planetary Issues

Sean Esbjörn-Hargens Michael E. Zimmerman

The Variety of Integral Ecologies
Nature, Culture, and Knowledge in the Planetary Era

Sam Mickey – Editor
Sean Kelly – Editor
Adam Robbert – Editor
Mary Evelyn Tucker – Foreword by

SUNY series in Integral Theory
Release Date: June 2017
ISBN13: 978-1-4384-6527-2

Integrated management of natural resources: dealing with ambiguous issues, multiple actors and diverging frames

A. Dewulf*, M. Craps*, R. Bouwen*, T. Taillieu* and C. Pahl-Wostl**

*Center for Organizational and Personnel Psychology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, 3000 Leuven, Belgium (E-mail: art.dewulf@psy.kuleuven.ac.be, marc.craps@psy.kuleuven.ac.be,rene.bouwen@psy.kuleuven.ac.be, tharsi.taillieu@psy.kuleuven.ac.be)
**Institute of Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabru ̈ck, Albrechtstrasse 28, Osnabru ̈ck, Germany (E-mail: pahl@usf.uni-osnabrueck.de)

Integral Ecology

UNITING MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES ON THE NATURAL WORLD

By SEAN ESBJORN-HARGENS, PH.D. and MICHAEL E. ZIMMERMAN, PH.D.
Foreword by Marc Bekoff

https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/46964/integral-ecology-by-sean-esbjorn-hargens-phd-and-michael-e-zimmerman-phd-foreword-by-marc-bekoff/

Integral Ecology: Uniting Multiple Perspectives on the Natural World

Sean Esbjörn-Hargens and Ken Wilber

March 25, 2009

Governance Capabilities for Dealing Wisely With Wicked Problems

Catrien J. A. M. Termeer1, Art Dewulf1, Gerard Breeman1, and Sabina J. Stiller1

Administration & Society XX(X) 1–31 © 2012

DOI: 10.1177/0095399712469195

More is not always better: Coping with ambiguity in natural resources management

M. Brugnach a, b, *, A. Dewulf c, H.J. Henriksen d, P. van der Keur d

a Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, The Netherlands
b Institute for Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabrück, Germany c Public Administration and Policy Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands d Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Denmark

Journal of Environmental Management xxx (2010) 1e7

Issue Framing in Conversations for Change: Discursive Interaction Strategies for “Doing Differences”

Art Dewulf1 and René Bouwen2

The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science XX(X) 1–26 2012

DOI: 10.1177/0021886312438858

Contrasting frames in policy debates on climate change adaptation

Art Dewulf∗

Defining Uncertainty A Conceptual Basis for Uncertainty Management in Model-Based Decision Support

W.E. WALKER1, P. HARREMO€EES2, J. ROTMANS3, J.P. VAN DER SLUIJS5, M.B.A. VAN ASSELT4,

P. JANSSEN6 AND M.P. KRAYER VON KRAUSS2

Integrated Assessment 1389-5176/03/0000-000

2003

The Constructionist Approach to Framing: Bringing Culture Back In

Baldwin Van Gorp

Department of Communication Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6500 HC Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Journal of Communication ISSN 0021-9916