Myth of Invariance: Sound, Music, and Recurrent Events and Structures

Myth of Invariance: Sound, Music, and Recurrent Events and Structures


From  Philosophy and Science of Music in Ancient Greece:
The Predecessors of Pythagoras and their Contribution

 One of the ironies of twentieth-century thought is that the final dethronement of Pythagoras as a ‘father’ of western science and philosophy and the ‘inventor’ of music and mathematics should be accompanied by a world-wide revival of Pythagorean research and speculation. During the seventeenth century, the ‘harmony of the spheres’, which had remained an article of faith until the age of Shakespeare and even Louis XIV [Isherwood 1973, Ch. 1], was suddenly overwhelmed by the mighty discoveries of Kepler and Newton; but this traumatic ‘Untuning of the Sky’ [Hollander 1970] did not entirely obliterate the Pythagorean tradition (to which both Kepler and Newton were sympathetic).

Since the pioneering studies of Thomas Taylor (1758-1835), Antoine Fabre d’Olivet (1767-1825) and Albert von Thimus (1806-1878), there has been a steady renewal of interest in the old science of harmonics, culminating in the work of Hans Kayser (1891-1964) and his two most influential successors, Rudolf Haase and Ernest G. McClain (both of whom are living in retirement). Neo-pythagoreanism is now a conspicuous feature of post-modern philosophy and science: the revival of musica speculativa, part of a larger resurgence of neo-classicism, is well represented in the writings of Joscelyn Godwin [Godwin 1987, 1993, etc.]. To his extensive bibliographies could be added not only impressive results of recent mainstream research into Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, e.g., Huffman [1993], but also the publications of several ‘alternative’ thinkers, including the French-American composer, music theorist, and astrologer, Dane Rudhyar, the French ‘neo-astrologer’ Michel Gauquelin, the English numerologist John Michell, and the English geneticist Rupert Sheldrake. Sheldrake’s notion of ‘morphic resonance’ — forms resonating in Nature’s memory — is a very Pythagorean-Platonic alternative to mechanistic causality. His wife, Jill Purce, is a music therapist [Purce 1974]; so both sides of the Pythagorean tradition — the ‘hard’ and the ‘soft’ sciences — are here reunited in the work of one family.

Though hardly any of these writers would describe themselves as Pythagoreans, their ideas have important connections with the old tradition and all are symptomatic of a new era in the history of thought when mechanistic and reductionist paradigms are giving way to a holistic and organic world-view. This emergent rationality is fundamentally ecological and its impact is being felt from metaphysics to everyday manners. The new paradigms of the Age of Ecology are already transforming the professions, sciences, arts, academic disciplines, and human enterprises generally — from the minute study of bird-song and insect music to the utopian vision of planet Earth designed and managed as a single, organic Gesamtkunstwerk [Pont 1997].

Central to this new understanding of the world is the concept of the ‘Biosphere’, which is the very antithesis of Newton’s mechanistic universe [Teilhard de Chardin 1955]. Thus the Pythagorean vision of the living cosmos — or Plato’s ‘World Soul’ — has reappeared in new vitalist theories, including the Gaia hypothesis of James E. Lovelock [1979]. The modern world-view and its vast astronomical time-frame have changed our conception of humanity itself, if only in recognising our evolutionary affiliations with, and biological dependence on, other species in the terrestrial ecosystem. And it has also transformed the idea of the ‘humanities’: never again can they be taught as just a narrow study of the ‘classical’ texts or litterae humaniores of Greece, Rome, and the Renaissance. No longer can the ancient Greeks be contemplated, in museum-like isolation, as perfect models of everything European.

With the growth of modern archaeology, prehistory, anthropology, linguistics, and other comparative studies, the marmoreal idols of Eurocentric scholarship are now revealed in something like their original gaudy splendour — a Joseph’s coat of distinctly oriental hues. Most of the discoveries traditionally ascribed to Pythagoras were Asiatic in origin; and, in a recent survey, Music and Musicians in Ancient Greece [Anderson 1994], the Pythagoreans have been reduced to four passing references and Pythagoras himself is omitted altogether!

The innovations still plausibly credited to the historical Pythagoras include the coining of the terms ‘philosophy’ and ‘theory’ which, in his case, must have referred to the dogmatic teachings and pre-scientific wisdom of a guru rather than genuinely theoretical inquiries like those of Heraclitus and the Eleatics. Pythagoras was also credited with inventing the term Kosmos, but the idea of the beautiful world-order (above and below) must surely have been Egyptian in origin [Cf. Plato, Laws II, 656a-657b]. Our admiration of the Greeks is now tempered by a better understanding of their true historical circumstance and actual indebtedness to other civilisations [Cf. Bernal 1987].

Just as Whitehead saw western philosophy as ‘a series of footnotes to Plato’, so modern scholarship has established that most of the doctrines traditionally ascribed to Pythagoras were really the contributions of the older high civilisations, particularly of Mespotamia and Egypt.[1] The rise and dissemination of these perennially influential doctrines remains one of the most formidable problems for the historian of ideas.

Many of these ideas had already been explored in my General Studies courses at the University of New South Wales, particularly in ‘The Philosophy of Music’ (Australia’s first academic course on the subject, 1974-1988) and, more recently, in shorter courses on ‘Ancient Rationality’ and ‘Modern Rationality’ (1988-1995). It was with their arguments and conclusions in mind that I undertook during 1997 my last course at the University, entitled ‘The Predecessors of Pythagoras’. This aimed to examine the origins and analogies of Pythagorean traditions in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and India. The lectures contained little that was new and the literature survey was, unavoidably, far from exhaustive; but, even so, the course had the unintended effect of changing the lecturer’s point of view — and, indeed, his whole approach to Greek philosophy and science of music.

Instead of burdening the class with the meagre texts of the early Pythagorean school and the interminable difficulties of their interpretation, lectures took a broad view of ancient history and prehistory, in an attempt to answer two very large and necessarily speculative questions: first, what might have been the origins of the famous ‘analogy of the macrocosm and the microcosm’? And, second, how and when was this world-view ‘mathematised’? — that is, when was it precisely articulated with a system of musical numbers or harmonic ratios that eventually constituted the ‘harmony of the spheres’? Most of the fifteen students had some background in history and philosophy of science but no prior musical knowledge was required for the course and readings had to be confined to material available in English. The only set text was The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library [Guthrie 1987].


Key People:

  • Hans Kayser
  • Ernest G McClain
  • Jay Kappraff
  • Barabara Hero
  • John Goldman
  • Guy Beck
  • Joscelyn Godwin
  • Joachim-Ernst Berendt
  • Antonio De Nicolas
  • Richard Heath
  • Subhash Kak
  • Rachel Wells Hall
  • Amba Kulkarni
  • Leon Crickmore
  • Pingala
  • Rudolf Haase


Key Concepts:

  • Scale Invariance
  • Time Invariance
  • Cycles
  • Fractals
  • Power Laws
  • Periodicity
  • Multi-scales
  • Octave Invariance
  • Octave Equivalence
  • Self Similarity
  • Pattern Formation
  • Harmonics
  • Repeating Patterns
  • Repeating Events
  • Attractors
  • Basin of Attraction
  • Prosody
  • Vedic Sanskrit Meters
  • Sounds, Numbers, Akshara
  • Ratios and Proportions
  • Harmonic Mean
  • Geometric Mean
  • Arthematic Mean
  • Symmetry



Key Sources of Research:


Ancient Harmonic Law

Jay Kappraff


Click to access bridges2007-311.pdf


Ancient Harmonic Law (version 2)

Jay Kappraff


Click to access report0809-19.pdf


Philosophy and Science of Music in Ancient Greece:
The Predecessors of Pythagoras and their Contribution

Graham Pont


The Lost Harmonic Law of the Bible

Jay Kappraff

Click to access bridges2006-481.pdf



Sound: A Basis for Universal Structure in Ancient and Modern Cosmology

Jung Hee Choi


Click to access Sound_JHC_v2013.pdf


Beck, Guy L.

Sonic theology: Hinduism and sacred sound.

Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1995.


Beck, Guy L.

Sacred sound: Experiencing music in world religions.

Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press, 2006.


Beck, Guy L.

Sonic Liturgy: Ritual and Music in Hindu Tradition.

Univ of South Carolina Press, 2012.


“Vedic perspective of Sound—Science and Spirituality.”

Prasad, M. G.

Click to access mgpSoundArticles.pdf


Conch-shells, bells, and gongs in Hindu temples

Marehalli Prasad

Click to access 54b3ebc70cf2318f0f969b1f.pdf


Acoustical studies on conch shells.

M.G. Prasad and B. Rajavel


On the role of acoustics in the Vedic Hindu tradition and philosophy.

M. G. Prasad and B. Rajavel


Conch‐shell and bamboo flute: Spiritual and musical expressions of acoustics in Vedic Hinduism

M. G. Prasad


Philosophical and cultural perspectives on acoustics in Vedic Hinduism

M. G. Prasad


Vedic chanting and vowel intrinsic pitch: Evidence from an ancient source

T. V. Ananthapadmanabha1, Kim Silverman1 and M. G. Prasad


“Perspectives on sound in Sanskrit literature on natural philosophy.”

Prasad, M. G.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 85.S1 (1989): S147-S147.


Akasha (Space) and Shabda (Sound): Vedic and Acoustical perspectives

Prasad, M. G.

Click to access workshop2009_speakermgp5.pdf

The Golden Mean and the Physics of Aesthetics


Early Indian Music

Subhash Kak

Click to access manila.pdf


Hero, B. F.

“Design in nature from Pythagoras to Helmholtz to the Cantor musical array.”

WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 57 (2002).

Click to access DN02021FU.pdf


Hero, Barbara, and Robert Miller Foulkrod.

“The Lambdoma matrix and harmonic intervals.”

IEEE engineering in medicine and biology magazine 18.2 (1999): 61-73.

Click to access Lambdoma%20Matrix%20Harmonic%20Intervals.pdf


Goldman, Jonathan.

Healing sounds: The power of harmonics.

Inner Traditions/Bear & Co, 2002.


Heath, Richard.

Matrix of Creation: Sacred Geometry in the Realm of the Planets.

Inner Traditions/Bear & Co, 2004.


Heath, Richard.

Sacred Number and the Origins of Civilization: The Unfolding of History Through the Mystery of Number.

Inner Traditions/Bear & Co, 2006.


Heath, Richard.

Precessional Time and the Evolution of Consciousness: How Stories Create the World.

Inner Traditions/Bear & Co, 2011.


A re-valuation of the ancient science of harmonics


Psychology of Music 31.4 (2003): 391-403.


Crickmore, Leon.

“New Light on the Babylonian Tonal System.”

CONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4-6. Vol. 24. 2008.


Crickmore, Leon.

“A possible Mesopotamian origin for Plato’s World Soul.”

Hermathena 186 (2009): 5-23.


Crickmore, Leon.

“The musicality of Plato.”

Hermathena 180 (2006): 19-43.


Crickmore, Leon.

“A New Hypothesis for the Construction and Tuning of Babylonian Musical Scales.”

Journal of Ancient Civilizations (2007): 006.


Recursion and Combinatorial Mathematics in Chandashastra

Amba Kulkarni

Click to access 0703658.pdf



Math for Poets and Drummers

Rachel Wells Hall


The Sound of Numbers

A Tour of Mathematical Music Theory

Rachel Wells Hall



Bhattacharya, Aryya.

“Vāc–Its Ontological Status and Importance in Prayers and Rituals of Śakti Oriented Tantric Tradition.”

The Polish Journal of the Arts and Culture. New Series 2015.1 (2015) (2015): 7-22.


Godwin, Joscelyn.

The Harmony of the Spheres: The Pythagorean Tradition in Music.

Inner Traditions/Bear & Co, 1992.


Breath, Voice, and Embodiment of the Metaphysical in Hindu Tradition

Gabe C. Alfieri

Click to access Breath_Voice_Embodiment.pdf


Franklin, Ellen, and Donna Carey.

“From Galaxies to Cells: Bridging Science, Sound Vibration and Consiousness Through the Music of the Spheres.”

Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine Journal Archives 16.3 (2005)


McClain, Ernest G.

“The bronze chime bells of the Marquis of Zeng: Babylonian biophysics in Ancient China.”

Journal of Social and Biological Structures 8.2 (1985): 147-173


McClain, Ernest G.

“The Myth of Invariance: The Origin of the Gods, Mathematics and Music from the Rg Veda to Plato.”



McClain, Ernest G., and Ming Shui Hung.

“Chinese cyclic tunings in late antiquity.”

Ethnomusicology 23.2 (1979): 205-224


McClain, Ernest G.

“Structure in the ancient wisdom literature: The holy mountain.”

Journal of social and biological structures 5.3 (1982): 233-248



“Pythagorean Paper Folding: A Study in Tuning and Temperament.”

The Mathematics Teacher 63.3 (1970): 233-237


McClain, Ernest G.

“Musical Theory and Ancient Cosmology.”

The World and I (1994): 371-391.


McClAIN, Ernest G.

“The pythagorean Plato: prelude to the song itself.

York Beach, Mine: Nicolas-Hays.” (1978).


Pont, Graham.

“Plato’s philosophy of dance.”

Dance, Spectacle, and the Body Politick, 1250–1750 (2008): 267-281.


McClain, Ernest G.

“The ancient Chinese “calendrical” pitchpipes.”

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 80.S1 (1986): S101-S101.


The World Is Sound: Nada Brahma
Music and the Landscape of Consciousness

By Joachim-Ernst Berendt


De Nicolás, Antonio T.

Meditations through the Rig Veda: Four-dimensional man.

iUniverse, 2003.


De Nicolás, Antonio T.


iUniverse, 2003.

Sounds True: Speech, Language, and Communication

Sounds True:  Speech, Language, and Communication


At the end of the cosmic dance Lord Shiva the Lord of dance, sounded his damaru fourteen times.

For the sake of the upliftment of sages like sanaka.

According to legend, these sutras were written by Panini upon mystically hearing the beats of Siva-Nataraja’s damaru (hourglass-shaped drum). It has been said that the mantra is God in the form of sound. Therefore, words are an extension of that power. The tantra stresses the importance of sound as a divine substance and vehicle for salvation. And hence, entire cosmos is in the form of these sutras.

The Fourteen Verses Of Maheswara Sutra.

“The Maheshwara Sutra is the most ancient known Sanskrit alphabet sequence. This alphabet sequence is at the same time a powerful Mantra and the vibrations of its sound has healing powers.

1. अ इ उ ण् |
2. ऋ ऌ क् |
3. ए ओ ङ् |
4. ऐ औ च् |
5. ह य व र ट् |
6. ल ण् |
7. ञ म ङ ण न म् |
8. झ भ ञ् |
9. घ ढ ध ष् |
10. ज ब ग ड द श् |
11. ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व् |
12. क प य् |
13.श ष स र् |
14. ह ल् |

The fourteen sutras contain all the letters of the Sanskrit varnamala- the svaras (vowels) a, i, u, R^i, lR^i, e, ai, o, au and all the vyanjanas (consonants). As per the Rig Veda Lord Shiva brought this Sanskrit alphabet sequence, and the Sanskrit language to earth. The sounds of the alphabet originated from Lord Shiva’s ‘damru’, probably some kind of a sound device.


Among those present at Nataraja’s dance was Panini. For him these 14 sounds meant the fourteen cardinal sutras of Grammer and on them he based his “Ashtadhyayi”. Given are the 16 vowels and 33 consonants that are evolved from these 14 Shiva Sutras.

16 vowels (a – ch)

a, Aa, i, Ii, u, Uu, ri, rii, lri, lrii, e, ai, o au, am, ah

33 consonants (ha l)

ka, kha, ga, gha, gna
ca, cha, ja, jha, jna
ta, ttha, da ddha, nna
ta, tha, da, dha, na
pa, pha, ba, bha, ma
ya, ra, la, va
sa, sha, sa


Key People:

  • Yaska
  • Panini
  • Pingala
  • Patanjali
  • Katyayana
  • Bhartrhari
  • Leonard Bloomfield
  • Ferdinand de Saussure
  • Harold G Coward
  • Harvey Alper
  • Jan Gonda
  • George Cardona
  • Frits Staal
  • Johannes Bronkhorst
  • Ashok Aklujkar
  • Paul Kiparsky
  • Subhash Kak


Key Contributions:

  • Yaska wrote Nirukta
  • Panini wrote Ashta-adhyayi
  • Pingala wrote Chhandashastra
  • Katyayana wrote Varttikas
  • Patanjali wrote Vyakaran-Mahabhashya
  • Bhartrhari wrote Vakyapadiyas



Key Sources of Research:


Karakatattva of Sesacakrapani an edition and study

Leela, K N


Indian Linguistics

Click to access Indian_Linguistics-1.pdf


Old ideas of language


Click to access oldideasoflanguage.pdf


Alper, Harvey P., ed.

Understanding mantras.

Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1991.


The word is the world: Nondualism in Indian philosophy of language

By Ashok Aklujkar


LANGUAGE AND REALITY On an episode in Indian thought

Johannes Bronkhorst

Click to access Language%20and%20Reality_On%20an%20Episode%20in%20Indian%20Thought_Bronkhorst.pdf


Coward, Harold G.

The sphota theory of language: a philosophical analysis.


Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1980.


Coward, Harold.

“The meaning and power of mantras in Bhartrhari’s Vãkyapadiya.”

Studies in Religion Toronto 11.4 (1982): 365-375.


Coward, Harold.

“Derrida and Bhartrhari’s Vākyapadīya on the Origin of Language.”

Philosophy East and West 40.1 (1990): 3-16.


Coward, Harold G.

The philosophy of the grammarians.

Vol. 5. Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1990.






Pånini’s grammar: from meaning to utterance




Johannes Bronkhorst

Click to access 02e7e53a1c07adb71d000000.pdf



Staal, Frits.

Universals: Studies in Indian logic and linguistics.

University of Chicago Press, 1988.


Staal, Frits.

“Oriental ideas on the origin of language.”

Journal of the American Oriental Society (1979): 1-14.


Staal, Frits.

Discovering the Vedas: Origins, Mantras, Rituals, Insights.

Penguin Books India, 2008.


Staal, Frits.

“The science of language.”

The Blackwell companion to Hinduism (2003): 348-359.


Cardona, George.

“Some principles of Pānini’s grammar.”

Journal of Indian Philosophy 1.1 (1970): 40-74.


On the structure of Pånini’s system

George Cardona


Click to access Cardona.pdf



Marco Ferrante


On movements of language−−within self, of self, about self, and between selves: Commentary on language and self

Lakshmi Bandlamudi


Staal, J. F.

“Sanskrit philosophy of language.”

History of linguistic thought and contemporary linguistics (1976): 102-136.


Sabda-Pramana: The Written and Spoken Word as Means for Right Knowledge.
An Issue of Nyaya Epistemology

Augustine Thottakara


Click to access P%20Pl%206%20Sabda-Pramana.Library%20Seminar.pdf


Language and Grammar

Click to access 334_03_05_09_KTPI_XII-Language.pdf


Economy and the Construction of the Sivasutras

Paul Kiparsky



Paul Kiparsky


Singh, Jaideva.

Spanda Karikas.

Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1980.


Dyczkowski, Mark SG.

“The Stanzas on Vibration.”

State of NY Press, Albany (1992).



“The Relationships Between Music and Language According to Hindu Theory.”

The World of Music 17.1 (1975): 14-23.


A Mathematical Analysis of Panini’s Sivasutras



Click to access petersen_jolli_proof.pdf

Mind, Consciousness and Quantum Entanglement

Mind, Consciousness, and Quantum Entanglement


From Quantum Physics in Consciousness Studies

We can conclude that consciousness is a quantum mechanical entity that can have an independent existence. It can localize in the human brain when the electron is in a particle state. This provides the necessary quantum mechanical base conducive for it to interact with and function in the brain. When the state changes to that of a wave, consciousness takes flight and starts floating. It takes away with it at least a part of the contents of the memory. It possesses the ability to acquire visual, auditory and olfactory information in spite of the fact that there are no sense organs associated with it. This information is produced by the consciousness projection of a different reality caused by the change in state of the electron, which one may interpret later as a dream or hallucination that comes from an altered perception of reality.

The major stumbling block in solving the brain-mind problem is how does the brain-mind bind together millions of dissimilar neuron activities into an experience of a perceptual whole. How does the “I” or “self” or the perceived wholeness of one’s world emerge from a system consisting of so many parts, billions of neurons. What creates the “Oneness” of thought processes? What creates individuality and I-ness or “self”? What creates feelings, free will, and creativity? The eternal consciousness.

No mechanistic system consisting of separate interacting parts could give rise to the above. What are the structures in the brain that create the property which grant us access to the quantum realm? This is a good question and once this is known by all mankind, mankind will change. It has become clear that to explain this theory, one has to consider the most highly ordered and highly unified structures possible in the universe. The structure that possesses both characters, the most highly ordered and most highly unified is the Bose-Einstein condensate.

In classical science, the most ordered structure that we can find is the crystal. Crystals are rigid, immovable structures. In Bose-Einstein condensates, the quantum properties allow both a “fluid” order and a high degree of unity. Each particle in a Bose-Einstein condensate fills all the space and all the time in whatever container that holds the condensate. Many of their characteristics are correlated. They behave holistically as one. The condensate acts as one single particle. There is no “noise” or interference between separate parts. This is why super fluids and super conductors have their special frictionless qualities and lasers become so coherent. Super conductors, super fluids, and lasers are Bose-Einstein condensates. The photons of a laser beam overlap their boundaries and behave as one single photon and the whole system can be described by a single equation. Hence, the part always includes the whole like in fractal geometry.

Super conductors, super fluids, and lasers are either very low temperature or very high energy systems. Super conductors and super fluids loose their quantum coherence long before they reach room temperature. Quantum coherence at body temperature in body cells was found by Herbert Frohlich. Prior to that, quantum physicist Fritz Popp discovered that biological tissue emits a weak glow when stimulated at the right energy levels.

Cell walls of biological tissue contain countless proteins and fat molecules which are electrical dipoles. When a cell is at rest, these dipoles are out of phase and arrange themselves in a haphazard way. But when they are stimulated they begin to oscillate or jiggle intensely and broadcast a tiny microwave signal. Frolich found that when the energy flowing through the cell reaches a certain critical level, all the cell wall molecular dipoles line up and come into phase. They oscillate in unison as though they are suddenly coordinated. This emergent quantum field is a Bose-Einstein condensate and has holistic properties common to any quantum field (Fig.50). Consciousness may work in a similar matter.


Key Concepts:

  • Non-locality
  • Information Field
  • Classical-Quantum Divide
  • Akashic Field
  • Holographic Brain
  • Holographic Universe
  • Quantum Consciousness
  • Entangled Minds
  • Morphic Resonance
  • Implicate Order
  • Decoherence-Coherence
  • Wave-Particle Duality
  • Quantum Entanglement
  • Superpositions
  • Quantum Tunneling
  • Fractal Universe
  • Quantum Biology
  • Relational QM
  • Biofield



Key People:

  • Anton Zeilinger
  • Markus Arndt
  • Koichiro Matsuno
  • David Bohm
  • Rupart Sheldrake
  • Roger Penrose
  • Ervin Laszlo
  • Deepak Chopra
  • Subhash Kak
  • Karl Pribram
  • Amit Goswami
  • David Chalmers
  • Ralph Abraham
  • Stuart Hameroff
  • Ken Wilber
  • Dean Radin
  • S Grof
  • Stuart Kaufman
  • Dirk K. F. Meijer
  • Simon Raggett
  • Hans J H Geesink
  • Max Tegmark
  • Menas C. Kafatos



Key Sources of Research:


Crucial Role of Quantum Entanglement in Bulk Properties of Solids


Click to access 0410138.pdf


The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics

G. A. D. Briggs, J. N. Butterfield, A. Zeilinger

Click to access 20130299.full.pdf


Studies of Quantum Entanglement in 100 Dimensions

Mario Krenn  Marcus Huber, Robert Fickler, Radek Lapkiewicz, Sven Ramelow, Anton Zeilinger

Click to access 00463520400b3307c2000000.pdf




Click to access oct2012_zeilinger.pdf


Organic Molecules and Decoherence Experiments in a Molecule Interferometer

M. Arndt, L. Hackermu ̈ller, K. Hornberger, and A. Zeilinger


Click to access 2004-14.pdf


The wave nature of biomolecules and fluorofullerenes


Lucia Hackermu ̈ller, Stefan Uttenthaler, Klaus Hornberger, Elisabeth

Reiger, Bj ̈orn Brezger,∗ Anton Zeilinger, and Markus Arndt


Click to access 0309016.pdf


 Quantum interference experiments with large molecules

Olaf Nairz, Markus Arndt, and Anton Zeilinger


Click to access (2003)_Quantum%20interference%20experiments%20with%20large%20molecules.pdf


Interferometry with Macromolecules: Quantum Paradigms Tested
in the Mesoscopic World

Markus Arndt, Olaf Nairz, Anton Zeilinger


Click to access 2002-02.pdf


The essence of entanglement

Cˇaslav Brukner, Marek Z ̇ ukowski and Anton Zeilinger


Click to access 0106119.pdf


Quantum biology

Neill Lambert, Yueh-Nan Chen, Yuan-Chung Cheng, Che-Ming Li, Guang-Yin Chen2 and Franco Nori

Click to access nphys2474.pdf


Quantum physics meets biology

Markus Arndt, Thomas Juffmann, and Vlatko Vedral


Biological Memories and Agents as Quantum Collectives

Subhash Kak


Nontrivial quantum and quantum-like effects in biosystems: Unsolved questions and paradoxes

Alexey V. Melkikh , Andrei Khrennikov

Click to access 55af0bd008aee0799220efda.pdf


A Broader Perspective about Organization and Coherence in Biological Systems

Martin Robert


Click to access 1212.0334.pdf





Vibrations, Quanta and Biology


S. F. Huelga and M. B. Plenio

Click to access 1307.3530v1.pdf


Quantum effects in biology

Graham R. Fleminga*, Gregory D. Scholesb, Yuan-Chung Cheng

Click to access 2011%20Fleming%20ProcediaChemistry3.pdf



Alfred Driessen


Click to access 1109.2584.pdf


Quantum Physics in Consciousness Studies

Dirk K. F. Meijer and Simon Raggett

Click to access Quantum-Ph-rev-def-2.pdf


Quantum Biology and Entanglement


Click to access 1407.0184v1.pdf


Laszlo, Ervin.

The interconnected universe: Conceptual foundations of transdisciplinary unified theory.

World Scientific, 1995.


Laszlo, Ervin.

Connectivity Hypothesis, The: Foundations of an Integral Science of Quantum, Cosmos, Life, and Consciousness.

SUNY Press, 2010.


Laszlo, Ervin.

Science and the Akashic field: An integral theory of everything.

Inner Traditions/Bear & Co, 2007.


Laszlo, Ervin.

Science and the reenchantment of the cosmos: The rise of the integral vision of reality.

Inner Traditions/Bear & Co, 2006.


Laszlo, Ervin, and Kingsley L. Dennis.

Dawn of the Akashic Age: New Consciousness, Quantum Resonance, and the Future of the World.

Inner Traditions/Bear & Co, 2013.


Laszlo, Ervin.

“The self-actualizing cosmos.” The Akasha Revolution in Science and Human Consciousness.

Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions (2014).


Laszlo, Ervin.

“Information in the Universe and in the Organism.”

World Futures (2016): 1-6.


Joye, S. R.




Meijer, Dirk KF.

“The Universe as a Cyclic Organized Information System: John Wheeler’s World Revisited.”

NeuroQuantology 13.1 (2015).


Geesink, Hans JH, and Dirk KF Meijer.

“Quantum Wave Information of Life Revealed: An Algorithm for Electromagnetic Frequencies that Create Stability of Biological Order, With Implications for Brain Function and Consciousness.”

NeuroQuantology 14.1 (2016).


Biofield Science: current physics perspectives

Menas C. Kafatos, PhD; Gaétan Chevalier, PhD; Deepak Chopra, MD; John Hubacher, MA; Subhash Kak, PhD; Neil D. Theise, MD


Click to access gahmj.2015.011.suppl.pdf


From Quanta to Qualia: How a Paradigm Shift Turns Into Science.

Deepak Chopra  Menas C. Kafatos


Fundamental awareness: A framework for integrating science, philosophy and metaphysics

Neil D. Theise & Menas C. Kafatos

Society as Communication: Social Systems Theory of Niklas Luhmann

Society as Communication: Social Systems Theory of Niklas Luhmann


From Luhmann Reconsidered: Steps Towards an Empirical Research Programme in the Sociology of Communication?

Although Luhmann formulated with modesty and precaution, for example in Die Wissenschaft der Gesellschaft (1990a, at pp. 412f.), that his theory claims to be a universal one because it is self-referential, the “operational closure” that follows from this assumption easily generates a problem for empirical research. Can a theory which considers society— and science as one of its subsystems—operationally closed, nevertheless contribute to the project of Enlightenment which Popper (1945) so vigorously identified as the driver of an open society? How can a theory which proclaims itself to be circular and universal nevertheless claim to celebrate “the triumph of the Enlightenment” (Luhmann, 1990a, at p. 548)? Is the lack of an empirical program of research building on Luhmann’s theory fortuitous or does it indicate that this theory should be considered as a philosophy rather than a heuristic for the explanation of operations in social systems?

In my opinion, Luhmann’s sociological theory of communications contains important elements which have hitherto not sufficiently been appreciated in the empirical traditions of sociology and communication studies (Leydesdorff, 1996; Seidl & Becker, 2006; Grant, 2007). Anthony Giddens (1984, at p. xxxvii), for example, had no doubt that “these newer versions of Parsonianism, particularly Luhmann and Habermas, were to be repudiated despite the sophistication and importance of these authors.” However, Giddens focused on explaining action; social structure was black-boxed in his “structuration theory” as a “duality” which precedes action as “rules and resources,” and follows from the aggregation of human actions, for example, as institutions (Leydesdorff, 1993). According to Giddens (1984), social structures exist in social reality only by implication, i.e., in their “instantiation” in the knowledgeable activities of situated actors. This duality of social structure cannot be specified empirically without reference to actions and institutions because structure is considered “outside of time-space” (Giddens, 1981, at pp. 171f.) and as an “absent set of differences” (Giddens, 1979, at p. 64).

Giddens’s “virtuality” of structure can also be considered as a dynamic extension of the sociological concept of latency (Lazersfeld & Henry, 1968): the structural dimensions of a social network system are not manifest to participating agents. The agents may be able to conjecture these dimensions reflexively, but predictably to a variable extent. However, Luhmann (1984) theorized about social systems of communication as structural, yet not directly observable dynamics;1 human agents (“consciousness”) were defined as the (structurally coupled and therefore necessary) environment of systems of social coordination (Luhmann, 1984, 1986a, 2002). Nevertheless, the communicative competencies of the agents and their knowledge base can be expected to set limits to their capacity to (a) understand the signals in the network and also the situational meaning in which the network structure resounds, (b) decompose these two dimensions (that is, the information contents of messages and their meaning), and (c) participate in further communication by reflexive restructuration of this relation—between the information contents of messages and their meaning—in follow-up communications. The two systems layers (“consciousness” and “communication”) can be considered as reflexively co-evolving (or not!). This is appreciated by Luhmann (1977)—following Parsons (1968, at p. 437)—as “interpenetration.”


Key Ideas:

  • Society as Communication
  • Self Referentiality
  • Meaning and Language
  • Social Autopoiesis
  • Society as Social System


Key People:

  • Dirk Baecker
  • Niklas Luhmann
  • Loet Leydesdorff
  • Klaus Krippendorff



Key Sources of Research:


Systemic Theories of Communication

Dirk Baecker


Niklas Luhmann and Cybernetics

Michael Paetau



Communication and Language in Niklas Luhmann’s Systems-Theory

Kathrin Maurer

Click to access a02n16.pdf


Rewriting Theory: From Autopoiesis to Communication

Raf Vanderstraeten




How Recursive is Communication

Heinz Von Foerster

Click to access Luhmann.pdf


Luhmann, Habermas, and the Theory of Communication

Loet Leydesdorff


Luhmann Reconsidered:
Steps Towards an Empirical Research Programme in the Sociology of Communication?

Loet Leydesdorff

Click to access 0911.1041.pdf



Loet Leydesdorff



Loet Leydesdorff


Information, Meaning, and Intellectual Organization in Networks of Inter-Human Communication 

Loet Leydesdorff

Click to access 1406.5688.pdf


Radical Constructivism and Radical Constructedness: Luhmann’s Sociology and the Non-linear Dynamics of Expectations

Loet Leydesdorff


Click to access v13Feb12.pdf


Communication, Music, and Speech about Music

Steven Feld

Click to access 1984+Comm%2C+Music%2C+Sp.pdf


A Recursive Theory of Communication

Klaus Krippendorff


Geometry of Consciousness

Geometry of Consciousness


From Synergetics : Geometry of Thinking


0.1 “Synergetics is the geometry of thinking. How we think is epistemology, and epistemology is modelable; which is to say that knowledge organizes itself geometrically…” (I, 905.01)

0.2 “Any conceptual thought is a system and is structured tetrahedrally. This is because all conceptuality is polyhedral.” (I, 501.101) “By tetrahedron, we mean the minimum thinkable set that would subdivide Universe and have interconnectedness where it comes back upon itself.” (I, 620.03)

0.3 “All systems are polyhedra: All polyhedra are systems.” (II, 400.56)


Key People:

  • Ralph Abraham
  • BuckMinster Fuller
  • Stafford Beer
  • Arthur M. Young
  • Anthony Judge
  • Hermann Haken



Key Sources of Research:


Dynamics: Geometry of Behavior

Ralph Abraham

Click to access ms22.pdf

Click to access ms149.pdf

Click to access ms148.pdf

Click to access ms147.pdf

Click to access ms146.pdf

Click to access ms145.pdf

Click to access ms144.pdf

Click to access ms143.pdf

Click to access ms140.pdf

Click to access ms139.pdf

Click to access ms137.pdf

Click to access ms134.pdf

Click to access ms134b.pdf

Click to access rmic-pub.pdf

Click to access rmkplusfigs.pdf


Synergetics : Geometry of Thinking

BuckMinster Fuller

Click to access folding.great.circles.2008.pdf


Anthony Judge


Team Syntegrity

Stafford Beer

Click to access TSI-Artikel.pdf

Click to access Stafford_Beer_-_Origins_Team_Syntegrity.pdf




Click to access Kroeger.pdf


Geometry of Meaning

Arthur Young


The Reflexive Universe: Evolution of Consciousness

Young, Arthur M.



Consciousness: The Last Frontier of Geometry

Catherine A. Gorini


Click to access gorini_frontier91594.pdf


Mereon Matrix

Click to access 756449251.pdf

Click to access Quaternions-Phoenix-Bird-presentation-v14.pdf