USA and China: What are Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Balances

USA and China: What are Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Balances

 

Changes in Global Trade

  • Global Value Chains
  • Production Fragmentation
  • Vertical Specialization
  • Value added content of Trade

 

FROM INTERCONNECTED ECONOMIES : BENEFITING FROM INDUSTRY GLOBALISATION

TIVA4TIVA5

 

From Domestic Value Added in Chinese Exports

 

TIVA12

 

From Measurement and Determinants of Trade in Value Added

 

TIVA11

 

From OECD WTO TIVA

TIVA13

 

Ongoing TiVA Projects

  • OECD TIVA Initiative
  • EU FIGARO Initiative
  • NA TIVA Initiative
  • APEC TiVA Initiative

 

There is also OECD TiVA – MNE Project which incorporates Intra Firm trade of MNEs.

 

From An Overview on the Construction of North American Regional Supply-Use and Input-Output Tables and their Applications in Policy Analysis

Introduction

Trade-in-Value Added (TiVA) is a statistical approach used to measure the interconnectivity and marginal contribution in production of participating economies in global value chains (GVCs) (Degain and Maurer, 2015). The advantage of TiVA over traditional trade statistics is that TiVA measures trade flows consistent with internationally, vertically integrated global production networks, often called GVCs. TiVA statistics allow us to better analyze three aspects of international trade: measuring the contribution of domestic versus foreign intermediates in the exports, tracing production across countries to their final destination, and finally quantifying how individual industries contribute to producing exports (Lewis, 2013).

TiVA statistics allow us to map and quantify the interdependencies between industries and economies, and help us develop better estimates of the contribution from each country in the production processes and, consequently, better measure the impact from GVC engagement for domestic economies. However, it is necessary to highlight the underlying compilation methodology of TiVA in order to better understand the characteristics, scope and interpretation of TiVA. Hence, it is important to remember that TiVA statistics are estimated statistics that are derived, in part, from official statistics. TiVA statistics are meant to complement but not to replace official statistics.

Measuring trade flows in value added as opposed to gross value of trade flows has become increasingly important as the influence that GVCs has on international trade continues to rise. (Johnson, 2014; Ahmad and Ribarsky, 2014). The proliferation of GVCs means that production has become increasingly fragmented and vertically integrated across countries (Jones and Kierzkowski, 1988; Hummels, Ishii, and Yi, 2001; OECD, 2013). At the micro level, this means that many firms in disparate countries are interconnected. Across international borders, these firms take part in particular stages of the production process, together forming a global supply chain. As a result, intermediate inputs may cross international borders several times before being used to produce final consumable goods. This matters for several reasons. First, when goods cross multiple borders multiple times, they are exposed to more trade costs, which accumulate and compound before the goods are sold for final consumption. Additionally, traditional gross trade flows are overstated because gross trade flows may count intermediates multiple times. Relatedly, gross trade flows obscure the marginal contributions of countries along GVCs. TiVA measures the flows related to the value that is added at each stage of production by each country and maps from where value is created, where it is exported, and how it is used, as final consumption or as an input for future exports. How we understand gains from trade from trade flows is fundamental, and value-added approaches lead to better understanding of GVCs and their role in international trade.

There are two ways to capture TiVA. The first method is a direct approach, which decomposes existing data on trade statistics. Johnson (2012) introduce a TiVA indicator using value-added to output ratios from the source country to compute the value-added associated with the implicit output transfer to each destination. Koopman, Wang, and Wei (2014) build on the literature in vertical specialization (e.g. Hummels, Ishii, and Yi 2001) and the literature on TiVA (e.g. Johnson and Noguera, 2012; Daudin, Rifflart, and Schweisguth, 2011) to implement a complete decomposition of a country’s gross exports by value added components. This work has evolved into a second, indirect method of capturing TiVA. The indirect method is employed in the regional North American supply-use table (NASUT) and the regional North American inter-country input-output table (NAIOT). Estimating TiVA this way relies on national and international input-output tables as well as bilateral trade statistics to derive the international intermediate and final supply-demand matrices. These matrices reveal the origin and use of goods and services produced and exchanged among the countries and industries within the table domain. Other major international input-output tables include the Asian International Input-Output (AIO) Tables published by the Institute of Developing Economies Japan External Trade Organization (IDE-JETRO), the Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) Tables published by the OECD, the World Input-Output Tables (WIOT) published by the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) project, and the Eora Multi-region Input-Output Database (Eora MRIO).

The studies based on the above two approaches have revealed a trend of rising foreign value-added content in international trade flows and the resulting implications for trade policies. Johnson and Noguera (2016) find that value-added exports are falling relative to gross exports, which means that double-counting is increasingly more common in trade flows. This is consistent with increased GVC activity. Hummels, Ishii, and Yi (2001) show that vertical specialization has grown about 30 percent and accounts for about one-third of the growth in trade from about 1970 to 1990.

In recent years, more than half of global manufacturing imports are intermediate goods and more than 70 percent of global services imports are intermediate services (OECD, 2013). This is relevant because tariffs (and other trade costs) have a higher impact on the cost of GVC activity. Each time an intermediate input crosses an international border as part of the production process, the input incurs trade costs. As first observed by Yi (2003), trade costs are compounded when intermediate goods cross borders multiple times to complete the production process. Rouzet and Miroudot (2013) demonstrate that small tariffs can add up to a significant sum by the time a finished product reaches its consumers. Other trade costs such as non-tariff measures also have such accumulative effect on downstream products.

What the literature indicates the trends in GVCs mean for trade flows, generally, are two-fold. First, with the growth of GVC activity, gross value of trade flows will continue to be larger than the value of final goods that cross borders. Second, trade policy designed with respect to gross trade flows could have the potential to be overly restrictive or even impose costs indirectly on domestic production. Trade-in-Value Added thus provides a supplementary, relevant reference for evaluating the economic effect of trade policies.

In this paper, we introduce the North American Trade-in-Value Added (NA-TiVA) project, a trilateral, multiyear initiative that aims to produce a regional TiVA database that maps the value chains connecting Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Furthermore, we introduce and discuss the project’s deliverables, the agencies involved, how the NA-TiVA project complements other ongoing TiVA initiatives around the world, the technical framework for producing a regional inter-country input-output table for the NA region, and the value of this work to resolving open policy questions within international trade.

Ongoing TiVA Initiatives

Currently there are three major ongoing global and regional TiVA projects that are related to the North America TiVA project. They are the World Input-Output database (WIOD), OECD-WTO TiVA, and APEC TiVA initiatives.

The World Input-Output database (WIOD): The official WIOD project ran from May 1, 2009 to May 1, 2012, as a joint effort of eleven European research institutions. It was funded by the European Commission. Under the official WIOD project, the accounting framework and methodologies of constructing the TiVA databases, as well as the first version of the World Input-Output database were developed. The database was officially launched in April 2012. Since then, two additional versions of WIOD databases, namely the 2013 and 2016 Releases, were published. The 2016 Released database covers 28 EU countries and 15 other major economies in the world for years 2000-2014 with 56 industries.

The OECD-WTO TiVA database: The Organization for Economic Cooperate and Development (OECD) and World Trade Organization (WTO) undertook a joint initiative on TiVA in 2013. Since then, two versions of TiVA databases have been released (2013 and 2015 release). The 2015 release of OECD-WTO TiVA database covers 61 countries and 13 regions, with 34 industries, for years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2008-2011.

APEC TiVA initiative: In 2014, APEC economic leaders endorsed the APEC TiVA database initiative, a four-year project co-led by China and the United States. Under this project, an APEC TiVA database would be constructed by the end of 2018, covering 21 APEC economies.

Each of these three major global and regional TiVA initiatives include Canada, Mexico, and the United States. In the light of this, why is there still a need for constructing the NA TiVA database? What kind of additional value can the NA TiVA project bring to this global and regional network of TiVA initiatives?

The NA-TiVA project was motivated by regional statistical developments and continuous improvements in compiling TiVA databases. The 2003 Mexican input-output table distinguishes trade flows by domestic producers and production undertaken in Maquiladoras, a tax-free, tariff-free special processing zone, which allowed the estimates of separate production coefficients and thus TiVA measures for these two distinctive zones in Mexico (Koopman, Powers, Wang, and Wei, 2010; De la Cruz, Koopman, Wang, and Wei, 2011). The government of Canada further highlighted the importance and relevance of global value chains in the publication of a book assessing the impact and implication of GVCs (Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, 2011); and as of the 2015 edition of the OECD’s ICIO tables, Mexico is broken out as Mexico Global Manufacturers and Mexico Non-Global Manufacturers. This NA TiVA project builds off of these developments.

Constructing inter-country input-output tables, or so called TiVA databases, requires the harmonization of national supply-use tables (SUTs) or input-output tables (IOTs) as well as bilateral trade statistics from different countries. However, the data produced by countries often vary greatly in the level of detail and differ in industry and product classifications. Thus, the more countries are included in a global or regional TiVA project, the higher level of aggregation would be required for the purpose of harmonization. With only three countries involved, it is feasible for the NA TiVA database to include more products and sectors than other global and regional TiVA projects.

Moreover, other factors, such as all three countries adopt the same industry and product classifications (e.g. using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)), and produce SUTS at similarly detailed levels, would ensure the compatibility of data components, and thus lead to better quality of the resulting NA TiVA database.

Finally, the NA TiVA project could synthesize the ongoing trilateral trade statistics reconciliation effort and produce better-quality balanced bilateral trade data to feed into other global and regional TiVA initiatives. One of the key inputs for constructing TiVA databases is balanced bilateral trade statistics. However, countries rarely report symmetric bilateral trade statisticsone country’s reported exports rarely equals its trading partner’s reported imports, and vice versa. To reconcile such asymmetries to produce balanced bilateral trade statistics, joint effort by both trading countries is warranted, including investigating the causes of asymmetries at detailed product level and making corresponding adjustment mechanically. However, global and regional TiVA initiatives often have to consider an incredible number of country pairs, making such an elaborate reconciliation practice rather infeasible. Thus, global and regional TiVA initiatives often turn to economic modelling to balance bilateral trade statistics which could be applied in a systematic way to all countries. Although such approach can be mathematically sound, the resulting data often require additional scrutiny, validation, and adjustment, as they do not always reflect the reality accurately. Canada, Mexico, and the United States have ongoing bilateral trade reconciliation. This NA TiVA project provides additional motivation and framework for this effort.

The History, Scope, and Major Objectives of the NA TiVA Initiative

In October 2014, the representatives from the United States, Canada, and Mexico met and kicked off the idea of constructing the NA TiVA database at a UN conference in Mexico. The main objective of this project is to construct the NA TiVA database by 2021 covering three NA countries with more detailed industry and firm information, and to improve the quality of TiVA measures for the value chains in the NA region.

The NA-TiVA project involves eight government agencies across the three NA countries: for Canada, Statistics Canada (STATCAN) and Global Affairs Canada; for Mexico, Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) and Banco de Mexico; and for the United States, the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), the U.S. Census Bureau (CENSUS), the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC), and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR).

In addition, because the resulting NA-TiVA database would be eventually integrated into the OECD-WTO TiVA database to improve the quality of information on the North American region, participants of the NA-TiVA project regularly meet with OECD representatives to harmonize TiVA database compilation methodologies, exchange data to synthesize the effort and ensure consistency across countries, and discuss best practices. Other international organizations, such as United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), and WTO, are often consulted as well for national account and trade statistics related issues.

Under the NA-TiVA initiative, three parallel work streams have been established: The trade in goods and services reconciliation team, which is tasked to produce balanced bilateral trade statistics for goods and services; the SUT team, whose goal is to harmonize the national SUTs and compile the regional NASUTs and NAIOTs; and the White Paper team, the goal of which is to produce documentation that outlines the conceptual methodology, identifies major technical issues, describes policy applications of a NA-TiVA initiative, and details project outputs as well as future work.

FROM INTERCONNECTED ECONOMIES :BENEFITING FROM INDUSTRY GLOBALISATION

 

TIVA6

 

 

From Supply-Use Tables, Trade-in-Value-Added Initiatives, and their Applications

TIVATIVA2TIVA3

Please see my related posts:

Understanding Global Value Chains – G20/OECD/WB Initiative

The Collapse of Global Trade during Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009

Development of Global Trade and Production Accounts: UN SEIGA Initiative

Trends in Intra Firm Trade of USA

Understanding Trade in Intermediate Goods

Intra Industry Trade and International Production and Distribution Networks

Production Chain Length and Boundary Crossings in Global Value Chains

 

Key Sources of Research:

The U.S.-China Bilateral Balance In Trade In Value Added

2017

https://seekingalpha.com/article/4048166-u-s-china-bilateral-balance-trade-value-added

 

 

 

 

Understanding the US-China Trade Relationship

Prepared for the US-China Business Council By Oxford Economics

January 2017

 

https://www.uschina.org/sites/default/files/OE%20US%20Jobs%20and%20China%20Trade%20Report.pdf

 

 

 

Implications and Interpretations of Value-Added Trade Balances

John B. Benedetto

2012

 

https://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/journals/implicationsand.pdf

 

 

The U.S.–China trade deficit—a value-added perspective

Demetrio Scopelliti

BLS

2013

https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2013/beyond-bls/pdf/u-s-china-trade-deficit.pdf

 

 

 

The value-added content of trade

Robert Johnson, Guillermo Noguera

07 June 2011

 

https://voxeu.org/article/value-added-content-trade-new-insights-us-china-imbalance

 

 

 

Trade in Value-Added

December 3, 2013

Logan Lewis

 

https://www.federalreserve.gov/econresdata/notes/ifdp-notes/2013/trade-in-value-added-20131203.html

 

 

 

 

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Wayne M. Morrison

Specialist in Asian Trade and Finance
April 2, 2018

FAS

https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33536.pdf

 

 

 

The China Shock revisited: Insights from value added trade flows

Adam Jakubiky Victor Kummritzz

June 30, 2017

http://www.etsg.org/ETSG2017/papers/jk_draft.pdf

 

 

 

 

Measurement and Determinants of Trade in Value Added

Nakgyoon Choi

2013

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2317706

 

 

 

 

OECD-WTO: Statistics on Trade in Value Added

OECD

https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/trade/data/oecd-wto-statistics-on-trade-in-value-added_data-00648-en

 

 

 

 

NAFTA, VALUE ADDED AND TRADE-IN-TASKS

Antonio Rodriguez-Lopez

http://usmex.ucsd.edu/_files/NAFTA-essays/nafta-essays-rodriguez-lopez.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added and the Value Added in Trade

Robert Stehrer

http://www.wiod.org/conferences/brussels/Stehrer_background_2.pdf

 

 

 

 

US Trade Wars with Emerging Countries in the 21st Century: Make America and Its Partners Lose Again

Antoine Bouët (International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C., and Groupe de Recherche en Économie Théorique et Appliquée [GREThA], University of Bordeaux, France)
David Laborde (International Food Policy Research Institute)

2017

https://www.parisschoolofeconomics.eu/docs/koenig-pamina/article_us_tradewars_bouet_laborde_2017.pdf

 

 

 

Measuring Value Added in the People’s Republic of China’s Exports: A Direct Approach.

Xing, Y.

2014.

ADBI Working Paper 493. Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute

https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/156348/adbi-wp493.pdf

 

 

 

 

International Trade Costs, Global Supply Chains and Value-added Trade in
Australia

Gerard Kelly and Gianni La Cava
RDP 2014-07

 

https://www.rba.gov.au/publications/rdp/2014/pdf/rdp2014-07.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added Revisited: A Comment on R. Johnson and G. Noguera,
Accounting for Intermediates: Production Sharing and Trade in Value Added

 

Masaaki Kuboniwa
January, 2014

 

http://www.ier.hit-u.ac.jp/Common/publication/DP/DP598.pdf

 

 

 

 

How iPhone Widens the US Trade Deficits with PRC

Yuqing Xing
And
Neal Detert

Nov 2010
http://www3.grips.ac.jp/~pinc/data/10-21.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in value added (TIVA)

2012

https://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/Documents/trade-in-value-added-2012.pdf

 

 

Global Value Chains (GVCs)

OECD

http://www.oecd.org/sti/ind/global-value-chains.htm

 

 

 

INTERCONNECTED ECONOMIES: BENEFITING FROM GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS

SYNTHESIS REPORT

OECD

https://www.oecd.org/sti/ind/interconnected-economies-GVCs-synthesis.pdf

 

 

 

TRACING THE VALUE ADDED IN GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS:
PRODUCT-LEVEL CASE STUDIES IN CHINA

UNCTAD

http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/ditctncd2015d1_en.pdf

 

 

 

 

The Growth of Chinese Exports:
An Examination of the Detailed Trade Data

Brett Berger
Robert F. Martin

US Federal Reserve

https://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/ifdp/2011/1033/ifdp1033.pdf

 

 

 

 

Comparing Trade Performance of China and India

Sarah Y TONG

http://www.eai.nus.edu.sg/publications/files/Vol1No1_SarahTong.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added : China

OECD WTO

2015

https://www.oecd.org/sti/ind/tiva/CN_2015_China.pdf

 

 

 

Value-Added Trade and Its Implications for International Trade Policy

Kemal Derviş, Joshua P. Meltzer, and Karim Foda

https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/value-added-trade-and-its-implications-for-international-trade-policy/

 

 

 

 

Bilateral Trade Balances with China: A Matter of Accounting

Submitted by Dana Vorisek

co-authors: Tianli Zhao

On Thu, 02/05/2015

http://blogs.worldbank.org/prospects/bilateral-trade-balances-china-matter-accounting

 

 

 

Value-Added Exports and U.S. Local Labor Markets:
Does China Really Matter?

Leilei Sheny
Peri Silvaz

WTO

August 2017

https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/reser_e/gtdw_e/wkshop17_e/silva_e.pdf

 

 

 

HOW MUCH OF CHINESE EXPORTS IS REALLY MADE IN CHINA? ASSESSING
DOMESTIC VALUE-ADDED WHEN PROCESSING TRADE IS PERVASIVE

 

Robert Koopman
Zhi Wang
Shang-Jin Wei

NBER

June 2008

http://www.nber.org/papers/w14109.pdf

 

 

 

 

GIVE CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE:
TRACING VALUE ADDED IN GLOBAL PRODUCTION CHAINS

Robert Koopman
William Powers
Zhi Wang
Shang-Jin Wei

September 2010

http://www.nber.org/papers/w16426.pdf

 

 

 

SPIDERS AND SNAKES:
OFFSHORING AND AGGLOMERATION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

Richard Baldwin
Anthony Venables

December 2010

http://www.nber.org/papers/w16611.pdf

 

 

 

TRADING TASKS: A SIMPLE THEORY OF OFFSHORING

Gene M. Grossman
Esteban Rossi-Hansberg

December 2006

http://www.nber.org/papers/w12721

 

 

 

 

PRODUCTION CHAINS

David K. Levine

December 2010

http://www.nber.org/papers/w16571.pdf

 

 

 

AN ELEMENTARY THEORY OF GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAINS

Arnaud Costinot
Jonathan Vogel
Su Wang

April 2011

http://www.nber.org/papers/w16936.pdf

 

 

 

TRADE-IN-GOODS AND TRADE-IN-TASKS:
AN INTEGRATING FRAMEWORK

Richard Baldwin
Frédéric Robert-Nicoud

April 2010

http://www.nber.org/papers/w15882.pdf

 

 

Measurement of Trade in Value-Added: using Chinese Input-output Tables
Capturing Processing Trade

Yang Cuihong1, Chen Xikang1, Duan Yuwan1, Jiang Xuemei1, Pei Jiansuo3, Xu Jian2,
Yang Lianling1, Zhu Kunfu1

 

https://www.statistics.gov.hk/wsc/STS024-P3-S.pdf

 

 

 

Adjusted China-US Trade Balance

Lawrence J. Lau, Xikang Chen and Yanyan Xiong

March 2017

http://www.igef.cuhk.edu.hk/igef_media/working-paper/IGEF/igef%20working%20paper%20no.%2054%20english%20version.pdf

 

 

 

Domestic Value Added in Chinese Exports

Hiau Looi Kee and Heiwai Tang

World Bank and Tufts University
December 2011

https://www.imf.org/external/np/seminars/eng/2011/trade/pdf/session2-tang-presentation.pdf

 

 

 

NETWORKS OF VALUE ADDED TRADE

2015
João Amador | Sónia Cabral

Bank of Portugal

https://www.bportugal.pt/sites/default/files/anexos/papers/wp201516.pdf

 

 

 

 

Processing Trade, Exchange Rates and China’s Bilateral Trade Balances

Yuqing Xing

Jan 2011

 

http://www.grips.ac.jp/r-center/wp-content/uploads/10-30.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added
WTO TiVA Profiles

Regional Workshop on
International Merchandise Trade Statistics
11-13 September 2017
Suzhou, China

UNSD

https://unstats.un.org/unsd/trade/events/2017/suzhou/presentations/Agenda%20item%2019%20(c)%20-%20WTO.pdf

 

 

 

 

FRAGMENTATION AND TRADE IN VALUE ADDED OVER FOUR DECADES

Robert C. Johnson
Guillermo Noguera

June 2012

http://www.nber.org/papers/w18186.pdf

 

 

 

 

TRACING VALUE-ADDED AND DOUBLE COUNTING IN GROSS EXPORTS

Robert Koopman
Zhi Wang
Shang-Jin Wei

November 2012

http://www.nber.org/papers/w18579.pdf

 

 

 

 

ORGANIZING THE GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN

Pol Antràs
Davin Chor

June 2012

 

http://www.nber.org/papers/w18163.pdf

 

 

 

 

OFFSHORING: GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM EFFECTS ON WAGES, PRODUCTION
AND TRADE

Richard Baldwin
Frederic Robert-Nicoud

March 2007

 

http://www.nber.org/papers/w12991.pdf

 

 

 

 

TRADING TASKS: A SIMPLE THEORY OF OFFSHORING

Gene M. Grossman
Esteban Rossi-Hansberg

December 2006

http://www.nber.org/papers/w12721.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added: Developing New Measures of Cross-Border Trade

World Bank

2013

http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/196231468326398562/pdf/786210PUB0REPL00Box377348B00PUBLIC0.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added

Maria Borga Jiemin Guo

BEA Advisory Committee

May 10, 2013

 

https://www.bea.gov/about/pdf/0613_borga_guo_trade_in_value.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in value added Concepts, applications and challenges

Training Workshop on Trade in Services Negotiations for AU-CFTA Negotiators
Nairobi, Kenya

WTO

http://unctad.org/meetings/en/Presentation/ditc-ted-Nairobi-24082015-WTO-liberatore-2.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value-Added: I-O approach and the domestic content of exports

UNSD

 

https://unstats.un.org/unsd/trade/globalforum/trade-value-added.asp

 

 

 

 

TRADE IN VALUE-ADDED: WTO-OECD DATABASE

Courtesy of Sébastien Miroudot (OECD)

UNESCAP

https://artnet.unescap.org/tid/artnet/mtg/cbtr9-sebastien.pdf

 

 

 

 

TRADE IN VALUE-ADDED: CONCEPTS, METHODOLOGIES AND CHALLENGES
(JOINT OECD-WTO NOTE)

OECD WTO

http://www.oecd.org/sti/ind/49894138.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added and the Value Added in Trade

WIOD

Working Paper Number: 8
Author: Robert Stehrer

http://www.wiod.org/publications/papers/wiod8.pdf

 

 

 

Measuring Trade in Value-Added

Draft Chapter 9

Meeting of Group of Experts on National Accounts –
Interim meeting on Global Production
Geneva, 3-4 April 2013

https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/documents/ece/ces/ge.20/2013/Working_Paper_9.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added: The Challenge of International Trade Statistics
With an Empirical Study on Trade in Norway and the Netherlands 2000-2012

Ida Helene Berg

https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/40975/BergIdaHelene.pdf?sequence=9

 

 

 

Trade in Value-Added and Comparative Advantage

DrRadford Schantz

25thINFORUM Conference
Riga

August 28-September 2, 2017

http://inforumweb.umd.edu/papers/conferences/2017/usa_schantz_2017_slides.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added: An East Asian Perspective.

Inomata, S.

2013.

ADBI Working Paper 451. Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute.

https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/156306/adbi-wp451.pdf

 

 

 

 

Global Value Chains and Trade in Value-Added: New Insights, Better Policies

Ken Ash

March 2013

 

https://www.worldeconomics.com/papers/Global%20Value%20Chains%20and%20Trade%20in%20ValueAdded_f7fe83a3-ec02-4180-9b02-04d1d85bb59a.paper

 

 

 

OECD WORK ON GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS AND TRADE IN VALUE ADDED

Koen De Backer

2013

http://bruegel.org/wp-content/uploads/imported/events/130627_de_backer.pdf

 

 

 

 

The Value-added Structure of Gross Exports and Global Production Network

Robert Koopman and Zhi Wang
United States International Trade Commission

Shang-Jin Wei, Columbia University, CEPR and NBER

https://www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu/resources/download/5839.pdf

 

 

 

Singapore’s Trade in Value Added:
Importance and Implication of Information from the OCED-WTO TiVA Database

Mun–Heng TOH

 

https://www.iioa.org/conferences/24th/papers/files/2582_20160412091_Singapore_TiVA.pdf

 

 

 

 

Value added and participation in Global Value Chains:
the case of Spain

Marta Solaz
Universitat de Valencia

Fourth World KLEMS Conference, 23-24 May 2016

http://www.worldklems.net/conferences/worldklems2016/worldklems2016_Solaz_slides.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added (TiVA): December 2016

OECD

https://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?queryid=75537

 

 

 

 

An Overview on the Construction of North American Regional Supply-Use and Input-Output Tables and their Applications in Policy Analysis

Statistics Canada
Anthony Peluso
U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
Gabriel Medeiros
Jeffrey Young
U.S. International Trade Commission
Ross J. Hallren
Lin Jones
Richard Nugent
Heather Wickramarachi

ECONOMICS WORKING PAPER SERIES
Working Paper 2017-12-A

https://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/working_papers/ecwp-2017-12-a-12-12-17-as-pdf_0.pdf

 

 

 

 

C. The rise of global value chains

World Trade Report

2014

https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/wtr14-2c_e.pdf

 

 

 

 

MEASURING VALUE IN GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS

Rashmi Banga

UNCTAD
May 2013

http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/ecidc2013misc1_bp8.pdf

 

 

 

 

Highlights and Challenges of Measuring Global Production

Tom Howells
Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee
Suitland Federal Center

June 9, 2017

https://www2.census.gov/adrm/fesac/2017-06-09/Howells-Presentation.pdf

 

 

 

 

Value added trade: A tale of two concepts

Robert Stehrer

The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw)
Version: 2012-12-09

December 10-11, 2012 – CompNet workshop
ECB Frankfurt, Germany.

 

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.361.9428&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

 

 

Summary Report of the Fifth Meeting of
APEC Technical Group of Measurement on TiVA under GVCs

August 2017

http://gvc.mofcom.gov.cn/Tjbh/inforimages/201709/20170901142536597.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in value added: do we need new measures of competitiveness?

Kirsten Lommatzsch, Maria Silgoner and Paul Ramskogler

2016

https://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp1936.en.pdf?54d5d8210e9e26ed5bf65d4279223622

 

 

 

 

Who Faces the Risk of Collateral Damage from U.S. Tariffs?

wells Fargo

March 2018

https://www.wellsfargo.com/assets/pdf/commercial/insights/economics/special-reports/collateral-damage-20180326.pdf

 

 

 

 

Supply-Use Tables, Trade-in-Value-Added Initiatives, and their Applications

William Powers

ADB Supply and Use Tables Validation Workshop

Bangkok, Thailand
30 June, 2016

https://wpqr4.adb.org/dm/atom/library/_Psut_RMain/document/_Psut_RPageLibrary48257E1F0010578E_D0819CE5DCD76117148257FE2002C81CC_ATiVA_5f2016_5fPowers.pdf/media

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 13. APPLICATIONS OF EXTENDED SUPPLY AND USE TABLES:
CONSTRUCTING GLOBAL SUPPLY AND USE AND INPUT-OUTPUT TABLES

UNSD

 

https://unstats.un.org/unsd/trade/events/2016/nov-newyork/presentations/thu/Chapter%2013%20-%20Applications%20for%20Global%20Tables.pdf

 

 

 

 

APEC: Trade in Value Added under Global Value Chains

Erich H. Strassner

2ndStatistics Conference “Measuring the Economy in a Globalized World”
Santiago, Chile
3-4 October 2017

http://www.bcentral.cl/documents/20143/926189/4.2.%28Strassner%29.pdf/d18bab8d-2331-3af2-fcc5-e877c1722880

 

 

 

CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE EXPANSIONS OF
TRADE IN VALUE-ADDED PROJECT IN OECD

Norihiko YAMANO

2016

http://indicadoreseconomicos.bccr.fi.cr/indicadoreseconomicos/Documentos/Foro_MIP/current_developments_trade_valueadded_yamano.pdf

 

 

 

 

Estimating Extended Supply-Use Tables in Basic Prices with Firm Heterogeneity for the United States:A Proof of Concept

Lin Z. Jones and ZhiWang (USITC)
James J. Fetzer, Thomas F. Howells III, Erich H. Strassner (BEA)

The Fourth World KLEMS Conference
Madrid, Spain
May 23-24, 2016

http://www.worldklems.net/conferences/worldklems2016/worldklems2016_Strassner_slides.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

Work Plan for the Technical Group for the Measurement of APEC TiVA Under GVCs
Purpose: Information

Submitted by: China, United States
First Committee on Trade and Investment Meeting
Clark, Philippines
3-4 February 2015

http://www.foodfti.com/Files/Name/CONTENT50694276526.pdf

 

 

 

 

APEC in 2014

https://www.eastwestcenter.org/sites/default/files/filemanager/pubs/pdfs/NewDirections/NewDirections-05apec.pdf

 

 

 

Global value chains and trade in value added

EUROSTAT

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Global_value_chains_and_trade_in_value_added

 

 

 

Services and Manufacturing : Patterns of Linkages

Expert Group Meeting on “Global Value Chains, Regional Integration and Sustainable Development: Asia-Pacific Perspectives”

12 Dec 2014 – UNESCAP, Bangkok

http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/EGM-Session%203-Andre%20Wirjo.pdf

 

 

 

The 3rd Capacity Building Workshop on Strategic Framework on Measurement of APEC TiVA under GVCs and its Action Plan

APEC

2017

https://aimp2.apec.org/sites/PDB/Lists/Proposals/DispForm.aspx?ID=2012

 

 

 

 

Capacity Building Workshop on Strategic Framework on Measurement of APEC TiVA under GVCs and its Action Plan

APEC

2016

https://aimp2.apec.org/sites/PDB/Lists/Proposals/DispForm.aspx?ID=1831

 

 

 

 

Enhancing Value Chains An Agenda for APEC

CSIS

2013

http://www.ncapec.org/publications/docs/EnhancingValueChains%20Report.pdf

 

 

 

Changing Patterns of Trade and Global Value Chains in Postcrisis Asia

Ganeshan Wignaraja

Juzhong Zhuang

Mahinthan J. Mariasingham

Madeline Dumaua-Cabauatan

2017

https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/225091/changing-patterns-trade-gvc.pdf

 

 

 

Global value chains in a changing world

Edited by Deborah K. Elms and Patrick Low

WTO

https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/aid4tradeglobalvalue13_e.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in value added: Concepts, estimation and analysis,

Javorsek, Marko; Camacho, Ignacio

(2015) :

ARTNeT Working Paper Series, No. 150

https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/145386/1/826594735.pdf

 

 

 

India’s Future in Asia: The APEC Opportunity

By Harsha V. Singh and Anubhav Gupta

 

https://asiasociety.org/files/ASPI_APEC_fullreport_online.pdf

 

 

 

Update on New Measurements of the Impacts of Globalization

James J. Fetzer and Thomas F. Howells III

Advisory Committee Meeting
Washington, DC
November 13, 2015

 

https://bea.gov/about/pdf/acm/2015/november/update-on-new-measurements-of-the-impacts-of-globalization.pdf

 

 

 

 

ASIA-PACIFIC
TRADE AND INVESTMENT REPORT 2016
Recent Trends and Developments

Shamshad Akhtar

Hongjoo Hahm

Susan F. Stone

Copyright © United Nations 2016

http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/publications/aptir-2016-full.pdf

 

 

 

 

Asia’s Rise in the
New World Trade Order
The Effects of Mega-Regional Trade Agreements on Asian Countries
Part 2 of the GED Study Series:
Effects of Mega-Regional Trade Agreements

 

https://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/fileadmin/files/BSt/Publikationen/GrauePublikationen/NW_Asia_s_Rise_in_the_New_World_Trade_Order.pdf

 

 

 

The role of different types of firms in GVCs

GGDC 25th Anniversary Conference

 

Stephen Chong, Rutger Hoekstra, Oscar Lemmers, Ilke Van Beveren, Marcel van den Berg, Ron van der Wal, Piet Verbiest

https://www.rug.nl/ggdc/events/conference2017/presentations/presentation_lemmers.pdf

 

 

 

GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS AND SOUTH-SOUTH TRADE

UNCTAD

http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/gdsecidc2015d1_en.pdf

 

 

 

 

Annex 5: Strategic Framework on Measurement of
APEC TiVA Under GVCs

APEC

http://mddb.apec.org/Documents/2014/SOM/SOM2/14_som2_049anx05.pdf

 

 

 

 

Estimating Extended Supply-Use Tables in Basic Prices with Firm Heterogeneity for the United States: A Proof of Concept

James J. Fetzer, Thomas F. Howells III, Lin Z. Jones, Erich H. Strassner, and Zhi Wang1

The Fourth World KLEMS Conference
Madrid, Spain
May 23-24, 2016

http://www.worldklems.net/conferences/worldklems2016/worldklems2016_Strassner.pdf

 

 

 

 “Participation of Developing Countries in Global Value Chains: Implications for Trade and Trade-Related Policies”

Kowalski, P. et al.

(2015),

OECD Trade Policy Papers, No. 179,
OECD Publishing, Paris

https://www.die-gdi.de/uploads/media/OECD_Trade_Policy_Papers_179.pdf

 

 

 

 

Complex Network Analysis for Characterizing Global Value Chains in Equipment Manufacturing.

Xiao H, Sun T, Meng B, Cheng L

(2017)

PLoS ONE 12(1):

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5231281/pdf/pone.0169549.pdf

 

 

 

A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

Maluck J, Donner RV

(2015)

PLoS ONE 10(7)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4510408/pdf/pone.0133310.pdf

 

 

 

Trends of the World Input and Output Network of Global Trade.

del RõÂo-Chanona RM, Grujić J, Jeldtoft Jensen H

(2017)

PLoS ONE 12(1):

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5270329/pdf/pone.0170817.pdf

 

 

 

World Input-Output Network.

Cerina F, Zhu Z, Chessa A, Riccaboni M

(2015)

PLoS ONE 10(7):

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4519177/pdf/pone.0134025.pdf

 

 

 

FAQ on GVCs: some answers from the Global I-O tables approach

Rita Cappariello,

 

https://www.centrorossidoria.it/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Rita-Cappariello.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

A Markovian model of evolving world input-output network.

Moosavi V, Isacchini G

(2017)

PLoS ONE 12(10):

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5655482/pdf/pone.0186746.pdf

 

 

 

 

Hierarchicality of Trade Flow Networks Reveals Complexity of Products.

Shi P, Zhang J, Yang B, Luo J

(2014)

PLoS ONE 9(6):

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048167/pdf/pone.0098247.pdf

 

 

 

International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

Shen B, Zhang J, Li Y, Zheng Q, Li X
(2015)

PLoS ONE 10(11):

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4646344/pdf/pone.0142936.pdf

 

 

 

THE EVOLVING GEOGRAPHY OF PRODUCTION HUBS AND REGIONAL VALUE CHAINS ACROSS EAST ASIA: TRADE IN VALUE-ADDED

G. Suder (Melbourne Business School), P. Liesch (UQ), S. Inomata (JETRO- IDE), I. Jormanainen (Aalto University) and B. Meng (JETRO- IDE and OECD),

For: Journal of World Business

 

https://minerva-access.unimelb.edu.au/bitstream/handle/11343/159095/The%20evolving%20geography%20of%20production%20hubs%20and%20regional%20value%20chains%20across%20East%20Asia-%20Trade%20in%20value-added.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

 

 

 

AN ICIO SPLIT ACCORDING TO DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN OWNERSHIP:
THE OECD TIVA-MNE PROJECT

Charles Cadestin, Koen De Backer, Isabelle Desnoyers-James,
Sébastien Miroudot, Davide Rigo and Ming Ye

OECD

2017

https://www.iioa.org/conferences/25th/papers/files/2757_20170515071_Cadestin_et_al_2017_ICIO_split_ownership.pdf

 

 

 

 

THE FIGARO PROJECT: THE EU INTER-COUNTRY SUPPLY, USE AND INPUT-OUTPUT TABLES

 

https://www.iioa.org/conferences/24th/papers/files/2504_20160519071_Item10-12_FIGAROproject.pdf

 

 

Identifying Heterogeneity in the Production Components of Globally Engaged Business Enterprises in the United States

James Fetzer and Erich H. Strassner

June 10, 2015

US BEA

 

https://www.bea.gov/papers/pdf/identifying-heterogeneity-in-the-production-components-of-globally-engaged-business-enterprises-in-the-united-states.pdf

 

 

The EU Inter-country Supply, Use and Input-Output Tables (FIGARO Project): Recent progress

Prepared by Eurostat

2017

https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/documents/ece/ces/ge.20/2017/3_-_FIGARO_project.pdf

 

 

Tracing value-added and double counting in sales of foreign affiliates and domestic-owned companies

Sebastien Miroudot and ming ye

Trade and Agriculture Directorate, OECD, Trade and Agriculture Directorate, OECD

14 March 2018

https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/85723/1/MPRA_paper_85723.pdf

 

Identifying Heterogeneity in the Production Components of Globally Engaged Business Enterprises in the United States

Prepared by Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce

2015

 

https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/documents/ece/ces/ge.20/2015/July/11_Identifying_Heterogeneity__US_.pdf

 

 

 

 

Estimating Extended Supply-Use Tables in Basic Prices with Firm Heterogeneity for the United States: A Proof of Concept (Draft)

Prepared by the United States

2017

 

https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/documents/ece/ces/ge.20/2017/7_-_Estimating_Extended_Supply-Use_Tables_in_Basic_Prices.pdf

 

 

TIVA: CONSTRUCTING THE ICIO TABLE AND FUTURE WORK

 

Fabienne Fortanier (Head of Trade Statistics, OECD) Christophe Degain (Senior Statistician, WTO)

OECD

https://ecastats.uneca.org/acsweb/Portals/0/Etraining_SUT/Session%2012_WTO-OECD%20SUT%20and%20ICIOT%20-%20Training%20module%20(ECA)%20-%20English%20Final.pdf

 

 

 

 

FIGARO
Full International and Global Accounts for Research in Input-
Output analysis
The EU Inter-country Supply, Use and Input-Output Tables

José M. Rueda-Cantuche

Isabelle Rémond-Tiedrez

Item 4, NAWG Meeting, Luxembourg, 11 May 2016

https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/documents/ece/ces/ge.20/2016/Item_4d_FIGARO_UNECE_new.pdf

 

 

 

OECD-WTO Trade in Value Added (TiVA) data: introduction

OECD

 

https://ecastats.uneca.org/acsweb/Portals/0/Etraining_SUT/Session%2011_WTO-OECD%20TiVA%20intro%20-%20Training%20module%20(ECA)%20-%20English%20FINAL.pdf

 

 

 

Trade and Investment Linkages in Global Value Chains: Insights from the new TiVA-MNE Dataset

OECD

2016

 

https://www.oecd.org/tad/policynotes/trade-investment-linkages-in-gvc.pdf

 

 

INTERCONNECTED ECONOMIES:
BENEFITING FROM INDUSTRY GLOBALISATION

Dirk Pilat,

Global Industry and Economy Forum 2013:
Fostering Industrial Innovation through
Creativity
Seoul, 24 June 2013

 

 

Calculating Trade in Value Added

Prepared by Aqib Aslam, Natalija Novta, and Fabiano Rodrigues-Bastos1

July 2017

IMF

https://www.imf.org/~/media/Files/Publications/WP/2017/wp17178.ashx

 

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Author: Mayank Chaturvedi

You can contact me using this email mchatur at the rate of AOL.COM. My professional profile is on Linkedin.com.

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