Color and Imaging in Digital Video and Cinema

Color reproduction and management is a key task in digital video and cinema production. Choices of hardware, software, and handoffs and handshakes in production process require control over color of an image or a video. This is a very complex task due to several reasons.

  • Complexity of Color and its measurement
  • Changing color and light conditions during shoot indoors and outdoors
  • Hardware and software encoded color standards are inconsistent. Cameras, displays and projectors all have different color specifications.
  • After shoot, the data recorded is processed using different softwares for editing, grading, compositing, CG rendering, animations, and special effects. These softwares require different data formats (Log vs Linear).
  • After processing video data is required to meet different deliverables in multiple formats for displays and projectors.
  • Archiving and storage of data requires specific color formats.
  • There are also subjective and artistic requirements to meet look and feel of the data.

My post is to bring these issues to light and to educate. I hope after reading this post you know little more about color and its management during digital video and cinema production.

Key Terms

  • ACES
  • LUT
  • REC709
  • REC2020
  • Color Gamut
  • CIE Chromaticies
  • CIE XYZ
  • ACES 1.1
  • ACES 1.2
  • Color Workflow
  • Premier Pro
  • Final Cut Pro
  • Davinci Resolve
  • Avid Media Composer
  • IDT
  • ODT
  • RRT
  • Maya
  • Nuke
  • After Effects
  • ITU
  • SMPTE
  • AECS
  • ACES AP0
  • ACES AP1
  • BT 709
  • BT 2020
  • BT 2100 in 2016 to include HDR
  • HDR High Dymanic Range
  • HDR 10
  • SLog3
  • Fusion
  • Resolve
  • After Effects
  • OCIO
  • IDT
  • ODT
  • RRT
  • Red
  • Arri
  • Sony
  • Canon
  • Octane
  • CG
  • Linear representation of light
  • Gamma Curve
  • Log Gamma Curve
  • Log Profiles
  • Dynamic Range
  • Linearize work flow
  • Wide Gamut color space
  • Rendering engines
  • VRay
  • Arnold
  • Redshift
  • Octane
  • Cinema 4d
  • Blender
  • EXR linearize
  • Reference Rendering Transform
  • Color Manager OCIO
  • SLog
  • ACES CC
  • ACES CCT
  • Wave Form
  • DaVinci Resolve
  • After Effects
  • FS7
  • Rushes
  • Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
  • American Society of Cinematographers ASC
  • Digital Cinema Initiatives DCI
  • Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers SMPTE
  • OpenColor IO
  • 32 bit per channel
  • 8 Bit
  • ACES CG Input
  • REC 709 Output

Human Vision

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Color Models of Human Vision

Please see my two previous posts.

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Digital Color and Imaging

Digital Color

Source: What is 4K, UHD, SLog3, Rec 2020

The process of capturing and reproducing images requires a collaboration of camera sensors, file formats, rendering technologies, and display or printer technologies. All of these have different ways and different capabilities of representing color and intensity. In addition, they are all different from how our eyes work which further complicates things. As a result, over the years, several standards and processes have been implemented to accomplish this. They all involve some aspects of how to capture and store colors, what range of colors can be dealt with and how to adjust intensity to best reproduce the real world. To understand the new 4k technologies, including SLOG3, HDR, Rec 2020 etc, an understanding of the following is needed.

  • Gamut
  • Bit Depth
  • Gamma
  • Gamma Correction
  • Color spaces

Color Gamut

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Color Capture in Digital Video and Cinema

Source: HOW DOES A DIGITAL CAMERA SENSOR WORK?

A modern digital camera’s sensor comes in one of two varieties generally. It will either be a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), or a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) sensor. The CCD type is mainly used in older models, but is still used on some modern cameras. Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages, but that is a topic for another article.

The most basic way you can understand how a sensor works is when the shutter opens, the sensor captures the photons that hit it and that is converted to an electrical signal that the processor in the camera reads and interprets as colors. This information is then stitched together to form an image. That is insanely over-simplified though.

The more complex answer is that a sensor is made up of millions of cavities called “photosites,” and these photosites open when the shutter opens and close when the exposure is finished (the number of photosites is the same number of pixels your camera has). The photons that hit each photosite are interpreted as an electrical signal that varies in strength based on how many photons were actually captured in the cavity. How precise this process is depends on your camera’s bit depth.

If we looked at a picture that was taken with just that electrical data mentioned earlier from the sensor, then the images would actually be in gray-scale. How we get colored images is by what’s known as a “Bayer filter array.” A Bayer filter is a colored filter placed over-top of each photosite and is used to determine the color of an image based on how the electrical signals from neighboring photosites measure. The colors of the filters are the standard red, green and blue, with a ratio of one red, one blue and two green in every section of four photosites.

Image for post
A graphic of light entering photosites with Bayer filters layered on. (graphic/Cambridge in Colour)

The red filter allows red light to be captured, the blue allows blue light in and the green allows green light in. The light that doesn’t match that photosites filter is reflected. This means that we are losing two-thirds of the light that can be captured and it is only of one color for each photosite. This forces the camera to guess what the amount of the other two colors is in each given pixel.

The data that is interpreted by the sensor with the Bayer filter array is what a RAW image file is.

The camera then goes through a process to estimate how much of each color of light there was for each photosite and colors the image based on that guessing.

Single Sensor Vs Multiple Sensors in Cameras

  • Sensor Type
    • CCD
    • CMOS
  • Sensor Size
    • Full Frame
    • APS-C
  • Sensor Numbers
    • Single – 1 CMOS or 1CCD
    • Multiple – 2CCD, 3CCD, 3CMOS
  • Sensor Pixels
    • 24 MP
    • 48 MP
  • Sensor Dynamic Range
    • Range of brightness sensor captures
    • 14 Stops
    • 20 Stops

A camera sensor can only capture a limited range of light. When a scene extends beyond that range of light, techniques such as filters, flash, and editing techniques can still create a dramatic, well-detailed image.

Comparison of different sensor sizes

Image Source: Camera Sensor Sizes Explained: What You Need to Know

Source: Camera Sensor Sizes Explained: What You Need to Know

Cameras with Single Image Sensor

With CFA Color Filter Array

  • Bayer CFA

Bayer CFA

Source:

Conversion of RAW files

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Cameras with multiple Image Sensors

Cameras with multiple sensors do not require Bayer CFA.

  • 3 CCD – Single color info per sensor
  • 3 CMOS – Single color info per sensor
  • 4 CCD – Single color info per sensor plus Near Infra Red (NIR) info

Color Spaces in the Digital Video and Cinema

Image Source: Common Color Spaces

Gamut of Color Spaces

Color Space is characterized based on how much of its gamut covers the CIE Chromaticity Diagram.

Image Source: Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Source: The Pointer’s Gamut
The coverage of real surface colors by RGB color spaces and wide gamut displays

Source: The Pointer’s Gamut
The coverage of real surface colors by RGB color spaces and wide gamut displays

Device Dependent Color Spaces

Capture Devices

Professional Cameras for Cinematography and Videography from

  • Sony
  • Canon
  • Arri
  • Red

Camera Sensor Dynamic Range

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Conversion of RAW to Video Formats

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Sony SLog Transfer Function

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Sony Transfer Functions

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Other Transfer Functions

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Sony Color Spaces

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Slog, Gamma, and Gamut

Source: Are S-Log and Color Space separate things?

S-log is a specific gamma, color space is a general term referring to gamuts. A very crude way of thinking is gamma refers to brightness and gamut refers to color.

It’s important to know which gamma and gamut you are recording in as this helps to ensure there is correct gamma and gamut mapping from capture to exhibition.

What is Gamma?

Gamma is also called Tone Mapping.

Source: What is 4K, UHD, SLog3, Rec 2020

Each pixel has a brightness level, which is the average of {red, green, blue} values, and this is called its luminance. In order to reproduce an image from capture to display, the luminance needs to be accurately reproduced. Since sensors and displays can have different luminance characteristics, there needs to be a mapping or relationship between a pixel’s numerical values and the actual luminance…this relationship is called the Gamma.

Linear Space is counter to Gamma Space or Log Space.

Log Space or Gamma Space

Log Curve simulates a non-linear curve. Log Color Profiles can be created for a camera.

  • Arri LogC
  • Cineon Dpx
  • RedLogFilm
  • Canon-Log

Source: LOG COLOR IN-DEPTH

Every professional camera manufacturer and almost every VFX and grading package has a Log workflow. Camera companies such as Arri, Sony, Canon, Red and many others implement their own flavors of Log color space. With the Log workflow it is possible to fit more dynamic range into an image and simulate nonlinear film response to light. The term Log is derived from the word logarithm, which is a fancy name for a function which outputs exponents for the given number.

Log Spaces of Different Brands

Source: LOG COLOR IN-DEPTH

Gamma Curve = Tone Curve = Log Curve

Log footage is an important part of the post-production workflow. Here’s what you need to know.

Source: UNDERSTANDING LOG AND COLOR SPACE IN COMPOSITING

As digital filmmaking becomes more and more affordable, technologies become increasingly available to colorists or post-production professionals. In this case, Log footage. The Log (logarithmic) color space has been around for quite a while. Initially high-end post houses used it with scanned film negatives in a color space called Cineon Log. Now, pretty much all camera manufacturers offer their own Log curve (or multiple). There is S-Log 2&3 (Sony), LogC (Arri), Canon LogV-Log (panasonic), Red LogfilmBlackmagic Log, etc. Each of them are different, usually tailored for the color science of the particular manufacturer’s products.

The biggest reason to use the Log color curve is how it retains the most dynamic range of information from the camera sensor (or film negative). It encodes what the camera sees logarithmically, meaning that the correlation between the exposure of the image (measured in stops) and the recorded image  is completely constant over a wider range. It utilizes more of the sensor’s information than a standard video curve because it’s saving as much data as possible rather than capturing specifically for the human eye or a video screen. This gives you much more color data to work with in post-production.

Linear Space

Source: Color Management/Blender

For correct results, different Color Spaces are needed for rendering, display and storage of images. Rendering and compositing is best done in scene linear color space, which corresponds more closely to nature, and makes computations more physically accurate.

Log Space to Linear Space Conversion

Source: LOG COLOR IN-DEPTH

In conclusion, to bring an image into the log color space all we need to do is to apply a logarithmic function which transforms values of pixels based on the log curves above. To linearize a log picture, we use an exponent function. Since the log color space is a mathematical transformation of values of pixels, it can be used with any types of file format, bit depth and channel. 

White Point

Is the color temperature of light. Outdoors, Indoor, Sunny, Cloudy conditions affect White Point. In Cameras white point can be adjusted depending on light conditions. D65 simulates daylight.

  • D50 – 5000 K
  • D60 – 6000 K
  • D65 – 6500 K

sRGB uses D65 vs ACES uses D60.

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

So do you understand these now?

  • LUT (Look Up Tables)
  • EOTF (Electro-Optical Transfer Function) – Linear to Non Linear or Log Conversion
  • OETF (Optio-Electro Transfer Function) – Log to Linear Conversion
  • Gamma Curve – Popular Name for EOTF
  • Gamma Correction
  • Log Curve (Non Linear Data)
  • Linear Curve (Linear Data)
  • High Dynamic Range HDR
  • Standard Dynamic Range SDR
  • White Point
  • IDT – Input Data Transform
  • ODT – Output Data Transform
  • Log LUT
  • f-Stops

A pair of Gamma and Gamut data is requied for encoding to display colors.

A device dependent RGB color space has standard primaries, gamma, and a whitepoint such as D50 or D65.

  • Primaries (R G B) for Color
  • Gamma for Luminance, and
  • White Point

Source: The Essential Guide to Color Spaces

Now that we’ve discussed these three parameters, here are some practical examples:

An Arri Alexa records media in Arri Wide Color Gamut, with an Arri Log C tone mapping curve, and a white point ranging from 2,000K to 11,000K.

A RED Dragon captures media in RedWideGamutRGB gamut, with a Log3G10 tone mapping curve, and a white point ranging from 1,700K to 10,000K (other gamut and gamma choices are available).

A cinema projector has a DCI-P3 gamut, a Gamma 2.6 tone mapping curve, and a standard illuminant D63 white point.

An SDR TV has a Rec 709 gamut, a Gamma 2.4 tone mapping curve, and a standard illuminant D65 white point.

Display Devices

  • Display Projectors
  • Television
  • Computer Monitors

Three advantages in newer display devices

  • Color
    • Color Space
    • Bit Depth
    • Gamma
    • Gamma Correction
  • Resolution
    • 4K vs 8K
  • Luminance
    • Nits

Image Source: What is 4K, UHD, SLog3, Rec 2020

Color Spaces used in Display Devices

Image Source: What is 4K, UHD, SLog3, Rec 2020

Display Resolution

Image Source: WHAT IS 4K, UHD, SLOG3, REC 2020

Bit Depth

Image Source: WHAT IS 4K, UHD, SLOG3, REC 2020

Color Specification using Color Management option in displays

Color Management in Digital Video and Cinema Production

In production of

  • Feature Film
  • Television
  • OTT
  • Live Production

SDR with REC 709 Color Space

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

SDR with S-Gamut3 and REC 2020

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Process Flow

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Live Production

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Image Source: WHAT IS 4K, UHD, SLOG3, REC 2020

Operations during Production Process
  • Shoot
  • Convert
  • Edit/Grading
  • Conforming
  • Compositing/Rendering/VFX/CG
  • Convert
  • Deliverables
Color Space Hierarchy in Process Flows

  • Scene Referred – Input data has higher priority
  • Display Referred – Output data has higher priority

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Source:

Process Flows in ACES

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Working with ACES

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

CG and VFX Process Flows

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

The ‘Parts’ Of ACES

Source: Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Even though ACES and its various transforms are quite mathematically complex, you can understand ACES better by understanding what each part or transform in the pipeline does.

Here’s the terminology for each of these transforms:

ACES Input Transform (aka: IDT or Input Device Transform)

The Input Transform takes the capture-referred data of a camera and transforms it into scene linear, ACES color space. Camera manufacturers are responsible for developing IDTs for their cameras but the Academy tests and verifies the IDTs. In future versions of ACES, the Academy may take on more control in the development of IDTs. IDTs, like all ACES transforms, are written using the CTL (Color Transform Language) programming language. It’s also possible to utilize different IDTs to compensate for different camera settings that might have been used.

ACES Look Transform (aka: LMT or Look Modification Transform)

The first part of what’s known as the ACES Viewing Transform (the Viewing Transform is a combination of LMT, RRT, & ODT transforms). LMTs provide a way to apply a look in a similar way to a Look Up Table (LUT). It’s important to note that the LMT happens after color grading of ACES data. Also, not every tool supports the use of LMTs.

RRT (Reference Rendering Transform)

Think of the RRT as the render engine component of ACES. The RRT converts scene referred linear data to an ultrawide display-referred data set. The RRT works in combo with the ODT to create viewable data for displays and projectors. While the Academy publishes the standard RRT, some applications have the ability to use customized RRTs (written with CTL). But many color correction systems do not provide direct access to the RRT.

ACES Output Transform (also known as the ODT or Output Device Transform)

The final step in the ACES processing pipeline is the ODT. This takes the high dynamic range data from the RRT and transforms it for different devices and color spaces. Like P3 or Rec 709, 2020, etc. Like IDTs and RRTs, ODTs are written with CTL.

Derivative Standards

Source: Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

There are also three main subsets of ACES used for finishing workflows called ACEScc, ACEScct and ACEScg:

  • ACEScc uses logarithmic color encoding and has the advantage of making color grading tools feel much more like they do when working in a log space that many colorists prefer.
  • ACEScct is just like ACEScc, but adds a ‘toe’ to the encoding. This means that lift operations respond similarly to traditional log film scans. This quasi-logarithmic behavior is described as being more milky, or foggier. ACEScct was added with the ACES 1.03 specification. It’s meant as an alternative to ACEScc based on the feedback of many colorists.
  • ACEScg utilizes linear color encoding and is designed for VFX/CGI artists so their tools behave more traditionally.

The ACES Pipeline

Source: Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Now that we’ve defined the transforms used for ACES, understanding how the various transforms combine to form an ACES processing pipeline is pretty straightforward:

Camera Data -> Input Transform -> Color Grading -> Look Transform (optional) -> Reference Rendering Transform -> Output Transform

As mentioned, ACES is a hybrid color management system of scene referred/scene linear and display referred data.

Source: Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Source: COLOUR MANAGEMENT BASICS

Source: COLOUR MANAGEMENT BASICS

Source: COLOUR MANAGEMENT BASICS

Source: COLOUR MANAGEMENT BASICS/Autodesk

Color Throttle

Because of bottlenecks in hardware and software, the color captured during the image/video capture process does not flow in its entirty to the displays of the users. Use of hardware and color spaces used during production process determines the output displayed. Color is thus throttled.

Color Throttle when using REC 709 Color Space

Image Source: BT.2020: How the Newest Color Range Standard Maximizes 4K Video Quality

Color Throttle when using REC 2020 Color Space

Image Source: BT.2020: How the Newest Color Range Standard Maximizes 4K Video Quality

Human Visual Dynamic Range Vs REC 2020 Range

Source: BT.2020: How the Newest Color Range Standard Maximizes 4K Video Quality

Source:

Softwares used in Post Production in Digital Video and Cinema

Source: digitalfilmpro.com

Video Editing Software and Hardware
  • Non Linear Editor
    • Avid Media Composer
    • Adobe Premiere Pro
    • Final Cut Pro
    • DaVinci Resolve – color correction plus NLE
    • Vegas Pro
  • Digital Audio Workstation
    • Avid Pro Tools
    • Apple Logic Pro X
    • Ableton Live 9
    • Cakewalk Sonar
    • Adobe Audition
  • Close-Captioning and Subtitling
    • Aegisub
    • NLEs
  • Edit Workstation
    • Edit Computer
    • Audio Equipment
    • File Sharing
      • KVM Extender
    • Editing Keyboard
    • Desk Chair
  • Digital Audio Transcipts

Creative Apps
  • RV
  • Adobe After Effects
  • Adobe Premiere Pro
  • SideFX Houdini
  • Unreal Engine
  • Unity
  • Perforce Helix Core
  • Adobe Creative Cloud
  • Adobe Illustrator
  • Autodesk 3DS Max
  • Autodesk Maya
  • Autodesk RV
  • Cinesync
  • Connect
  • Deadline
  • Foundry Hiero
  • Foundry Hiero Player
  • Foundry Nuke
  • Foundry Nuke Studio
  • Maxon Cinema 4D

Free Video Editing Tools
  • DaVinci Resolve
  • Lightworks
  • HitFilm Express
  • Avid Media Composer First
  • iMovie

Free Video Production Software Tools
  • Audacity – multitrack audio recorder
  • Ardour – DAW
  • GIMP- image editing
  • Blender – 3D Creation
  • Nuke Studio – Compositor – Node Based visual FX (VFX), editing, and finishing Studio
  • Blackmagic Fusion – Full feaured Compositor – Motion Graphics

3D Rendering Softwares
  • Unity
  • 3Ds Max Design
  • Maya
  • Cinema 4D
  • Blender
  • Keyshot
  • V-Ray
  • Lumion
  • SOLIDWORKS Visualize
  • Direct 3D
  • RenderMan
  • Redshift
  • Octane Render
  • Arnold
  • Maxwell
Color Management in Applications

Source: DISPLAY CALIBRATION & COLOR MANAGEMENT

Cameras for Video

Budget Cinema Cameras
  • Black Magic Pocket Cinema Camera
  • Black Magic Pocket Camera 4K
  • Z Cam E2C 4K Cine Camera MFT
  • Panasonic GH5

Best Cameras for Videographers

Source: Best cameras for videographers/DPREVIEW.COM

Published Nov 24, 2020

  • Panasonic Lumix DC – S1H
  • Panasonic Lumix DC-GH5
  • Canon EOS R6
  • Fujifilm X-T4
  • Nikon Z6
  • Nikon Z6 II
  • Panasonic Lumix Dc-GH5S
  • Sigma fp
  • Sony a7S III

Best 4K and 6K Cameras for Film making

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o0muduTpveM&t=244s

  • Sony Alpha a7 III
  • Panasonic Lumix GH5S
  • Sony PXW FSM2
  • Panasonic Lumix S1H
  • Blackmagic Pocket Cinema 6K
  • Canon EOS C300 Mark II
  • Panasonic AU-EVA1
  • Blackmagic Design URSA Mini Pro G2
  • Sony PXW FS9
  • Canon C500 Mark II

Best Camcorders for Videographers

Source: Youtube

  • Panasonic HC-X2000
  • Sony PXW-Z280
  • Canon XA55
  • Panasonic AG-CX10
  • JVC GY-HC500U
  • Sony PXW-Z90
  • Panasonic HC-X1
  • Canon XF 705
  • JVC GY-HM250
  • Sony FDR -AX700

My Related Posts

Digital Color and Imaging

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Key Sources of Research

Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Working with ACES in DaVinci Resolve

Oliver Peters

https://digitalfilms.wordpress.com/2020/10/02/working-with-aces-in-davinci-resolve/

Color Management and ACES Workflow

CG Cinematography

The Pointer’s Gamut
The coverage of real surface colors by RGB color spaces and wide gamut displays

Kid Jansen, Updated 19 February 2014

https://www.tftcentral.co.uk/articles/pointers_gamut.htm

ACES: Where Are We Now?

by Geoff Smith on August 14, 2020

https://www.abelcine.com/articles/blog-and-knowledge/tutorials-and-guides/aces-where-are-we-now

What is 4K, UHD, SLog3, Rec 2020

And other really boring things.

Compiled By Peter Morrone

BT.2020: How the Newest Color Range Standard Maximizes 4K Video Quality

BenQ

2020/05/29

https://www.benq.com/en-us/knowledge-center/knowledge/bt2020.html

Color Spaces in Visual Effects

Color Spaces

February 15, 2019

https://ciechanow.ski/color-spaces/

Chapter 1 Color Management

Color Spaces / MAYA/Autodesk

https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/maya/learn-explore/caas/CloudHelp/cloudhelp/2020/ENU/Maya-Rendering/files/GUID-4410C27C-BB49-491B-AD13-14F48A8CCAAE-htm.html

Elle Stone’s Well-Behaved ICC Profiles and Code

https://ninedegreesbelow.com/photography/lcms-make-icc-profiles.html

ACES Workflow

Common Color Spaces

Color for Motion Pictures and Games

From Design to Display
  • Haarm-Pieter Duiker
  • Alex Forsythe
  • Stefan Luka
  • Thomas Mansencal
  • Jeremy Selan
  • Kevin Shaw
  • Nick Shaw

A VES Technology Committee White Paper
2019

https://nick-shaw.github.io/cinematiccolor/common-rgb-color-spaces.html

Cinematic Color From Your Monitor to the Big Screen

A VES Technology Committee White Paper Oct 17, 2012

Color Enhancement and Rendering in Film and Game Production: Color Management

Joseph Goldstone Lilliputian Pictures LLC

COLOR CORRECTION HANDBOOK:
Professional Techniques for Video and Cinema

Second Edition 

Alexis Van Hurkman

Peachpit Press http://www.peachpit.com

Colour Appearance Issues in Digital Video, HD/UHD, and D‐cinema

Charles Poynton

Understanding Color Management,

Second Edition

First published:18 July 2018

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9781119223702

COLOR MANAGEMENT WITH CINEMA

Red

https://www.red.com/red-101/cinema-color-management

Digital Color Management

Encoding Solutions

Giorgianni, Edward J / Madden, Thomas E

The Basics of High Dynamic Range Media Explained [u]

Posted on July 27, 2019 by Larry

Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Sony

COLOUR REPRODUCTION IN ELECTRONIC IMAGING SYSTEMS

PHOTOGRAPHY, TELEVISION, CINEMATOGRAPHY

Michael S Tooms

Digital Camera Reviews and Sensor Performance Summary

by Roger N. Clark

https://clarkvision.com/imagedetail/digital.sensor.performance.summary/

How to Use Dynamic Range for Stunning Photos in Bright Light

2 CCD , 3 CCD cameras, 4 CCD and 3 CMOS Cameras

http://www.adept.net.au/cameras/2CCD_3CCD_Cameras.shtml

CCD Sensors, Albert Einstein, and the Photoelectric Effect

https://www.radiantvisionsystems.com/blog/ccd-sensors-albert-einstein-and-photoelectric-effect

Color Management for Photographers – A Simplified Guide

Camera Sensor Sizes Explained: What You Need to Know

https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/camera-sensor-size/

Reading 15: Color

http://web.mit.edu/6.813/www/sp18/classes/15-color/

The Fundamentals of Camera and Image Sensor Technology

Jon Chouinard

Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

Dr. Michael S. Brown

Digital Image Sensors

https://www.sensorland.com/HowPage090.html

Color Spaces, Log and Gamma

3.4 Color Spaces, Log and Gamma

LOG COLOR IN-DEPTH

Renderstory

Exploring the Basic Concepts of HDR: Dynamic Range, Gamma Curves, and Wide Color Gamut

Abhay Sharma

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/msid.1060

Understanding RGB Color Spaces for Monitors, Projectors, and Televisions

Abhay Sharma

First published: 26 March 2019

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/msid.1020

UHDTV – HDR and WCG

Understanding UHDTV Displays with PQ/HLG HDR, and WCG

https://www.lightspace.lightillusion.com/uhdtv.html

Color Management

https://docs.blender.org/manual/en/latest/render/color_management.html

Color Space Management: sRGB, Linear and Log

https://tiberius-viris.artstation.com/blog/3ZBO/color-space-management-srgb-linear-and-log

GAMMA AND LINEAR SPACE – WHAT THEY ARE AND HOW THEY DIFFER

https://www.kinematicsoup.com/news/2016/6/15/gamma-and-linear-space-what-they-are-how-they-differ

Are S-Log and Color Space separate things?

Understanding Log and Color Space In Compositing

RENDER COLOR SPACES

23 JUNE 2016

Anders Langlands

https://www.colour-science.org/anders-langlands/

Understanding High Dynamic Range (HDR) Imaging by Curtis Clark, ASC 

A Cinematographer Perspective

https://cms-assets.theasc.com/curtis-clark-asc-understanding-high-dynamic-range.pdf?mtime=20180502122857

Color Science Fundamentals in Motion Imaging

March 14, 2019 01:00 PM

https://www.smpte.org/events/color-science-fundamentals-in-motion-imaging

What is RAW Development?

Colour Management Basics

Autodesk Feb 2020

The Best Rendering Software for CG Lighting for Animation

by Tina Lee | Feb 14, 2019

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing

January 7, 2020

The Essential Guide to Color Spaces

Cullen Kelly

Dell Color Management Software

User Manual

Adjusting for the Scene Adopted White

White Point Conversion

https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/maya/learn-explore/caas/CloudHelp/cloudhelp/2016/ENU/Maya/files/GUID-2C925F6A-5A9C-4B2B-B732-90F4C3D2EB49-htm.html

A Complex Color Management Example

https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/maya/learn-explore/caas/CloudHelp/cloudhelp/2016/ENU/Maya/files/GUID-7D579180-1E60-43DD-BB9C-0C00D1968F53-htm.html

Common Color Management Scenarios

https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/maya/learn-explore/caas/CloudHelp/cloudhelp/2016/ENU/Maya/files/GUID-B2CD60E0-C100-45A4-9595-84D2DF98B268-htm.html

A Conversation about White Point and Digital Displays [Interview]

https://www.nanolumens.com/blog/an-imaginary-conversation-about-white-point-and-digital-displays/

Gamma and White Point Explained: How to Calibrate Your Monitor

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/symbiartic/how-to-calibrate-your-monitor/

Why is the media white point of a display profile always D50?

http://www.color.org/whyd50.xalter

Colour Management for Video Editors

Display Calibration & Color Management

https://www.mysterybox.us/blog/2017/9/7/display-calibration-color-management

Color Communication

How does a digital camera sensor work?

Digital Color and Imaging

Digital Color and Imaging

In my previous post, I focused on Industrial Color Technology as used in Process Industries such as Paint, Plastics, Textiles, Paper, and Printing.

There are several useful links in the references section to color introduction which will be beneficial to people interested in digital colors and imaging.

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

In this post, I have focused on another aspect of color technology as used in Digital Technology and Graphics Arts and Design Industry.

Devices for Digital Color and Imaging

  • Inkjet and Laser Printers
  • Displays on Desktop Computers and Mobile Devices
  • Television
  • Digital Cameras/Photography
  • Digital Video

Color Models

Not all color models listed below are device independent.

They represent human vision. These are international standards of color measurement. They were developed at diffrent times and are refinements on older models to mimic human vision and visual perception.

Image Source: COLOR PART 1: CIE CHROMATICITY AND PERCEPTION

RGB VS CMY Color Models

Image Source: BASICS OF COLOR IMAGING

List of Color Models

  • CIE x,y,Y
  • CIEXYZ
  • CIELAB
  • CIELCH
  • CIELUV
  • RGB
  • CMYK
  • HSB
  • HSV
  • HSL
  • HSI
  • YUV
  • YIQ
  • YCbCr
  • YPbPr

Color Models Classification

Image Source: UNDERSTANDING COLOR MODELS: A REVIEW

Uses of Color Models

Image Source: UNDERSTANDING COLOR MODELS: A REVIEW

Color Models Taxonomy

Image Source: UNDERSTANDING COLOR MODELS: A REVIEW

Image Source: COLOR IMAGES, COLOR SPACES AND COLOR IMAGE PROCESSING

Spot Colors Color Spaces

These color systems are used in Spot Printing in commercial printing applications.

  • ANPA
  • Colour Index International
  • DIC
  • PMS
  • FOCOLTONE
  • HKS
  • Munsell
  • NCS
  • Pantone
  • RAL
  • TOYO
  • Truematch

Image Source: A PRIMER TO COLORS IN DIGITAL DESIGN

Color Spaces

Are device dependent color models.

  • Adobe RGB 1998
  • sRGB
  • Apple RGB
  • ProPHOTO
  • Wide Gamut RGB
  • DCI-P3 or Display P3
  • P3 D65
  • P3 Theatrical
  • EBU Tech. 3213-E (Supersedes PAL)
  • oRGB
  • ECI RGB V2
  • ColorMatch RGB
  • Rec 2020
  • SWOP CMYK
  • HDTV RGB
  • NTSC RGB
  • CIE RGB
  • SGI RGB
  • PAL/SECAM RGB
  • SMPTE-240M RGB
  • SMPTE-C RGB
  • ACES RGB
  • Rec. 709 (ITU-R BT. 709)
  • Photo RGB
  • DCI-P3Pro
  • REC 209
  • scRGB
  • ROMM RGB
  • Arri LogC
  • RedWideGamutRGB
  • Bruce RGB
  • Ekta Space PS5
  • Don RGB 4
  • Beta RGB
  • Best RGB
  • Max RGB
  • Xtreme RGB
  • Ma RGBta

List of Color Spaces available in PhotoShop

Image Source: WHICH IS THE BEST COLOR SPACE FOR PHOTOGRAPHY: SRGB OR ADOBE RGB?

List of Color Spaces used in Videos/Cinema

Image Source: COMMON RGB COLOR SPACES

Color Gamut

Is range of color. Defines boundaries of color space. Number of Hues will be higher in a larger color gamut color space.

A color gamut is the defining a range of chromaticities—essentially a set of possible hues and their respective maximum saturations.

Image Source: UNDERSTANDING COLOR SPACE

Image Source: Beginner’s Guide to Color Space: RGB, CMYK, and Pantone

Color Management

Color spaces are used in

  • Capture of images, videos and Cinema
  • Editing and Processing of Images and Videos
  • Visual Displays on Computer Monitors, Phone and Tablet Displays, Digital Camera Displays, Digital Video Displays, Television, Cinema Screens, and LCD screens on Auto and Home appliances.
  • Printing of Images on Ink Jet printers, Laser printers, Screen Printing, Offset Printing etc.

Flows of Images from

  • Capture to Editing
  • Editing to Viewing on Media Devices
  • Editing to Printing on Media
  • Editing to Storage on Media Devices

Image Source: COLOR SPACE

Color Spaces used for different stages of the process

  • Capture – For Stills – Adobe RGB, sRGB; For Video -YUV
  • Editing – ProPhoto, Adobe RGB, sRGB, CIEXYZ, YUV
  • Viewing – sRGB
  • Printing – CMYK
  • Storage – sRGB, Adobe RGB, YUV, CMYK

Color Profiles

Color profiles define the specific color space (e.g. Adobe RGB) of a document or device. The terms color profile and color space are often used interchangeably.

Image Source: Digital Color Workflows and the
HP DreamColor LP2480zx Professional LCD Display

Please see the link below to learn about embedded color profiles. Since Color spaces are different, the tagged color profile is required for uniformity of image across different color spaces.

Color Filters

  • Bayer Array
  • Foveon X3

Source: COLOR FILTER ARRAY/Wikipedia

Color filters are needed because the typical photosensors detect light intensity with little or no wavelength specificity, and therefore cannot separate color information.[1] Since sensors are made of semiconductors they obey solid-state physics.

The color filters filter the light by wavelength range, such that the separate filtered intensities include information about the color of light. For example, the Bayer filter (shown to the right) gives information about the intensity of light in red, green, and blue (RGB) wavelength regions. The raw image data captured by the image sensor is then converted to a full-color image (with intensities of all three primary colors represented at each pixel) by a demosaicing algorithm which is tailored for each type of color filter. The spectral transmittance of the CFA elements along with the demosaicing algorithm jointly determine the color rendition.[2] The sensor’s passband quantum efficiency and span of the CFA’s spectral responses are typically wider than the visible spectrum, thus all visible colors can be distinguished. The responses of the filters do not generally correspond to the CIE color matching functions,[3] so a color translation is required to convert the tristimulus values into a common, absolute color space.[4]

Source: COLOR FILTER ARRAY/Wikipedia

Color BIT Depth

Defines details of a color image. More bit depth means more data storage per pixel of screen.

Color Gamut and Bit Depth defines color of an image.

What color Gamut was used and what bit depth was used in creating, editing, viewing, printing, and storing of an image?

Source: Human Vision and Digital Color Perception

The bit depth is what determines the color information of a digital image. The more bits stored in a pixel, the more information is stored and the greater the detail in color. The following is a guide of how many colors can be represented based on the number of bits.

1 Bit — 2 colors (Monochrome)
8 Bit — 256 colors (Low Color)
16 Bit — 65536 colors (High Color)
24 Bit — 16777216 colors (True Color)

Image Source: INTRODUCTION TO BASIC MEASURES OF A DIGITAL IMAGE FOR PICTORIAL COLLECTIONS

Rendering Intent

Image Source: A Breakdown Of Color Spaces | You Really Should Have A Grasp On This

Image Source: Choosing a color space: sRGB, Adobe RGB and ProPhoto RGB

Image Format during Image Capture

  • RAW
  • JPEG
  • JPEG2000

Using Color Filter Array, the color data is captured in RAW form. It then is converted to JPEG image file format.

Image Source: UNDERSTANDING DIGITAL RAW CAPTURE

Process Flows In Digital Color Imaging System

Image Source: SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION IN DIGITAL COLOR IMAGING

Digital Color Terminology

Image Source:

My Related Posts

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Key Sources of Research

Basics of Color Imaging

Yao Wang

Introduction to Color Imaging Science

HSIEN-CHE LEE

Digital Color Imaging

Gaurav Sharma, Member, IEEE, and H. Joel Trussell, Fellow, IEEE

Digital Color Imaging Handbook

Edited By Gaurav Sharma, Gaurav Sharma, Raja Bala

https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781315220086/chapters/10.1201/9781420041484-1

HUMAN VISION AND DIGITAL COLOR PERCEPTION

Vince Tabora

HD Pro Blog

Medium.com

Understanding Chroma And Luminance In Digital Imaging

Vince Tabora

HD PRO

Medium.com

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CMYK AND RGB IN DIGITAL PRINTING

https://www.decalimpressions.com/company-info/blog.html/article/2018/06/05/the-difference-between-cmyk-and-rgb-in-digital-printing

Some Common RGB Working Space Matrices

http://brucelindbloom.com/index.html?Eqn_RGB_XYZ_Matrix.html

Color Part 1:
CIE Chromaticity and Perception 

by Roger N. Clark

https://clarkvision.com/articles/color-cie-chromaticity-and-perception/

A Primer to Colors in Digital Design

Archit Jha

https://uxdesign.cc/a-primer-to-colors-in-digital-design-7d16bb33399e

Digital Color Workflows and the
HP DreamColor LP2480zx Professional LCD Display

RGB color space profiles

http://www.hutchcolor.com/profiles.html#freeRGBspaces

Video Colour Color Space for photographers

http://www.jamesmilnersmyth.com/video-colour-color-space-for-photographers/

Understanding Color Space

https://stephaniebryanphoto.com/myblog/understanding-color-space

Choosing a color space: sRGB, Adobe RGB and ProPhoto RGB

Information on Color Spaces and Rendering Intent

Canon

Understanding Color Models Used in Digital Image Processing

https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/technical-articleUnderstanding Color Models Used in Digital Image Processings/understanding-color-models-used-in-digital-image-processing/

Which is the Best Color Space for Photography: sRGB or Adobe RGB?

https://contrastly.com/which-is-the-best-color-space-for-photography-srgb-or-adobe-rgb/

How to Choose the Right Video Color Space

http://www.cinematiccolor.com/

Color Models

http://cs.brown.edu/courses/cs092/VA10/HTML/ColorModels.html

Color Space Mismatches

Colour Space Conversions

Adrian Ford (ajoec1@wmin.ac.uk <defunct>) and Alan Roberts (Alan.Roberts@rd.bbc.co.uk).

August 11, 1998(a)

UNDERSTANDING COLOR SPACES

Unraval

https://www.unravel.com.au/understanding-color-spaces

ColorPerfect, ColorNeg et al. and RGB / grayscale working spaces

https://www.colorperfect.com/working_spaces.html?lang=en

Color Space Names

Apple

https://developer.apple.com/documentation/coregraphics/cgcolorspace/color_space_names

History of the Very Odd sRGB Color Space

https://ninedegreesbelow.com/photography/srgb-history.html

color images, color spaces and color image processing

Ole-Johan Skrede 08.03.2017

INF2310 – Digital Image Processing

Department of Informatics
The Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences University of Oslo

The Reversibility of Six Geometric Color Spaces

Tian-YuanShih

A Review of RGB Color Spaces

Beginner’s Guide to Color Space: RGB, CMYK, and Pantone

Color spaces, profiles and color management explained

https://lifeafterphotoshop.com/color-spaces-profiles-and-color-management-explained/

color space

PC Magazine

https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/color-space

Digital-Image Color Spaces

Jeffrey Friedl’s Blog

Color Spaces and Digital Imaging

Higham, Nicholas J. 2015

The Essential Guide to Color Spaces

Cullen Kelly

Mathematical Representation of Color Spaces and Its Role in Communication Systems

Riyadh M. Al-saleem ,1 Baraa M. Al-Hilali ,2 and Izz K. Abboud

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2020/4640175/

Color Spaces and Color Profiles

https://www.dpbestflow.org/color/color-space-and-color-profiles

Good One

Commercial Printing

https://www.dpbestflow.org/color/commercial-printing

https://www.dpbestflow.org/links/31

Color Management Overview

https://www.dpbestflow.org/node/247

Describing, Specifying, and Using Digital Digital Color Space

NOVEMBER 18, 2002 

https://www.screenweb.com/content/describing-specifying-and-using-digital-digital-color-space

Introduction to Light, Color and Color Space

https://www.scratchapixel.com/lessons/digital-imaging/colors/color-space

The Color Space Conundrum

https://theasc.com/magazine/jan05/conundrum/index.html

A Breakdown Of Color Spaces | You Really Should Have A Grasp On This

A Standard Default Color Space for the Internet – sRGB

Michael Stokes (Hewlett-Packard), Matthew Anderson (Microsoft), 

Srinivasan Chandrasekar (Microsoft), Ricardo Motta (Hewlett-Packard)

Version 1.10, November 5, 1996

https://www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB.html

Color Models

https://scc.ustc.edu.cn/zlsc/sugon/intel/ipp/ipp_manual/IPPI/ippi_ch6/ch6_color_models.htm

COLOR SCIENCE AND COLOR APPEARANCE MODELS FOR CG, HDTV, AND D-CINEMA

Authors:
Charles A Poynton
Garrett M Johnson
Publication: SIGGRAPH ’04: ACM SIGGRAPH 2004 Course NotesAugust 2004

Color in Information Display Principles, Perception, and Models

Maureen C. Stone

StoneSoup Consulting

Course 20 SIGGRAPH 2004

oRGB: A Practical Opponent Color Space for Computer Graphics

Margarita Bratkova∗ Solomon Boulos† Peter Shirley‡ University of Utah

Color in Science, Art and Industry: The Inter-Society Color Council 75th Anniversary CD

ISCC

Image Processing 101

Color Theory Color Models

http://www.pengadprinting.com/content/color-theory-part-ii-types-color-and-uses-0

Color Models (RGB vs CMYK)

Understanding Color Models: A Review

1 Noor A. Ibraheem, 2 Mokhtar M. Hasan, 3 Rafiqul Z. Khan, 4 Pramod K. Mishra
1 Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, India

Color Theory

Colorotate

RGB vs HSB vs HSL - Demystified

Anagh Sharma

https://www.anaghsharma.com/blog/rgb-vs-hsb-vs-hsl-demystified/

System Optimization in Digital Color Imaging

Understanding and exploiting interactions

Raja Bala and Gaurav Sharma

IEEE Signal Processing Magazine · February 2005

Digital image processing

Gonzalez and Woods, 

2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 2002

Which Color Space Should You Use When?

https://havecamerawilltravel.com/photographer/color-profiles/

DIGITAL IMAGING AND PHOTOGRAPHY

On Line Course

University of Delaware

https://www.eecis.udel.edu/~arce/courses/digitalimgproc/

Introduction to Basic Measures of a Digital Image for Pictorial Collections

Kit A. Peterson, Digital Conversion Specialist, June 2005

Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540-4730

Color spaces and gamut

Published on April 15, 2015   |  Updated on October 31, 2019

https://www.color-management-guide.com/color-spaces.html

COLOR IN DIGITAL CINEMA

Color Spaces

http://www.updig.org/guidelines/ph_color_spaces.html

https://danpgomez.com/tbl/2016/3/29/whats-the-difference-between-a-color-space-and-a-color-profile

Review and evaluation of color spaces for image/video compression

Samruddhi Y. Kahu1 | Rajesh B. Raut2 | Kishor M. Bhurchandi

Color Res Appl. 2019;44:8–33.

Color filter array

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_filter_array#List_of_color_filter_arrays

Eyeing the Camera: into the Next Century

Richard F. Lyon and Paul M. Hubel

Foveon, Inc.
Santa Clara, California, USA

Color Filter Arrays: Design and Performance Analysis

Rastislav Lukac, Member, IEEE, and Konstantinos N. Plataniotis, Senior Member, IEEE

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 51, No. 4, NOVEMBER 2005

Introduction to Bayer Filters

https://www.arrow.com/en/research-and-events/articles/introduction-to-bayer-filters

DIGITAL CAMERA SENSORS

https://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/camera-sensors.htm

https://www.cambridgeincolour.com

Rethinking Color Cameras

Ayan Chakrabarti

William T. Freeman

Todd Zickler

IEEE 2014

Color Filter Arrays for Quanta Image Sensors 

Omar A. Elgendy, Student Member, IEEE and Stanley H. Chan, Senior Member, IEEE

Quad Bayer sensors: what they are and what they are not

https://www.gsmarena.com/quad_bayer_sensors_explained-news-37459.php

Image sensor format

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_sensor_format

Image file formats

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_file_formats

Understanding Digital Raw Capture

Adobe

Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Ben Bailey 2019

Common RGB Color Spaces

https://nick-shaw.github.io/cinematiccolor/common-rgb-color-spaces.html

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

This is a topic close to my heart. My masters thesis research was on color prediction and modeling. My research work was published by IPST Atlanta as Technical paper no 469. Those who work in Paper and Printing Industry know IPST very well. It used to be called Institute of Paper Chemistry and was based in Appleton, Wisconsin.

Key Terms

  • Color Science
  • Human Vision
  • Color Models
  • Industrial Color
  • Measurement
  • Color Physics
  • Color Chemistry
  • Color Perception
  • Color Psychology
  • Instruments
  • Light
  • Color Technology
  • Light Absorption
  • Light Scattering
  • Psycho-Physics of Color
  • Reflectance
  • Refraction
  • Gloss
  • Texture
  • Colorimeter
  • Spectrophotometer
  • Color Dyes and Pigments
  • Paint, Plastics, Paper, Textiles
  • Digital Color
  • Device Independent color
  • Computer Monitors
  • Color Theory
  • Color Physics
  • Kubelka Munk Theory
  • Munsell Colors
  • Pantone Colors
  • RIT
  • Newton’s Optics
  • Goethe Color Theory
  • Four Color Problem
  • Primary Colors
  • CIE LAB color
  • CIE LCH color
  • Visual Match
  • Instrument Match
  • Radiative Transfer Theory
  • Two Flux vs Multi Flux Models
  • CIE
  • ICC
  • Optical Society of America
  • Inter-Society Color Council ISCC
  • Color and Appearance
  • Whiteness
  • Yellowness
  • Color Profiles
  • Color Scales
  • CIE XYZ
  • RGB
  • CMYK
  • Rods and Cones

Human Vision

Retina of Human eye has two kind of cells responsible for color vision

Rod Cells. Rod Cells are used for motion and lightness

Cone Cells. Cone Cells are responsible for color vision in the eye retina.

Image Source: Basics of Color Imaging/Yao Wang

Image Source: Basics of Color Imaging/Yao Wang

Image Source: Clarkvision

In the references, I have included many links to articles and papers on the following importatnt topics of color. Many companies who meaure and do testing of color provide excellent tutorials on color. See References.

  • Light and Visible Spectrum
  • What is Color?
  • Color Perception in Human
  • Color Models for Visual Perception
  • Color Physics
  • Dyes and Pigments
  • Color Chemistry
  • Optical Properties of Materials

Color Standards

  • ICC International Color Consortium
  • CIE
  • ISCC Inter Society Color Council

Coloring of Materials

  • Paper
  • Textiles
  • Paints
  • Plastics

Color Meaurement in Industry

  • Colorimeters
  • Spectrophotometers

Color Measurement Companies

  • Xrite
  • Datacolor
  • Konica Minolta
  • Hunterlab
  • Technidyne

Color Prediction and Control

  • Prediction in Lab
  • Online Prediction and Control

Kubelka Munk Theory (KM)

It was developed using Radiative Transfer Theory to measure Light Absorption and Light Scattering by objects. Reflection and Transmission.

Limitations of KM Theory

  • Only Two Flux
  • Errors in measuring Strong Absorption and Weak Scattering
  • Correlation between K and S. As K goes up S goes down
  • Use of Single Constant Vs Two Constant KM Theory
  • Can not measure effects of Fluroscent Dyes FWA OBA

Several efforts have been made since early 1990s, to revise, modify KM theory or develop other multiflux models to improve prediction better than KM model.

Key Recent Researchers

  • Li Yang
  • Per Edstrom
  • L G Coppel
  • Tarja Shakespeare
  • H Granberg

My related posts

Some of my earlier published papers

Sounds True: Speech, Language, and Communication

Myth of Invariance: Sound, Music, and Recurrent Events and Structures

Understanding Rasa: Yoga of Nine Emotions

Key sources of Research

Measurement and Control of the Optical Properties of Paper

Technidyne

https://www.technidyne.com/product-page/measurement-and-control-of-the-optical-properties-of-paper

https://imisrise.tappi.org/TAPPI/Products/20/MCOPP/20MCOPP.aspx

Optical paper properties and their influence on colour reproduction and perceived print quality

Authors:

Ivana Jurič

Igor Karlovits

Ivana Tomić

Dragoljub Novaković

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275637561_Optical_paper_properties_and_their_influence_on_colour_reproduction_and_perceived_print_quality

An assessment of Saunderson corrections to the diffuse reflectance of paint films

A García-Valenzuela et al 

2011 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274 012125

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/274/1/012125/pdf

Review: Optical properties of paper: theory and practice.

R. Farnood.

In Advances in Pulp and Paper Research, Oxford 2009, 

Trans. of the XIVth Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 2009,
(S.J. I’Anson, ed.), pp 273–352, FRC, Manchester, 2018

Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy; Applications, Standards, and Calibration (With Special Reference to Chromatography)

R. W. Frei

Analytical Research and Development, Pharmaceutical Department Sandoz Ltd., 4002 Basel, Switzerland

(May 26, 1976)

Optical models for colored materials

Mathieu Hébert
Institut d’Optique Graduate School, Saint-Etienne. mathieu.hebert@institutoptique.fr

The Use of Reflectance Measurements in the Determination of Fixation of Reactive Dyes to Cotton

N. Ahmed, D. P. Oulton, J. A. Taylor*

Textile sand Paper Group, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD, United Kingdom

Received 3 January 2005; accepted 9 August 2005

Two-flux and multiflux matrix models for colored surfaces

Mathieu Hébert

Université de Lyon, Université Jean Monnet de Saint-Etienne, CNRS UMR 5516 Laboratoire Hubert Curien, F-42000, Saint-Etienne, France.

Patrick Emmel
14 rue de Münchendorf, 68220 Folgensbourg, France.

https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01179591/document

DETERMINING SCATTERING AND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS BY DIFFUSE ILLUMINATION

USDA 1967

F. A. SIMMONDS and C. L. COENS

Optical Response from Paper

Doctoral Thesis

H Granberg 2003

Sweden

PAPER’S APPEARANCE: A REVIEW

Martin A. Hubbe, Joel J. Pawlak and Alexander A. Koukoulas

2008 BioResources online Journal

Examination of the revised Kubelka–Munk theory: considerations of modeling strategies

Per Edström

Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-87188 Härnösand, Sweden

Received April 5, 2006; revised July 3, 2006; accepted July 18, 2006; posted September 11, 2006 (Doc. ID 70185); published January 10, 2007

Revised KubelkaMunk theory. I. Theory and application

Li Yang and Bjo ̈rn Kruse

Campus Norrko ̈ ping (ITN), Linko ̈ ping University, S-601 74, Norrko ̈ ping, Sweden

Received November 20, 2003; revised manuscript received May 3, 2004; accepted May 5, 2004

Revised Kubelka–Munk theory II Unified framework for homogeneous and inhomogeneous optical media

Article in Journal of the Optical Society of America A · November 2004

Li Yang, Bjo ̈rn Kruse, and Stanley J. Miklavcic

Campus Norrko ̈ ping (ITN), Linko ̈ ping University, S-601 74, Norrko ̈ ping, Sweden

Revised Kubelka–Munk theory. III. A general theory of light propagation in scattering and absorptive media

Li Yang

Graphical Technology/Package Printing Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Karlstad University, S-651 88 Karlstad, Sweden

Stanley J. Miklavcic

Center for Creative Media Technology, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, S-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden

Received January 18, 2005; accepted March 9, 2005

Qualifying the arguments used in the derivation of the revised Kubelka-Munk theory: reply

Yang, Li 

Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.2007 (English)

In: JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION, ISSN 1084-7529, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 557-560

A novel method for studying ink penetration of a print.

Yang L, Fogden A, Pauler N, Sävborg Ö, Kruse B.

Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal. 2005;20(4):423-429.

INK-PAPER INTERACTION

A study in ink-jet color reproduction

L i Y a n g 2003

Department of Science and Technology Link ̈oping University

SE-601 74 Norrko ̈ping Sweden

Color Prediction and Separation Models in Printing

-Minimizing the Colorimetric and Spectral Differences employing Multiple Characterization Curves

Yuanyuan Qu

Department of Science and Technology Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden Norrköping 2013

Deriving Kubelka–Munk theory from radiative transport 

Christopher Sandoval and Arnold D. Kim*

Applied Mathematics Unit, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343, USA
*Corresponding author: adkim@ucmerced.edu

Received November 12, 2013; accepted January 6, 2014;
posted January 16, 2014 (Doc. ID 201164); published February 21, 2014

KUBELKA-MUNK THEORY IN DESCRIBING OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPER (I)

Vesna Džimbeg-Malčić, Željka Barbarić-Mikočević, Katarina Itrić

KUBELKA-MUNK THEORY IN DESCRIBING OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPER (II).

  • Source: Tehnicki vjesnik / Technical Gazette . Jan-Mar2012, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p191-196. 6p. 
  • Author(s): Džimbeg-Malčić, Vesna; Barbarić-Mikočević, Željka; Itrić, Katarina

Applicability conditions of the Kubelka–Munk theory

William E. Vargas and Gunnar A. Niklasson

Extension of the Kubelka–Munk theory of light propagation in intensely scattering materials to fluorescent media 

Leonid Fukshansky and Nina Kazarinova

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America
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  • Issue 9,
  • pp. 1101-1111
  • (1980)

What Has Been Overlooked in Kubelka-Munk Theory?

Author: Yang, Li

Source: NIP & Digital Fabrication Conference, 2005 International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies. Pages 332-679., pp. 376-379(4)

Publisher: Society for Imaging Science and Technology

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ist/nipdf/2005/00002005/00000002/art00012?crawler=true

Kubelka Munk Theory for Efficient Spectral Printer Modeling

Mekides Assefa

https://ntnuopen.ntnu.no/ntnu-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/143732/FinalThesisReportMekidesAssefaHIG2.pdf?sequence=1

On Measurements of Effective Residual Ink Concentration (ERIC) of Deinked Papers Using Kubelka-Munk Theory

D.W. Vahey, J.Y. Zhu and C.J. Houtman

Single‐constant simplification of Kubelka‐Munk turbid‐media theory for paint systems—A review

Roy S. Berns Mahnaz Mohammadi

First published: 25 April 2007

Color Research and Application J

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/col.20309

Spectrophotometric color prediction of mineral pigments with relatively large particle size by single- and two-constant Kubelka-Munk theory

Authors: Li, JunfengWan, Xiaoxia

Source: Color and Imaging Conference, Volume 2017, Number 25, September 2017, pp. 324-329(6)

Publisher: Society for Imaging Science and Technology

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ist/cic/2017/00002017/00000025/art00054

Theory of light propagation incorporating scattering and absorption in turbid media

Li Yang and Stanley J. Miklavcic

Department of Science and Technology, Link ̈oping University, S-601 74, Norrko ̈ping, Sweden

Article in Optics Letters · May 2005

Kubelka-Munk Model for Imperfectly Diffuse Light Distribution in Paper

Li Yang􏰀
Holmen Paper Development Center (HPD), Holmen AB, Sweden E-mail: li.yang@holmenpaper.com

R. D. Hersch

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), School of Computer and Communication Sciences, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland

Quantification of the Intrinsic Error of the Kubelka–Munk Model Caused by Strong Light Absorption

H. GRANBERG and P. EDSTRÖM

JOURNAL OF PULP AND PAPER SCIENCE: VOL. 29 NO. 11 NOVEMBER 2003

Anisotropic reflectance from turbid media. I. Theory

Neuman, Magnus 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.(Pappersoptik och färg)

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.(Pappersoptik och färg)

2010 (English)

In: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, ISSN 0740-3232, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1032-1039

Mathematical modeling and numerical tools for simulation and design of light scattering in paper and print

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.(FSCN – Fibre Science and Communication Network)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0529-1009

Mid Sweden University

2007 (English)

Theoretical Investigation of Bioactive Papers Using the Kubelka-Munk Theory

Elina Levi Gendler

Masters of Applied Science Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry University of Toronto
2015

The color prediction model of fluorescent prints

Na DongYixin ZhangGuoyun Shi

Proceedings Volume 7241, Color Imaging XIV: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications;72411N (2009) 
Event: IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, 2009, San Jose, California, United States

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/7241/72411N/The-color-prediction-model-of-fluorescent-prints/10.1117/12.808459.short?SSO=1

State of the art on macroscopic models for the determination of thin films optical properties

G. Saridakis, D. Kolokotsa

Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Greece

M. Santamouris

Radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media

Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Journal of the Optical Society of America AVol. 26,Issue 8,pp. 1896-1900(2009)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-26-8-1896

Radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media: errata 

A. A. Kokhanovsky  

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America
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https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-27-9-2084

Spectral Reflectance Model of a Single Sheet of Blank Paper*

Yongchi XU** and Shisheng ZHOU** **

Faculty of Printing and Packaging Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an, 710048 China

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/nig/51/2/51_103/_pdf

Next Generation Simulation Tools for Optical Properties in Paper and Print

Per Edström
Mid Sweden University, TFM, SE‐87188 Härnösand, Sweden,

Improving the performance of computer color matching procedures 

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America A
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A two-phase parameter estimation method for radiative transfer problems in paper industry applications

Per Edstro ̈ m*

Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, Ha ̈rno ̈sand, Sweden

Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering

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Xrite

Understanding CIE *L*a*b Colour Space

Kydex

Understanding Color

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HP Labs

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Konica Minolta

The basics of Color Perception and Measurement

HunterLab

The Color Guide and Glossary

Xrite

Color Differences & Tolerances Commercial Color Acceptability

Datacolor

Defining and Communicating Color: The CIELAB System

SAPPI

Color Science Course

Berns

RIT

ftp://ftp.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/berns/Berns_color_course.pdf

Using Color Effectively in Computer Graphics

Lindsay W. MacDonald

University of Derby, UK

Color Management Fundamentals

Color realism and color science

Alex Byrne

Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139
abyrne@mit.edu mit.edu/abyrne/www

David R. Hilbert

Department of Philosophy and Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607
hilbert@uic.edu http://www.uic.edu/~hilbert/

BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES (2003) 26, 3–64 

Introduction to Color Models

Routledge

Color Appearance Models

Second Edition

Mark D. Fairchild

Munsell Color Science Laboratory Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

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By George R. Rossman

THE NATURE OF LIGHT AND COLOR

Kodak

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Colour physics and colour measurement: state-of-the-art and challenges

S Westland

THE PHYSICS OF COLOUR

Mil􏰀osz Michalski

Institute of Physics Nicolaus Copernicus University

July 3, 2012

Lecture 26: Color and Light

On the Kubelka-Munk Single-Constant/Two-Constant Theories

Ning Pan and others

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/216567998_On_the_Kubelka-Munk_Single-ConstantTwo-Constant_Theories

Kubelka-Munk Prediction for Dark Mixtures

  • December 2013
  • Conference: 5th International Color and Coatings Congress (ICCC 2013)
  • At: Isfahan, Iran

Authors:

Farhad Moghareh Abed

Roy S. Berns

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323656636_Kubelka-Munk_Prediction_for_Dark_Mixtures

Colour Measurement and Analysis in Fresh and Processed Foods: A Review

Pankaj B Pathare

Umezuruike Linus Opara

Fahad Al-Julanda Al-Said

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225037588_Colour_Measurement_and_Analysis_in_Fresh_and_Processed_Foods_A_Review

Extending Kubelka-Munk’s Theory with Lateral Light Scattering

Safer Mourad *, Patrick Emmel **, Klaus Simon and Roger David Hersch **

IS&T’s NIP17: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies

Kubelka Munk Model in Paper Optics: Successes, Limitations and Improvements

L. Yang

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DETERMINATION OF OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS FOR COMPUTER COLORANT ANALYSIS

Gülen Bayhan

https://www.academia.edu/5407157/DETERMINATION_OF_OPTICAL_CHARACTERISTICS_OF_MATERIALS_FOR_COMPUTER_COLORANT_ANALYSIS

DETERMINATION OF OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS FOR COMPUTER COLORANT ANALYSIS

Dibakar Raj Pant.

University of Joensuu Department of Computer Science Pro gradu
April, 2006

ftp://www.cs.joensuu.fi/pub/Theses/2005_MSc_Pant_Dibakar_Raj.pdf

Next Generation Simulation Tools for Optical Properties in Paper and Print

Per Edström
Mid Sweden University, TFM, SE‐87188 Härnösand, Sweden, per.edstrom@miun.se

The optical properties of bleached kraft pulp

Steven R. Middleton and Anthony M. Scallan, 

Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, Canada

Light Scattering in Fibrous Sheets

Edwin W Arnold

IPC PhD Thesis 1962

https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/5809/arnold_ew.pdf?…

INFLUENCE OF LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPERS

BARBARA BLAZNIK, DIANA GREGOR-SVETEC and SABINA BRAČKO

Department of Information and Graphic Arts Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Snežniška 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Determining optical properties of mechanical pulps 

Anette Karlsson, Sofia Enberg, Mats Rundlöf, Magnus Paulsson and Per Edström

Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 27 no.3/2012

Color iQC and Color iMatch Multi Flux Matching Guide

Version 8.0 | July 2012

Xrite

Industrial Color Physics 

By Georg A. Klein

PREDICTION OF PAPER COLOR:
A PROCESS SIMULATION APPROACH

G.L. JONES, M. CHATURVEDI, AND R. ARAVAMUTHAN

MARCH 1993

IPST Technical Paper Series 469

Click to access tps-469.pdf

Application of Kubelka-Munk Theory in Device-independent Color Space Error Diffusion

Shilin Guo and Guo Li

Hewlett-Packard Company, San Diego Site

The Practical Guide To Color Theory For Photographers

In-Depth Guide on How to Measure Color in Plastics

https://www.ptonline.com/articles/in-depth-guide-on-how-to-measure-color-in-plastics

A Guide to Understanding Color Communication

Tintometer Group

A partial explanation of the dependence between light scattering and light absorption in the Kubelka-Munk model 

M. Neuman, L. G. Coppel and P. Edström

Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 27 no.2/2012

Limitations of the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper

Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic 

Andersson, Mattias 

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.

Kinnunen, Jussi 

Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Math & Phys, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.

2011 (English) In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 319-328

Determination of light scattering coefficient of dark and heavy sheets

KNOX, J.M., and WAHREN, D.

Tappi J 1984

Whiteness and Fluorescence in Layered Paper and Boards

Perception and Optical Modelling

L G Coppel

PhD Thesis

Mid Sweden University

Extension of the Stokes equation for layered constructions to fluorescent turbid media

Ludovic G. Coppel,1,2 Magnus Neuman,2 and Per Edström2,*
1Innventia AB, Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden
2Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-87188 Härnösand, Sweden 

*Corresponding author: per.edstrom@miun.se

Received January 3, 2012; accepted January 20, 2012;
posted January 24, 2012 (Doc. ID 160521); published March 22, 2012

Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media.

Coppel LG,  Andersson M,  Edström P

Applied Optics, 31 May 2011, 50(17):2784-2792

Extension of the Kubelka–Munk theory of light propagation in intensely scattering materials to fluorescent media 

Leonid Fukshansky and Nina Kazarinova

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • Vol. 70,
  • Issue 9,
  • pp. 1101-1111
  • (1980)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-70-9-1101

Revised Optical Properties of Turbid Media on a Base of Generally Improved Two-Flux Kubelka-Munk Approach

D. A. Rogatkin1, and V. V. Tchernyi2

Understanding Color Communication

Xrite

Correspondences between the Kubelka-Munk and the Stokes model of strongly light-scattering materials. II: Implications

OLF, H. G
[1] North Carolina state univ., dep. wood & paper sci., Raleigh NC 27695-8005, United StatesSource

Tappi journal1989, Vol 72, Num 7, pp 159-163

Precise Color Communication

Konica Minolta

The Color Guide and Glossary

Xrite

CIE LAB Color

Sappi

Principles of Color Technology for Color Imaging Scientists and Engineers

Berns

RIT

ftp://ftp.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/berns/Berns_color_course.pdf

Using Color Effectively in Computer Graphics

Lindsay W. MacDonald

University of Derby, UK

Color Management Fundamentals Wide Format Series

Introduction to Color Models

Anisotropic reflectance from turbid media. I. Theory

Neuman, Magnus 

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.(Pappersoptik och färg)

2010 (English)In: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, ISSN 0740-3232, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1032-1039

Anisotropic reflectance from turbid media. II. Measurements 

Magnus Neuman and Per Edström

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America A
  • Vol. 27,
  • Issue 5,
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  • (2010)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-27-5-1040

Angular dependence of fluorescence from turbid media

Ludovic G. Coppel,1,∗ Niklas Johansson,and Magnus Neuman2

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281069011_Angular_dependence_of_fluorescence_from_turbid_media

Limitations in the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper

Ludovic G. Coppel, Mattias Andersson, Per Edström and Jussi Kinnunen

Fluorescence model for multi-layer papers using conventional spectrophotometers

 L. G. Coppel, M. Andersson, M. Neuman and P. Edström

Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal | Volume 27: Issue 2

Whiteness Assessment: A Primer Concepts, Determination and Control of Perceived Whiteness

September 2006

Claudio Puebla

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331802584_Whiteness_Assessment_A_Primer_Concepts_Determination_and_Control_of_Perceived_Whiteness

FLUORESCENCE AND THE PAPER APPEARANCE – CHALLENGES IN PAPER COLORING

Dr. Tarja Shakespeare1, Dr. John Shakespeare2

2009

MODELING A COLORING PROCESS 

Tarja Shakespeare, John Shakespeare 

US Patent

A fluorescent extension to the Kubelka–Munk model

Tarja Shakespeare

John Shakespeare

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229559432_A_fluorescent_extension_to_the_Kubelka-Munk_model

Radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media

Alexander A Kokhanovsky 1

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-26-8-1896

A New Look at Fundamentals of the Photometric Light Transport and Scattering Theory. Part 2: One-Dimensional Scattering with Absorption

Authors: Persheyev S.Rogatkin D.A.Published: 22.11.2017 
Published in issue: #6(75)/2017 
DOI: 10.18698/1812-3368-2017-6-65-78

http://vestniken.ru/eng/catalog/phys/opt/787.html

Spectral prediction model for color prints on paper with fluorescent additives.

Hersch RD1

Applied Optics, 30 Nov 2008, 47(36):6710-6722

https://europepmc.org/article/med/19104523

Relationship between the Kubelka-Munk scattering and radiative transfer coefficients

Suresh N Thennadil 1

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18594602/

Effect of strong absorption on the Kubelka-Munk scattering coefficient

A. KoukoulasB. Jordan

Published 1997

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Effect-of-strong-absorption-on-the-Kubelka-Munk-Koukoulas-Jordan/fee09ae8d3bfd2e8d58eff34321f60eec89d445b

A note concerning the interaction between light scattering and light absorption in the application of the Kubelka-Munk equations

Mats RundlöfJ. A. Bristow

Published 1997

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-note-concerning-the-interaction-between-light-and-Rundlöf-Bristow/c87c601ad12a90ba9e241469dd45f85797c19f70

Color Measurements on Prints Containing Fluorescent Whitening Agents

Mattias Andersson and Ole Norberg

Digital Printing Center, Mid Sweden University, 89118 Örnsköldsvik, Sweden

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/238022968_Color_measurements_on_prints_containing_fluorescent_whitening_agents_-_art_no_64930Q

Colorant modelling for on-line paper coloring: evaluations of models and an extension to Kubelka-Munk model

Shakespeare, T. (2000)

Tampere University of Technology

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328873794_Colorant_Modelling_for_On-Line_Paper_Coloring_Evaluations_of_Models_and_an_Extentsion_to_Kubelka-Munk_Model

Fluorescent White Dyes: Calculation of Fluorescence from Reflectivity Values 

Eugene Allen

1964 OSAJ

https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-4-506

Extension of the Kubelka–Munk theory for fluorescent turbid media to a nonopaque layer on a background

Article in Journal of the Optical Society of America A · July 2011

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51472634_Extension_of_the_Kubelka-Munk_theory_for_fluorescent_turbid_media_to_a_nonopaque_layer_on_a_background

Tutorial on Fluorescence and Fluorescent Instrumentation

Colour measurement in practice 

Contemporary wool dyeing and finishing

Dr Rex Brady Deakin University

Separation of the Spectral Radiance Factor Curve of Fluorescent Substances into Reflected and Fluoresced Components 

Eugene Allen

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https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-12-2-289

Fluorescence and kubelka‐munk theory

James S. Bonham

First published: Autumn (Fall) 1986

Color Research and Application J

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/col.5080110310

Spectrophotometry of fluorescent pigments

R Donaldson1

1954


British Journal of Applied PhysicsVolume 5Number 6

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KUBELKA-MUNK THEORY OF FLUORESCENT COLORANTS

He Guoxin (Department of Textile Technology)

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Spectral Colour Prediction Model for a Transparent Fluorescent Ink on Paper*

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Laboratoire de Systèmes Périphériques

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL),

The extended Kubelka–Munk theory and its application to spectroscopy

2020

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40828-019-0097-0

The color prediction model of fluorescent prints

Na DongYixin ZhangGuoyun Shi

Author Affiliations +Proceedings Volume 7241, Color Imaging XIV: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications;72411N (2009) 
Event: IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, 2009, San Jose, California, United States

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/7241/72411N/The-color-prediction-model-of-fluorescent-prints/10.1117/12.808459.short?SSO=1

REVIEW: USE OF OPTICAL BRIGHTENING AGENTS (OBAs) IN THE PRODUCTION OF PAPER CONTAINING HIGH-YIELD PULPS

He Shi,a Hongbin Liu,a,b,* Yonghao Ni,a,c Zhirun Yuan,d Xuejun Zou,d and Yajun Zhou

The Kubelka-Munk Theory for Color Image Invariant Properties

Jan-Mark Geusebroek, Theo Gevers, Arnold W.M. Smeulders Intelligent Sensory Information Systems, University of Amsterdam

Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media 

Ludovic Gustafsson Coppel, Mattias Andersson, and Per Edström

Applied OpticsVol. 50,Issue 17,pp. 2784-2792(2011)

https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-50-17-2784

4.2 Colour Science

ALAN MARTIN

Quantification of the Intrinsic Error of the Kubelka–Munk Model Caused by Strong Light Absorption

H. GRANBERG and P. EDSTRÖM

Effect of Moisture on Paper Color

SHAKESPEARE TARJA and SHAKESPEARE JOHN

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Journal of the Optical Society of AmericaVol. 64,Issue 7,pp. 991-993(1974)

Spectrophotometric color formulation based on two-constant Kubelka-Munk theory

Eric Walowit

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Computer-Aided Color Formulation (How to Formulate Color)

Posted March 02, 2017 by Mike Huda

Xrite

https://www.xrite.com/blog/computer-aided-color-formulation

COMIC: An Analog Computer in the Colorant Industry

July-Sept. 2014, pp. 4-18, vol. 36

Computer

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An investigation of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of dyed handsheets and the application of the ICI system of color specification to these handsheets

Foote, William J. (William John)

1938 PhD Thesis IPC

https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/5491

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF FORMATION ON THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPER

DOUGLAS WAHREN

FEBRUARY, 1987 IPC Technical Paper 223

Mathematical Modelling of
Light Scattering in Paper and Print

Per Edström

PhD Thesis Mid Sweden University Sweden 2004

A Comparison Between the Coefficients of the Kubelka-Munk and DORT2002 Models

Per Edström
Mid Sweden University 2003

Simulation and modeling of light scattering in paper and print applications

Edström P. (2010)

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https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-10336-0_10

Measuring and Modelling Light Scattering in Paper

Niklas Johansson

Department of Natural Sciences Mid Sweden University

Doctoral Thesis No. 224 O ̈ rnsko ̈ ldsvik, Sweden 2015

Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh

B. Chance

D. A. Boas

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