Kenneth Burke and Dramatism

Kenneth Burke and Dramatism

A rhetorician, I take it, is like one voice in a dialogue. Put several such voices together, with each voicing its own special assertion, let them act upon one another in cooperative competition, and you get a dialectic that, propely developed, can lead to the views transcending the limitations of each.

-KENNETH BURKE
“Rhetoric-Old and New” (1950)

Key Terms

  • Frames
  • Life as Drama
  • Kenneth Burke
  • World as a Play
  • Universal Drama
  • Natyashastra of Bharata Muni
  • Poetics of Aristotle
  • Rhetoric of Aristotle
  • Dialectics of Aristotle
  • Language as Symbolic Action
  • Persuasion
  • Dialectic vs Rhetoric
  • Logos, Pathos, Ethos
  • Logic, Emotions, Intersubjectivity
  • Arguments
  • Speech
  • Emotions
  • Dialectic – Art of Disputing
  • Rhetoric – Art of Speaking
  • Speaking, Arguments, Persuasion
  • Civic Discourse
  • Political Theory
  • Legal Theory
  • Theory of Communicative Action
  • Communication
  • Enactive Systems
  • Enactivism
  • Embodied-Enactive Systems
  • Socially Extended Mind
  • Action Learning
  • Second Person Neuroscience
  • Acts and Dialogs
  • Four Dimensional Man
  • Narratives
  • Dramatic Pentad
  • Act, Scene, Agent, Agency, Purpose
  • Attitude
  • Identification

Dramatism

Source: http://www.unm.edu/~sromano/english540/Blakesley%20Elements%20all.pdf

All the Words, a Stage

Dramatism is a philosophy of language, with stress upon the original meaning of philosophy [philo =life + sophos =knowledge], the study of language as a way of living and knowing. In the broadest sense, dramatism is life, life lived in a world populated by people acting through language to build societies, establish and maintain social relations, adjust to their social situation, and come to terms with their existence in time and space. Dramatism analyzes language and thought as modes of action rather than as means of conveying information. Thus, for dramatism, language is a form of symbolic action. The dramatistic view of the world holds that language is not simply a tool to be used by people (actors), but the basis for human beings acting together and thus, of all human relations. Words act, in other words, to define, persuade, appease, divide, identify, entertain, victimize, move, inspire, and so on. It might help to understand language as symbolic action when you consider whether it makes a big difference to say “I am not crazy” rather than “I am happy” when you are indeed happy. The use of the negative in the first performs an act of denial, even if it doesn’t make any positive assertion about what you actually are. “I am not crazy” could mean that you are happy. You may be far worse or better than crazy. As a resource of language, the negative can be seen as a purely verbal act because on the one hand it doesn’t convey any information, yet on the other it may induce some change in the attitude of others. Imagine, for instance, what will happen if you walk around town mumbling “I am not crazy.”

Kenneth Burke (1897-1993) was the philosopher, critical theorist, and rhetorician who made dramatism the central tenet of his work and who has influenced the thinking of countless others interested in the study of speech, writing, and society. Dramatism originated in his work in the mid-1930s and marked his attempt to develop a systematic method for analyzing human communication in all its complexity. By the mid-1940s, Burke’s desire to develop such a method took on added urgency in a world torn apart by war. His A Grammar of Motives (1945) was the first of a planned trilogy on human relations and formally introduced the pentad-act, scene, agent, agency, purpose-which is the heart of what is now known as dramatism. (Burke would later add a sixth term, attitude.) By 1968 and three books further into his project, Burke summed up as follows:

Dramatism is a method of analysis and a correspondirig critique of terminology designed to show that the most direct route to the study of human relations and human motives is via a methodical inquiry into cycles or clusters of terms and their functions. (“Dramatism:’ 445)

Burke saw the pentad as the set of relational and functional principles that could help us understand what he calls the “cycles or clusters of terms” people used to attribute motives in a particular work of philosophy, literature, speech, or in more general philosophies of human motivation, such as capitalism, communism, or psychoanalysis. Other critics have put dramatism to work in analyses of social movements, political rhetoric, film, economics, interpersonal psychology, art, and popular culture. A quick perusal of the Suggested Readings at the end of this book will give you a good sense of the scope of dramatism as an analytical method.

Burke often called himself a “word-man,” and some discussion of that moniker will help clarify precisely what the concept of dramatism entails. For eons, human beings have sought to define themselves, to name that essential quality that both distinguishes us from animals and other forms of life and even that distinguishes people from one another. Some say we are what we do, that our actions define us (the pragmatic view). Some say that we are what we think we are (the subjective view). Still others say that we are the sum total of our social identities or roles (the sociological view). Others say that we are by virtue of a complex system of biological and neurological processes (the objective view). We may be the sum of internal and instinctual drives (the psychological view). Or we may be whatever we desire to be (the idealist view). Burke, and thus dramatism, holds that our words define us, that our identities are but composites of our symbol systems. Human beings are in the simplest sense, says Burke, the symbol-using animal. So if you ask, “Who is Burke?” the answer is, simply, a “word-man.” He, like the rest of us, is an actor in a world of words.

It was Jaques in William Shakespeare’s As You Like It who spoke suggestively that

All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players: They have their exits and their entrances, And one man in his time plays many parts. His acts being seven ages. (II.vii.149-53)

Rhetoric and Dialectic

Source: Rhetoric and Poetic in the Philosophy of Aristotle

Source: RHETORIC—OLD AND NEW

Dramatic Pentad

Kenneth Burke in his book A Grammar of Motives introduced concepts of Dramatism and Dramatic Pentad. He also introduced ratios between elements of dramatic pentad.

  • Scene
  • Act
  • Agent
  • Agency
  • Purpose

Dramatic Pentad

Dramatic Ratios

  • Scene – Act
  • Scene – Agent
  • Scene – Agency
  • Scene – Purpose
  • Act – Agent
  • Act – Agency
  • Act – Purpose
  • Agent – Purpose
  • Agent – Agency
  • Agency – Purpose

He elaborated each of these and their relationships with each other.

Relationship between ‘Scene and Act’ and ‘Scene and Agent’ and between ‘Act and Agent’ are the primary relationships.

Three Appeals of Dialogs, Discourse, Speech, and Arguments

Logos, Ethos, and Pathos

Types of Speech

Other books by Kenneth Burke

Source: https://kbjournal.org/content/works-kenneth-burke

The White Oxen and Other Stories, New York: Albert and Charles Boni, 1924. {Books}

Counter-Statement. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1931; 2nd ed. Los Altos, CA: Hermes Publications, 1953; Phoenix paperback, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957; paperback, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968. {Books}

Towards a Better Life: Being a Series of Epistles, or Declamations, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1932; 2nd ed., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966. {Books}

Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose. New York: New Republic, 1935; 2nd rev. ed., Los Altos, Calif.: Hermes Publications, 1954; paperback, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965; 3rd rev. ed., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. The 1954, 1965, and 1984 editions contain an appendix, “On Human Behavior, Considered ‘Dramatistically'”; the 1965 and 1984 editions, an introduction by Hugh Dalziel Duncan; the 1984 edition, a new afterword, “Permanence and Change: In Retrospective Prospect.” {Books}

Attitudes Toward History. 2 vols. New York: New Republic, 1937; 2nd rev, ed., Los Altos, Calif.: Hermes Publications, 1959; Beacon paperback, Boston: Beacon Press, 1961; 3rd rev. ed., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. The 1984 edition contains a new afterword, “Attitudes toward History: In Retrospective Prospect.” {Books}

The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1941; 2nd ed., 1967; rev. abr. ed., Vintage paperback, New York: Vintage Books, 1957; 3rd ed., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. {Books}

Dichtung als symbolische Handlung: Eine Theorie der Literatur, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp-Verlag, 1966; [Includes “The Philsophy of Literary Form”]. {Books}

Die Rhetorik in Hitlers “Mein Kampf” und andere Essays zur Strategie der Überredung, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp-Verlag, 1967; [Includes “War, Response, and Contradiction”; “The Virtues and Limitations of Debunking”; “Semantic and Poetic Meaning”; “The Rhetoric of Hitler’s ‘Battle'”; “Freud–and the Analysis of Poetry”]. {Books}

A Grammar of Motives, New York: Prentice-Hall, 1945; London: Dennis Dobson, 1947; 2nd ed., New York: George Braziller, 1955; Meridian paperback, Cleveland and New York: World Publishing Company, 1962 (together with A Rhetoric of Motives); Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969. {Books}

A Rhetoric of Motives, New York: Prentice-Hall, 1950; 2nd ed., New York: George Braziller, 1955; Meridian paperback, Cleveland and New York: World Publishing Company, 1962 (together with A Grammar of Motives); Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969. {Books}

Book of Moments: Poems 1915-1954. Los Altos, CA: Hermes Publications, 1955.{Books}

The Rhetoric of Religion: Studies in Logology, Boston: Beacon Press, 1961; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970. {Books}

Perspectives by Incongruity, ed. Stanley Edgar Hyman, with the assistance of Barbara Karmiller, Midland paperback, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1964; a combined clothbound edition of Perspectives by Incongruity and Terms for Order, Indiana UP, 1964. Perspectives by Incongruity contains selections of Mr. Burke’s essays, fiction, and poetry, and excerpts from previously published books. {Books}

Terms for Order, ed. Stanley Edgar Hyman, with the assistance of Barbara Karmiller, Midland paperback, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1964; a combined clothbound edition of Perspectives by Incongruity and Terms for Order, Indiana UP, 1964. Terms for Order contains selections of Mr. Burke’s essays, fiction, and poetry, and excerpts from previously published books. {Books}

Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966. {Books}

Collected Poems, 1915-1967. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968; includes Book of Moments: Poems 1915-1954. {Books}

The Complete White Oxen: Collected Short Fiction of Kenneth Burke, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968; includes The White Oxen and Other Stories. {Books}

Dramatism and Development. Heinz Werner Series, Vol. 6. Worcester, Mass.: Clark University Press, 1972. {Books}

On Human Nature: A Gathering While Everything Flows. Ed. William H. Rueckert and Angelo Bonadonna. Berkeley: U of California P, 2003. {Books}

Letters from Kenneth Burke to William H. Rueckert, 1959-1987. Ed. William H. Rueckert. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press, 2003. {Books}

Here & Elsewhere: The Collected Fiction of Kenneth Burke. Intro. Denis Donoghue. Boston: Black Sparrow, 2005 {Books}

Late Poems 1968–1993. Ed. Julie Whitaker and David Blakesley. Columbia, SC: U South Carolina P, 2006. {Books}

Kenneth Burke on Shakespeare. Ed. Scott L. Newstok. Anderson, SC: Parlor Press, 2007. {Books; Preview here}

Essays Toward a Symbolic of Motives, 1950–1955. Ed. William H. Rueckert. Anderson, SC: Parlor Press, 2007. {Books; Preview here}

Equipment for Living: The Literary Reviews of Kenneth Burke. Edited by Nathaniel A. Rivers and Ryan P. Weber. Anderson, SC: Parlor Press, 2010. {Books; Preview here}

My Related Posts

The Social Significance of Drama and Narrative Arts

Drama Therapy: Self in Performance

Drama Theory: Acting Strategically

Drama Theory: Choices, Conflicts and Dilemmas

Networks, Narratives, and Interaction

Phenomenological Sociology

Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism

A Unifying Model of Arts

Erving Goffman: Dramaturgy of Social Life

Sounds True: Speech, Language, and Communication

Narrative Psychology: Language, Meaning, and Self

Understanding Rasa: Yoga of Nine Emotions

Political Emotions: Why Love matters for Justice

Socio-Cybernetics and Constructivist Approaches

Society as Communication: Social Systems Theory of Niklas Luhmann

Meta Integral Theories: Integral Theory, Critical Realism, and Complex Thought

Integral Philosophy of the Rg Veda: Four Dimensional Man

Truth, Beauty, and Goodness: Integral Theory of Ken Wilber

Myth of Invariance: Sound, Music, and Recurrent Events and Structures

Cybernetics, Autopoiesis, and Social Systems Theory

Global Trends, Scenarios, and Futures: For Foresight and Strategic Management

Shell Oil’s Scenarios: Strategic Foresight and Scenario Planning for the Future

Water | Food | Energy | Nexus: Mega Trends and Scenarios for the Future

Art of Long View: Future, Uncertainty and Scenario Planning

The Great Chain of Being

Networks and Hierarchies

Boundaries and Distinctions

Boundaries and Networks

Boundaries and Relational Sociology

Aesthetics and Ethics

Aesthetics and Ethics: At the Intersection

Levels of Human Psychological Development in Integral Spiral Dynamics

Key Sources of Research

KENNETH BURKE AND THE METHOD OF DRAMATISM

MICHAELA. OVERINGTON

Click to access pdfshRdTYchQw.pdf

Dramatism as ontology or epistemology: A symposium

Bernard L. Brock Kenneth Burke Parke G. Burgess  & Herbert W. Simons 

Pages 17-33 | Published online: 21 May 2009

Communication Quarterly Volume 33, 1985 – Issue 1

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/01463378509369575

A METACRITIQUE OF KENNETh BURKE’S ONTOLOGICAL, EPISTEMOLOGICAL, AND AXIOLOGICAL DRAMATISTIC SYSTEM: STUDY OF A TRANSPLANTED PERSPECTIVE

Fry, Virginia Henry

1982

https://etd.ohiolink.edu/apexprod/rws_etd/send_file/send?accession=osu148717595103948u0026amp;disposition=inline

THE ORIGINS OF THE KENNETH BURKE SOCIETY

Clarke ROUNTREE

https://doi.org/10.22455/2541-7894-2020-9-195-207

Click to access LDA-2020-9_195-207_Rountree.pdf

Dramatism

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dramatism

Dramatism and logology

Kenneth Burke Pages 89-93 | Published online: 21 May 2009


Communication Quarterly 
Volume 33, 1985 – Issue 2

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01463378509369584

The Elements of Dramatism

David Blakesley

Longman, 2002

Click to access Blakesley%20Elements%20all.pdf

Kenneth Burke’s Rhetorical Theory within the Construction of the Ethnography of Speaking

Gregory Hansen Indiana University

Re‐visiting Kenneth Burke: Dramatism/logology and the problem of agency

DOI:10.1080/10417949509372996

Charles Conrad

Elizabeth A. Macom

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233009120_Re-visiting_Kenneth_Burke_Dramatismlogology_and_the_problem_of_agency

DRAMATISM AND THE THEATRE: AN APPLICATION OF KENNETH BURKE’S CRITICAL METHODS TO THE ANALYSIS OF TWO PLAYs

JOHN WAYNE KIRK

1962

Implications on the Practice and Study of Kenneth Burke’s Idea of a “Public Relations Counsel with a Heart”

Peter M. Smudde

Communication Quarterly, Vol. 52 No 4 Fall 2004, Pages 420-432

Kenneth Burke

(1897—1986)

https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095536471

Kenneth Burke’s Dramatist Pentad as an Alternative Approach to Art Criticism in the Classroom

Gayle Weitz

Volume 8 Combined issue 8 & 9 (1989-1990)

Marilyn Zurmuehlen Working Papers in Art Education

pps. 130-144 DOI: 10.17077/2326-7070.1196

https://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1196&context=mzwp

Kenneth Burke

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_Burke

Rhetoric of Motives

Kenneth Burke

LANGUAGE AS MORE THAN SYMBOLIC ACTION: KENNETH BURKE ON TONAL TRANSFORMATIONS

NICHOLAS STEPHEN CRAWFORD

A Grammar of Motives

Kenneth Burke

Click to access kenneth_burke_-_a_grammar_of_motives_1945.pdf

A Rhetoric of Motives

Kenneth Burke

Click to access CaricatureofCourtshipKafkaCastleKennethBurke.pdf

Questions and Answers about the Pentad

Author(s): Kenneth Burke
Source: College Composition and Communication, Vol. 29, No. 4 (Dec., 1978), pp. 330-335 Published by: National Council of Teachers of English
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/357013 .

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Questions-and-Answers-about-the-Pentad.-Burke/69db1d049059dbbf8467ab67ccfd8507fb99e400

A Grammar of Motives

Kenneth Burke

Dramatistic Pentad

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dramatistic_pentad

RHETORIC-OLD AND NEW 

Kenneth Burke

Click to access kenneth_burke_-_rhetoricold_and_new__1951.pdf

Kenneth Burke

1897-1993

Narrative and Rhetorical Approaches to Problems of Education. Jerome Bruner and Kenneth Burke Revisited

Studies in Philosophy and Education volume 32, pages327–343(2013)

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11217-012-9324-5

Reflections on the First European Kenneth Burke Conference

Rhetoric as Equipment for Living: Kenneth Burke, Culture and Education

Kris Rutten, Ghent University Dries Vrijders, Ghent University Ronald Soetaert, Ghent University

Issues of KB Journal » Volume 10, Issue 1 Summer 2014

https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/8639628/file/8639629

Placing the Poetic Corrective: William Carlos Williams, Kenneth Burke, and the Poetic Imaginary

Stephen Llano St. John’s University

The Space Between, Volume V:1 2009 ISSN 1551-9309

https://www.monmouth.edu/department-of-english/documents/placing-the-poetic-corrective-william-carlos-williams-kenneth-burke-and-the-poetic-imaginary.pdf/

Essays Toward a Symbolic of Motives, 1950–1955

Kenneth Burke

On Distinctions Betwen-Clasical and Modern Rhetoric, 

Lisa Ede and Andrea Ltinsford,

Using Kenneth Burke’s Pentad

2018

https://textrhet.com/2018/09/29/using-kenneth-burkes-pentad/

Applying Burke’s Dramatic Pentad to scenarios

Allan W Shearer

Department of Landscape Architecture, Harvard Graduate School of Design, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Futures

Volume 36, Issue 8, October 2004, Pages 823-835

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0016328704000102

Five Fingers or Six? Pentad or Hexad?

Floyd D. Anderson, The College at Brockport: State University of New York and Matthew T. Althouse. The College at Brockport: State University of New York.

 Issues of KB Journal » Volume 6, Issue 2, Spring 2010

https://www.kbjournal.org/anderson

The brain as part of an enactive system.

Gallagher, S., Hutto, D., Slaby, J. and Cole, J. (2013).

Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36 (4), 421-422.

https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1927&context=lhapapers

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23883750/

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences/article/abs/brain-as-part-of-an-enactive-system/769A1365812E5926C57E8A406B35683B#

Click to access gallET13bbs.pdf

Making Sense of Sense-Making: Reflections on Enactive and Extended Mind Theories

Evan Thompson and  Mog Stapleton

Topoi · March 2009 

DOI: 10.1007/s11245-008-9043-2

The socially extended mind

Shaun Gallagher

Lillian and Morrie Moss Chair of Excellence Department of Philosophy University of Memphis (USA) School of Humanities
University of Hertfordshire (UK) s.gallagher@memphis.edu

The Shared Mind

Perspectives on intersubjectivity

EditorsJordan Zlatev | Lund UniversityTimothy P. Racine | Simon Fraser UniversityChris Sinha | Lund UniversityEsa Itkonen | University of Turku

https://benjamins.com/catalog/celcr.12

Action and Interaction

Shaun Gallagher

Oxford University Press, Apr 9, 2020 

Getting interaction theory (IT) together

Integrating developmental, phenomenological, enactive, and dynamical approaches to social interaction

Tom Froese & Shaun Gallagher
University of Tokyo, Japan / University of Memphis, USA

Evolutionary Musicology Meets Embodied Cognition: Biocultural Coevolution and the Enactive Origins of Human Musicality

Front. Neurosci., 29 September 2017 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2017.00519

Dylan van der Schyff and Andrea Schiavio

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2017.00519/full

Embodied Dyadic Interaction Increases Complexity of Neural Dynamics: A Minimal Agent-Based Simulation Model

Madhavun Candadai1,2*Matt Setzler1,2Eduardo J. Izquierdo1,2 and Tom Froese3,4

  • 1Program in Cognitive Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States
  • 2School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States
  • 3Institute for Applied Mathematics and Systems Research (IIMAS), National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico
  • 4Center for the Sciences of Complexity (C3), UNAM, Mexico City, Mexico

Front. Psychol., 21 March 2019 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00540

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00540/full

WHERE EXPERIENCES ARE: DUALIST, PHYSICALIST, ENACTIVE AND REFLEXIVE ACCOUNTS OF PHENOMENAL CONSCIOUSNESS

Max Velmans, Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, New Cross, London SE14 6NW; email m.velmans@gold.ac.uk
web address http://www.goldsmiths.ac.uk/departments/psychology/staff/velmans.html

Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences (in press)

Click to access Enactive_vs_Reflexive_with_accepted_corrections.pdf

An Enactive-Ecological Approach to Information and Uncertainty

Eros Moreira de Carvalho1 and Giovanni Rolla2*

Front. Psychol., 21 April 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00588

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00588/full

An Inter-Enactive Approach to Agency: Participatory Sense-Making, Dynamics, and Sociality*

Steve Torrance** stevet@sussex.ac.uk

Tom Froese*** t.froese@gmail.com

Agency: FROM EMBODIED COGNITION TO FREE WILL

EDITED BY DUCCIO MANETTI AND SILVANO ZIPOLI CAIANI

Humana.Mente – Issue 15 – January 2011

Chapter 8
The Enactive Philosophy of Embodiment: From Biological Foundations of Agency to the Phenomenology of Subjectivity

Mog Stapleton and Tom Froese

M. García-Valdecasas et al. (eds.), Biology and Subjectivity,
Historical-Analytical Studies on Nature, Mind and Action 2,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-30502-8_8

https://philarchive.org/archive/STATEP

ARISTOTLE : THE “ART” Of RHETORIC 

JOHN HENKY FREESE

Click to access L193.pdf

Click to access Aristotle_Rhetoric.pdf

Click to access Aristotle-rhetoric.pdf

Aristotle’s Rhetoric: A Manual for the Politics of Emotion

  • January 2010
  • Osterreichische Zeitschrift fur Politikwissenschaft 39(2):157-169

Dirk Jörke

  • Technische Universität Darmstadt

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289815486_Aristotle%27s_Rhetoric_A_Manual_for_the_Politics_of_Emotion

Aristotle’s Rhetoric for Everybody

Scott F. Crider

Leo Strauss, Seminar on Political Philosophy: Aristotle’s Rhetoric 

Ronna Burger

ARISTOTLE’S RHETORIC:

THEORY, TRUTH, AND METARHETORIC

Michelle W. Gellrich

Louisiana State University

Ethos, pathos and logos in Aristotle’s Rhetoric: A re-examination

Argumentation volume 6, pages307–320(1992)

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00154696

Aristotle’s Rhetoric

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-rhetoric/

What Is Rhetoric?

THE RHETORIC, POETIC, AND NICOMACHEAN ETHICS OF ARISTOTLE,


TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK.
BY THOMAS TAYLOR
VOL. I.

Aristotle on Persuassion

The Rhetorical Triangle: Understanding and Using Logos, Ethos, and Pathos

chapter three

ARISTOTLE’S ENTHYMEME, THYMOS, AND PLATO

David C. Mirhady

Click to access enthymeme.pdf

Aristotle’s Poetics and Rhetoric

protevi@lsu.edu / 

http://www.protevi.com/john/FH/PDF/AristotlesPoeticsRhetoric.pdf

Essential Guide to Rhetoric

Click to access essential_guide_to_rhetoric.pdf

The Five Canons of Rhetoric

Ethos, Pathos, and Logos: The Benefits of Aristotelian Rhetoric in the Courtroom

Krista C. McCormack

Wash. U. Jur. Rev. 131 (2014).
Available at: https://openscholarship.wustl.edu/law_jurisprudence/vol7/iss1/9

Overview of Classical Rhetoric & Aristotle’s Rhetorical System

Class 3

Les Perelman

Click to access MIT21W_747_01F09_lec03.pdf

Classical Rhetoric

https://calvin.edu/offices-services/rhetoric-center/images/Classical%20Rhetoric.pdf?language_id=1

ARISTOTLE’S RHETORIC

Understanding Rhetoric

Click to access 7347054b.pdf

Rhetoric for philosophers:
An examination of the place of rhetoric
in philosophy

Ligia Alexandra Gongalves Teixeira

LSE

LUC WRITING CENTER – “THE THREE RHETORICAL APPEALS”

Rhetoric and Poetic in the Philosophy of Aristotle

RHETORIC—OLD AND NEW

Author(s): Kenneth Burke
Source: The Journal of General Education, Vol. 5, No. 3 (April 1951), pp. 202-209

Click to access kenneth_burke_-_rhetoricold_and_new__1951.pdf

Kenneth Burke and new Rhetoric

Click to access 1930%20nichols%20article.pdf

Life as Narrative

Jerome Bruner

The Rhetoric of Science Meets the Science of Rhetoric

Randy Harris
University of Waterloo, raha@watarts.uwaterloo.ca

An Interdisciplinary Journal of Rhetorical Analysis and Invention ISSN 2151-2957

DOI: 10.13008/2151-2957.1158 Article 8

Rhetoric as Equipment for Living: Kenneth Burke, Culture and Education

Kris Rutten, Ghent University

Dries Vrijders, Ghent University

Ronald Soetaert, Ghent University

Philosophy, Rhetoric, and the New Rhetoric

Lisa Ede

Issues over the Nature, Purpose, and Epistemology of Rhetorical Invention in the Twentieth Century

Janice M. Lauer

STUDYING AND TEACHING “LAW AS RHETORIC”: A PLACE TO STAND 

Linda L. Berger*

Enactivism

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enactivism

An enactive and dynamical systems theory account of dyadic relationships

Miriam Kyselo and Wolfgang Tschacher

published: 30 May 2014

doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00452

The Enactive Approach

Ezequiel Di Paolo and Evan Thompson

Forthcoming in Lawrence Shapiro, ed., The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition (Routledge Press).

Chapter 8
The Enactive Philosophy of Embodiment: From Biological Foundations of Agency to the Phenomenology of Subjectivity

Mog Stapleton and Tom Froese

M. García-Valdecasas et al. (eds.), Biology and Subjectivity,
Historical-Analytical Studies on Nature, Mind and Action 2,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-30502-8_8

Origins and evolution of enactive cognitive science: Toward an enactive cognitive architecture

Leonardo Lana de Carvalho *,1, Denis James Pereira 2, Sophia Andrade Coelho

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bica.2015.09.010

Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures (2016) 16, 169– 178

Click to access LeonardoLanaDeCarvalho.pdf

Conscious Enactive Computation

Daniel Estrada

New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark NJ 07102

djestrada@gmail.com

Click to access paper18.pdf

Understanding others through Primary Interaction and Narrative Practice

Shaun Gallagher (Universities of Central Florida and Hertfordshire) and Daniel D. Hutto (University of Hertfordshire)

In: J. Zlatev, T. Racine, C. Sinha and E. Itkonen (eds). The Shared Mind: Perspectives on Intersubjectivity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Click to access gall&Hutto07.pdf

Works by Kenneth Burke

https://kbjournal.org/content/works-kenneth-burke

Works about Burke: Books by Title

https://www.kbjournal.org/node/181

A Unifying Model of Arts

A Unifying Model of Arts

Key Terms

  • Natya Shastra of Bharata Muni
  • Poetics of Aristotle
  • Narrative Arts
  • Narrative Psychology
  • Drama Therapy
  • Social Simulation
  • Learning and Reflection
  • Normative Choices
  • Social Psychology
  • Social Mirrors
  • Psychological Mirrors
  • Self as Other
  • Other as Self
  • Coordination Arts
  • Competition Vs Cooperation
  • Networks and Hierarchy
  • Dance
  • Music
  • Drama/Films/Theater
  • Visual Arts
  • Diegesis
  • Haple diegesis
  • Diegesis dia mimeseos
  • Diegesis di’ amphoteron
  • Mimesis

Source: A Unifying Model of the Arts: The Narration/ Coordination Model

The Narration/Coordination model is presented as a unifying model of the arts with regard to psychological processing and social functions. The model proposes a classification of the arts into the two broad categories of the narrative arts and the coordinative arts. The narrative arts function to tell stories, often to promote social learning through the modeling of prosocial behaviors. The coordinative arts function to stimulate group participation through synchronized action, thereby serving as a reinforcer of group affiliation and a promoter of social cooperation. These two categories vary with regard to a number of psychological and social features related to personal engagement, role playing, cognitive structure, and performance. The arts are evolutionarily adaptive because they promote social cooperation through two distinct routes: the simulation of prosocial behaviors via the narrative arts, and the stimulation of group synchronization and cohesion via the coordinative arts.

Narrative and Coordinative Arts

Source: A UNIFYING MODEL OF THE ARTS: THE NARRATION/ COORDINATION MODEL

Narration/Coordination Model of the Arts

Source: A UNIFYING MODEL OF THE ARTS: THE NARRATION/ COORDINATION MODEL

Features of Narrative and Coordinative Arts

Source: A UNIFYING MODEL OF THE ARTS: THE NARRATION/ COORDINATION MODEL

Classification of Arts

Source: TOWARD A UNIFICATION OF THE ARTS

Interaction among the Arts

Source: TOWARD A UNIFICATION OF THE ARTS

Modular Aspects of Performance Arts

Source: TOWARD A UNIFICATION OF THE ARTS

Connections Between the arts: an Indian Perspective

Source: ART AND COSMOLOGY IN INDIA

The view that the arts belong to the domain of the sacred and that there is a connection between them is given most clearly in a famous passage in the Vishnudharmottara Purana in which the sage Markandeya instructs the king Vajra in the art of sculpture, teaching that to learn it one must first learn painting, dance, and music:

Vajra: How should I make the forms of gods so that the image may always manifest the deity?

Markandeya: He who does not know the canon of painting (citrasutram) can never know the canon of image-making (pratima lakshanam).

Vajra: Explain to me the canon of painting as one who knows the canon of painting knows the canon of image-making.

Markandeya: It is very difficult to know the canon of painting without the canon of dance (nritta shastra), for in both the world is to be represented.

Vajra: Explain to me the canon of dance and then you will speak about the canon of painting, for one who knows the practice of the canon of dance knows painting.

Markandeya: Dance is difficult to understand by one who is not acquainted with instrumental music (atodya).

Vajra: Speak about instrumental music and then you will speak about the canon of dance, because when the instrumental music is properly understood, one understands dance.

Markandeya: Without vocal music (gita) it is not possible to know instrumental music.

Vajra: Explain to me the canon of vocal music, because he, who knows the canon of vocal music, is the best of men who knows everything.

Markandeya: Vocal music is to be understood as subject to recitation that may be done in two ways, prose (gadya) and verse (padya). Verse is in many meters.

My Related Posts:

The Social Significance of Drama and Narrative Arts

Narrative Psychology: Language, Meaning, and Self

Psychology of Happiness: Value of Storytelling and Narrative Plays

Aesthetics and Ethics

Arts and Moral Philosophy

Drama Therapy: Self in Performance

Aesthetics and Ethics: At the Intersection

Understanding Rasa: Yoga of Nine Emotions

Rituals | Recursion | Mantras | Meaning : Language and Recursion

Meta Integral Theories: Integral Theory, Critical Realism, and Complex Thought

Levels of Human Psychological Development in Integral Spiral Dynamics

Truth, Beauty, and Goodness: Integral Theory of Ken Wilber

Luminosity and Chromaticity: On Light and Color

Geometry of Consciousness

Drama Theory: Acting Strategically

Drama Theory: Choices, Conflicts and Dilemmas

Third and Higher Order Cybernetics

Key Sources of Research:

Toward a Unification of the Arts

Steven Brown*

Front. Psychol. 9:1938. 2018

doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01938

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207603/

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01938/full

Psychology of Narrative Art

Keith Oatley and Maja Djikic

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317424139_Psychology_of_Narrative_Art

A Unifying Model of the Arts: The Narration/ Coordination Model

Steven Brown

Empirical Studies of the Arts 2019, Vol. 37(2) 172–196

Click to access NarrCoord.pdf

Interaction, narrative, and drama: Creating an adaptive interactive narrative using performance arts theories

Magy Seif El-Nasr

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233651644_Interaction_narrative_and_drama_Creating_an_adaptive_interactive_narrative_using_performance_arts_theories

Art, dance, and music therapy

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15458755/

Healing Dramas and Clinical Plots: The Narrative Structure of Experience (Cambridge Studies in Medical Anthropology)1st Edition

Cheryl Mattingly

A hypothesis on the biological origins and social evolution of music and dance

Tianyan Wang

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4332322/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25741232/

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2015.00030/full

Narrative, Emotion, and Insight

Edited by Noël Carroll, and John Gibson

https://www.psupress.org/books/titles/978-0-271-04857-4.html

The narrative arc: Revealing core narrative structures through text analysis

  • Ryan L. Boyd1,*
  • Kate G. Blackburn2 and 
  • James W. Pennebaker2

 Science Advances   07 Aug 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 32, eaba2196
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aba2196

Historical Narratives and the Philosophy of Art

Noël Carroll

The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 

Vol. 51, No. 3, Philosophy and the Histories of the Arts (Summer, 1993),

pp. 313-326 (14 pages) Published By: Wiley 

https://doi.org/10.2307/431506

Narratives and Narrators: A Philosophy of Stories

Gregory Currie

The Poetics, Aesthetics, and Philosophy of Narrative

Noël Carroll

Wiley-Blackwell (2009)

https://philpapers.org/rec/CARTPA-11

The Psychology of Narrative Thought: How the Stories We Tell Ourselves Shape our lives

By Lee Roy Beach

Narrative: State of the Art

Click to access Bamberg,%20%20%20%20%20%20Narrative-State%20of%20the%20Art,%20%20%20%20%20%20Georgakopoulou%20Thinking%20Big%20with%20small%20stories%20in%20narrative%20and%20%20%20%20%20%20identity%20analysis.pdf

Narrative Psychology, Trauma and the Study of Self/Identity

Michele L. Crossley

Theory and Psychology Vol 10, Issue 4, 2000

First Published August 1, 2000 

https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354300104005

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0959354300104005

The “Who” System of the Human Brain: A System for Social Cognition About the Self and Others

Steven Brown*

  • Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada

Front. Hum. Neurosci., 19 June 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00224

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00224/full

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-“Who”-System-of-the-Human-Brain%3A-A-System-for-Brown/ba6117482c0a649736251ef80ab12f6cf9cb7032

The Synthesis of the Arts: From Ceremonial Ritual to “Total Work of Art”

Steven Brown1* and Ellen Dissanayake2

  • 1Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
  • 2School of Music, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

Front. Sociol., 15 May 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2018.00009

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsoc.2018.00009/full

Storytelling Is Intrinsically Mentalistic: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Narrative Production across Modalities

Ye Yuan, Judy Major-Girardin, and Steven Brown

https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1162/jocn_a_01294

The neural basis of audiomotor entrainment: an ALE meta-analysis

Léa A. S. ChauvignéKevin M. Gitau and Steven Brown*

Front. Hum. Neurosci., 30 September 2014 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00776

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00776/full

The Evolution and Ontogeny of Ritual

Part VI. Culture and Coordination

Cristine H. LegareRachel E. Watson‐Jones


The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology

First published: 18 November 2015 https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119125563.evpsych234

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781119125563.evpsych234

On the distinction of empathic and vicarious emotions

Frieder M. Paulus1,2*, Laura Müller-Pinzler1Stefan Westermann1 and Sören Krach1*

Front. Hum. Neurosci., 15 May 2013 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00196

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00196/full

The Narrative Construction of Reality

Jerome Bruner

https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1086/448619

Click to access bruner1991narrative.pdf

Cooperation and the evolution of hunter-gatherer storytelling

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02036-8

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | 8: 1853

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-02036-8.pdf?origin=ppub

Ancient or Modern? Alexander G. Baumgarten and the Coming of Age of Aesthetics

Alessandro Nannini

Click to access 0353-57381503629N.pdf

EVOLUTION, AESTHETICS, AND ART: AN OVERVIEW

Stephen Davies, Philosophy, University of Auckland

https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/2292/43360/Davies2018RoutHbookEvolutionandPhilosophy.pdf?sequence=2

Diegesis – Mimesis

Stephen Halliwell
Created: 17. October 2012 Revised: 12. September 2013

Published on the living handbook of narratology (http://www.lhn.uni-hamburg.de)

https://www.lhn.uni-hamburg.de/printpdf/article/diegesis-–-mimesis

Art and Cosmology in India

Subhash Kak 2006

Luminosity and Chromaticity: On Light and Color

Luminosity and Chromaticity: On Light and Color

Key Terms and Ideas

  • Luminosity and Chromaticity
  • Light and Color
  • Diwali (Festival of Light) and Holi (Festival of Colors)
  • Rama and Krishna
  • Non Dual Vedanta and Trika Philosophy
  • 1 and 3
  • Verticalism and Horizontalism
  • Vedic and Tantric
  • Flute of Krishna and Shiva Jyotir Linga
  • Bow and Arrow of Ram
  • Ram Parivar and Shiv Parivar
  • Shiv Ratri
  • Plato and Aristotle
  • Sun, Moon, Earth and Mars
  • Rods and Cones in Retina
  • Color Temperature
  • Lok and Kosh
  • Seven Chakra
  • Trishool
  • Ram, Lakshman, Sita, Hanuman
  • Achromatic and Chromatic
  • Grey scale and Color Primaries
  • Mind and Moon
  • Moon and Emotions
  • Tone Circle
  • Color Circle
  • Pythagoras
  • 3 and 7
  • 137
  • 007
  • Prism
  • Seven Colors
  • 4 + 3 = 7
  • 4 x 3 = 12
  • Pentatonic
  • Heptatonic
  • Diatonic Scale
  • Chromatic Scale

Newton’s Color Circle

Source: http://winlab.rutgers.edu/~trappe/Courses/ImageVideoS06/MollonColorScience.pdf

Color Circle in Opticks of I.Newton

Source: Reprint of Opticks by Project Gutenberg

Color Sensation

Source: Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Source: Notes for the course of Color Digital Image Processing

Color Temperature

Source: Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

Color Temperatures of the Stars

Luminosity Function

Source: Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

CIE 1931 XYZ

Source: Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

Luminance

Source: Human Vision and Color

Brightness, Lightness,Hue, Saturation, and Luminosity

Source: The Brightness of Colour

Brightness has been defined as the perceived intensity of a visual stimulus, irrespective of its source. Lightness, on the other hand, is defined as the apparent brightness of an object relative to the object’s reflectance. Thus increasing the intensity of light falling on an object will increase its apparent brightness but not necessarily its apparent lightness, other things being equal [1]. Saturation is a measure of the spectral ‘‘purity’’ of a colour, and thus how different it is from a neutral, achromatic stimulus. Hue is the perception of how similar a stimulus is to red, green, blue etc. Luminous efficiency, or luminosity, measures the effect that light of different wavelengths has on the human visual system. It is a function of wavelength, usually written as V(l) [2], and is typically measured by rapidly alternating a pair of stimuli falling on the same area of the retina; the subject alters the physical radiance of one stimulus until the apparent flickering is minimised. Thus luminance is a measure of the intensity of a stimulus given the sensitivity of the human visual system, and so is integrated over wavelength [3]. Luminance is thought to be used by the brain to process motion, form and texture [4].

Clearly, brightness is monotonically related to luminance in the simplest case: the more luminant the stimulus is, the brighter it appears to be. However, the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK) effect shows that the brightness of a stimulus is not a simple representation of luminance, since the brightness of equally luminant stimuli changes with their relative saturation (i.e. strongly coloured stimuli appear brighter than grey stimuli), and with shifts in the spectral distribution of the stimulus (e.g. ‘blues’ and ‘reds’ appear brighter than ‘greens’ and ‘yellows’ at equiluminance) [1; 5–6].

The HK effect has been measured in a variety of psychophysical studies [7–8] and is often expressed in terms of the (variable) ratio between brightness and luminance. 

Chromaticity

Source: Human Vision and Color

Human Eye

Source: Human Vision and Color

Human Retina

Source: Human Vision and Color

Rods and Cones Photoreceptors

Source: Human Vision and Color

Color Receptors

Source: Human Vision and Color

Tristimulus Color

Source: Color/CMU

Visual Sensitivity

Source: Human Vision https://people.cs.umass.edu/~elm/Teaching/ppt/691a/CV%20UNIT%20Light/691A_UNIT_Light_1.ppt.pdf

Light and Color (Photometry and Colorimetry) I

Source: Interactive Computer Graphics/UOMichigan

Light and Color (Photometry and Colorimetry) II

Source: Interactive Computer Graphics/UOMichigan

Two Types of Light Sensitive Cells

Source: Interactive Computer Graphics/UOMichigan

Cones and Rod Sensitivity

Source: Interactive Computer Graphics/UOMichigan

Distribution of Cones in Retina

Source: DIVERSE CELL TYPES, CIRCUITS, AND MECHANISMS FOR COLOR VISION IN THE VERTEBRATE RETINA

Types of Color Stimuli

Source: Perceiving Color. https://www.ics.uci.edu/~majumder/vispercep/chap5notes.pdf

Color Perception

Source: Perceiving Color. https://www.ics.uci.edu/~majumder/vispercep/chap5notes.pdf

CIE XYZ Model

Source: Human Vision and Color

Luminance and Chromaticity Space

Source: Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

1931 CIE Chromaticity Chart

CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram

Source: Human Vision and Color

Source: Notes for the course of Color Digital Image Processing

Additive Colors

Source: Human Vision and Color

Subtractive Colors

Source: Human Vision and Color

Color Mixing

Source: Human Vision and Color

Color Appearance Models
  • RGB
  • CMY
  • CIE XYZ
  • CIE xyY
  • CIE LAB
  • Hunter LAB
  • CIE LUV
  • CIE LCH
  • HSB
  • HSV
  • HSL
  • HSI
  • YIQ for NTSC TVs in USA
  • YUV for PAL TVs in EU
  • YCbCr for digital TVs
  • Munsell Color System

Color Models are device independent. For discussion of device dependent color spaces, please see my post Digital Color and Imaging.

LMS, RGB, and CIE XYZ Color Spaces

Source: Color/CMU

HSV Color Space

My Related Posts

Reflective Display Technology: Using Pigments and Structural Colors

Color Science and Technology in LCD and LED Displays

Color Science of Gem Stones

Nature’s Fantastical Palette: Color From Structure

Optics of Metallic and Pearlescent Colors

Color Change: In Biology and Smart Pigments Technology

Color and Imaging in Digital Video and Cinema

Digital Color and Imaging

On Luminescence: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Bioluminescence

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Understanding Rasa: Yoga of Nine Emotions

Shapes and Patterns in Nature

Key Sources of Research

What Are The Characteristics Of Color?

https://www.pantone.com/articles/color-fundamentals/what-are-the-characteristics-of-color

Birren Color Theory

by ADMIN on MARCH 11, 2012

http://www.wonderfulcolors.org/blog/birren-color-theory/

Light, Color, Perception, and Color Space Theory

Professor Brian A. Barsky

barsky@cs.berkeley.edu

Computer Science Division
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California, Berkeley

Understanding Color Spaces and Color Space Conversion

https://www.mathworks.com/help/images/understanding-color-spaces-and-color-space-conversion.html

The Human Visual System and Color Models

Click to access Carmody_Visual&ColorModels.pdf

Defining and Communicating Color: The CIELAB System

Color Vision and Arts

http://www.webexhibits.org/colorart/index.html

PRECISE COLOR COMMUNICATION: COLOR CONTROL FROM PERCEPTION TO INSTRUMENTATION

KonicaMinolta

A short history of color theory

https://programmingdesignsystems.com/color/a-short-history-of-color-theory/index.html

Let’s Colormath

Understanding the formulas of color conversion

https://donatbalipapp.medium.com/colours-maths-90346fb5abda

A History of Human Color Vision—from Newton to Maxwell

Barry R. Masters

Optics and Photonics January 2011

https://www.osa-opn.org/home/articles/volume_22/issue_1/features/a_history_of_human_color_vision—from_newton_to_max/

The Difference Between Chroma and Saturation

Munsell Color

Charles S. Peirce’s Phenomenology: Analysis and Consciousness

By Richard Kenneth Atkins

The Evolution of Human Color Vision/ Jeremy Nathans

Jeremy Nathans Lecture on Color Vision

JEREMY NATHANS LECTURE ON COLOR VISION

JEREMY NATHANS LECTURE ON COLOR VISION

JEREMY NATHANS LECTURE ON COLOR VISION

The Genes for Color Vision

Jeremy Nathans

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN FEBRUARY 1989

A Short History of Color Photography

Photography  |  Angie Kordic

https://www.widewalls.ch/magazine/color-photography

Blue: The History of a Color (2001)

followed by Black: The History of a Color (2009) and then Green: The History of a Color (2014), all produced by the same publisher. A fifth, devoted to yellow, should come next. 

Historic Look on Color Theory 

Steele R. Stokley

The evolution of colour in design from the 1950s to today

Francesca Valan

Journal of the International Colour Association (2012): 8, 55-60

Greek Color Theory and the Four Elements

J.L. Benson

University of Massachusetts Amherst

A SHORT HISTORY OF COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY

https://blog.scienceandmediamuseum.org.uk/a-short-history-of-colour-photography/

History of Color System

The Origins of Modern Color Science

J D Mollon

Click to access MollonColorScience.pdf

The History of Colors

Tobias Kiefer

Click to access Assignment_History_of_Colors.PDF

Notes for the course of Color Digital Image Processing

Edoardo Provenzi

Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

Dr. Michael S. Brown

Canada Research Chair Professor York University – Toronto

ICCV 2019 Tutorial – Seoul, Korea

Chapter 2
Basic Color Theory

Click to access t3.pdf

Color Science

CS 4620 Lecture 26

Click to access 26color.pdf

Color Image Perception, Representation and Contrast Enhancement

Yao Wang
Tandon School of Engineering, New York University

A GUIDE TO LIGHT AND COLOUR DEMONSTRATIONS

Arne Valberg, Bjørg Helene Andorsen, Kine Angelo, Barbara Szybinska Matusiak and Claudia Moscoso

Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim, Norway

https://www.ntnu.edu/documents/1272527942/1272817015/2015-09-08+DEMO+web.pdf/f1695ca5-b834-4d05-a011-a185f6562e32

A Primer to Colors in Digital Design

Archit Jha

Jul 16, 2017

https://uxdesign.cc/a-primer-to-colors-in-digital-design-7d16bb33399e

Chapter 7 ADDITIVE COLOR MIXING

Click to access 07_additive-color.pdf

Computergrafik

Matthias Zwicker Universität Bern Herbst 2016

Color

Click to access ColorPerception.pdf

Introduction to Computer Vision

The Perception of Color

In: Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System [Internet]. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995–.2005 May 1 [updated 2007 Jul 9]

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21413396/

Visual Pigment Gene Structure and Expression in Human Retinae 

Tomohiko Yamaguchi,  Arno G. Motulsky,  Samir S. Deeb

Human Molecular Genetics, Volume 6, Issue 7, July 1997, Pages 981–990, https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/6.7.981

https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article/6/7/981/572151

The Difference Between Chroma and Saturation

LUMINANCE AND CHROMATICITY

https://colorusage.arc.nasa.gov/lum_and_chrom.php

Number by Colors

A Guide to Using Color to Understand Technical Data
  • Brand Fortner
  • Theodore E. Meyer

Chapter 5 Perceiving Color

The Practical Guide To Color Theory For Photographers

History of the Bauhaus

https://bauhaus.netlify.app/form_color/color/

The Digital Artist’s Complete Guide To Mastering Color Theory

byLeigh G

BASIC COLOR THEORY

Anthony Holdsworth

Molecular Genetics of Color Vision and Color Vision Defects

Maureen Neitz, PhDJay Neitz, PhD

Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(5):691-700. doi:10.1001/archopht.118.5.691

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/fullarticle/413200

Color Theory: Introduction to Color Theory and the Color Wheel

https://blog.thepapermillstore.com/color-theory-introduction-color-wheel/

Color Spaces and Color Temperature

https://tigoe.github.io/LightProjects/color-spaces-color-temp.html

The Brightness of Colour

David Corney1, John-Dylan Haynes2, Geraint Rees3,4, R. Beau Lotto1*

EECS 487: Interactive Computer Graphics

Colorimetry

KonicaMinolta

Basics of Color Theory

THE BASICS OF COLOR PERCEPTION AND MEASUREMENT

Hunterlab

https://www.hunterlab.com/color-measurement-learning/glossary/

Color Matching and Color Discrimination

The Science of Color

2003

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.457.9467&rep=rep1&type=pdf

1.3 Color Temperature

https://www.mat.univie.ac.at/~kriegl/Skripten/CG/CG.html

https://www.mat.univie.ac.at/~kriegl/Skripten/CG/node10.html

Color Spaces and Color Temperature

https://tigoe.github.io/LightProjects/color-spaces-color-temp.html

Digital Camera Sensor Colorimetry

Douglas A. Kerr

Click to access Sensor_Colorimetry.pdf

Chromatic luminance, colorimetric purity, and optimal aperture‐color stimuli

DOI: 10.1002/col.20356

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230164581_Chromatic_luminance_colorimetric_purity_and_optimal_aperture-color_stimuli

Title: A Review of RGB Color Spaces …from xyY to R’G’B’

The CIE XYZ and xyY Color Spaces

Douglas A. Kerr

Click to access CIE_XYZ.pdf

DIVERSE CELL TYPES, CIRCUITS, AND MECHANISMS FOR COLOR VISION IN THE VERTEBRATE RETINA

Wallace B. Thoreson and Dennis M. Dacey

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska; and Department of Biological Structure, Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Physiol Rev 99: 1527–1573, 2019 Published May 29, 2019; doi:10.1152/physrev.00027.2018

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/physrev.00027.2018

Human Vision

Introduction to color theory

https://graphics.stanford.edu/courses/cs178-10/applets/locus.html

COLOR WHEELS

https://www2.bellevuecollege.edu/artshum/materials/art/tanzi/Winter04/111/111CLRWHLSW04.htm

Human Vision and Color

UT

Click to access 121.pdf

COLOR VISION MECHANISMS

Andrew Stockman

Department of Visual Neuroscience UCL Institute of Opthalmology London, United KIngdom

David H. Brainard

Department of Psychology University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Color

CMU

Click to access lecture15.pdf

What Are The Characteristics Of Color?

Pantone

https://www.pantone.com/articles/color-fundamentals/what-are-the-characteristics-of-color

A Guide to Color


Guide C-316
Revised by Jennah McKinley

https://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_c/C316/welcome.html

A History of Color

The Evolution of Theories of Lights and Color
  • Robert A. Crone

https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-94-007-0870-9

The Brilliant History of Color in Art

Victoria Finlay

A History of Light and Colour Measurement
Science in the Shadows

Sean F Johnston

University of Glasgow, Crichton Campus, UK

Color codes: modern theories of color in philosophy, painting and architecture, literature, music and psychology

Charles Riley

Chapter 6 Colour

History of Color Systems

Color and Imaging in Digital Video and Cinema

Color reproduction and management is a key task in digital video and cinema production. Choices of hardware, software, and handoffs and handshakes in production process require control over color of an image or a video. This is a very complex task due to several reasons.

  • Complexity of Color and its measurement
  • Changing color and light conditions during shoot indoors and outdoors
  • Hardware and software encoded color standards are inconsistent. Cameras, displays and projectors all have different color specifications.
  • After shoot, the data recorded is processed using different softwares for editing, grading, compositing, CG rendering, animations, and special effects. These softwares require different data formats (Log vs Linear).
  • After processing video data is required to meet different deliverables in multiple formats for displays and projectors.
  • Archiving and storage of data requires specific color formats.
  • There are also subjective and artistic requirements to meet look and feel of the data.

My post is to bring these issues to light and to educate. I hope after reading this post you know little more about color and its management during digital video and cinema production.

Key Terms

  • ACES
  • LUT
  • REC709
  • REC2020
  • Color Gamut
  • CIE Chromaticies
  • CIE XYZ
  • ACES 1.1
  • ACES 1.2
  • Color Workflow
  • Premier Pro
  • Final Cut Pro
  • Davinci Resolve
  • Avid Media Composer
  • IDT
  • ODT
  • RRT
  • Maya
  • Nuke
  • After Effects
  • ITU
  • SMPTE
  • AECS
  • ACES AP0
  • ACES AP1
  • BT 709
  • BT 2020
  • BT 2100 in 2016 to include HDR
  • HDR High Dymanic Range
  • HDR 10
  • SLog3
  • Fusion
  • Resolve
  • After Effects
  • OCIO
  • IDT
  • ODT
  • RRT
  • Red
  • Arri
  • Sony
  • Canon
  • Octane
  • CG
  • Linear representation of light
  • Gamma Curve
  • Log Gamma Curve
  • Log Profiles
  • Dynamic Range
  • Linearize work flow
  • Wide Gamut color space
  • Rendering engines
  • VRay
  • Arnold
  • Redshift
  • Octane
  • Cinema 4d
  • Blender
  • EXR linearize
  • Reference Rendering Transform
  • Color Manager OCIO
  • SLog
  • ACES CC
  • ACES CCT
  • Wave Form
  • DaVinci Resolve
  • After Effects
  • FS7
  • Rushes
  • Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
  • American Society of Cinematographers ASC
  • Digital Cinema Initiatives DCI
  • Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers SMPTE
  • OpenColor IO
  • 32 bit per channel
  • 8 Bit
  • ACES CG Input
  • REC 709 Output

Human Vision

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Color Models of Human Vision

Please see my two previous posts.

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Digital Color and Imaging

Digital Color

Source: What is 4K, UHD, SLog3, Rec 2020

The process of capturing and reproducing images requires a collaboration of camera sensors, file formats, rendering technologies, and display or printer technologies. All of these have different ways and different capabilities of representing color and intensity. In addition, they are all different from how our eyes work which further complicates things. As a result, over the years, several standards and processes have been implemented to accomplish this. They all involve some aspects of how to capture and store colors, what range of colors can be dealt with and how to adjust intensity to best reproduce the real world. To understand the new 4k technologies, including SLOG3, HDR, Rec 2020 etc, an understanding of the following is needed.

  • Gamut
  • Bit Depth
  • Gamma
  • Gamma Correction
  • Color spaces

Color Gamut

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Color Capture in Digital Video and Cinema

Source: HOW DOES A DIGITAL CAMERA SENSOR WORK?

A modern digital camera’s sensor comes in one of two varieties generally. It will either be a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), or a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) sensor. The CCD type is mainly used in older models, but is still used on some modern cameras. Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages, but that is a topic for another article.

The most basic way you can understand how a sensor works is when the shutter opens, the sensor captures the photons that hit it and that is converted to an electrical signal that the processor in the camera reads and interprets as colors. This information is then stitched together to form an image. That is insanely over-simplified though.

The more complex answer is that a sensor is made up of millions of cavities called “photosites,” and these photosites open when the shutter opens and close when the exposure is finished (the number of photosites is the same number of pixels your camera has). The photons that hit each photosite are interpreted as an electrical signal that varies in strength based on how many photons were actually captured in the cavity. How precise this process is depends on your camera’s bit depth.

If we looked at a picture that was taken with just that electrical data mentioned earlier from the sensor, then the images would actually be in gray-scale. How we get colored images is by what’s known as a “Bayer filter array.” A Bayer filter is a colored filter placed over-top of each photosite and is used to determine the color of an image based on how the electrical signals from neighboring photosites measure. The colors of the filters are the standard red, green and blue, with a ratio of one red, one blue and two green in every section of four photosites.

Image for post
A graphic of light entering photosites with Bayer filters layered on. (graphic/Cambridge in Colour)

The red filter allows red light to be captured, the blue allows blue light in and the green allows green light in. The light that doesn’t match that photosites filter is reflected. This means that we are losing two-thirds of the light that can be captured and it is only of one color for each photosite. This forces the camera to guess what the amount of the other two colors is in each given pixel.

The data that is interpreted by the sensor with the Bayer filter array is what a RAW image file is.

The camera then goes through a process to estimate how much of each color of light there was for each photosite and colors the image based on that guessing.

Single Sensor Vs Multiple Sensors in Cameras

  • Sensor Type
    • CCD
    • CMOS
  • Sensor Size
    • Full Frame
    • APS-C
  • Sensor Numbers
    • Single – 1 CMOS or 1CCD
    • Multiple – 2CCD, 3CCD, 3CMOS
  • Sensor Pixels
    • 24 MP
    • 48 MP
  • Sensor Dynamic Range
    • Range of brightness sensor captures
    • 14 Stops
    • 20 Stops

A camera sensor can only capture a limited range of light. When a scene extends beyond that range of light, techniques such as filters, flash, and editing techniques can still create a dramatic, well-detailed image.

Comparison of different sensor sizes

Image Source: Camera Sensor Sizes Explained: What You Need to Know

Source: Camera Sensor Sizes Explained: What You Need to Know

Cameras with Single Image Sensor

With CFA Color Filter Array

  • Bayer CFA

Bayer CFA

Source:

Conversion of RAW files

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Cameras with multiple Image Sensors

Cameras with multiple sensors do not require Bayer CFA.

  • 3 CCD – Single color info per sensor
  • 3 CMOS – Single color info per sensor
  • 4 CCD – Single color info per sensor plus Near Infra Red (NIR) info

Color Spaces in the Digital Video and Cinema

Image Source: Common Color Spaces

Gamut of Color Spaces

Color Space is characterized based on how much of its gamut covers the CIE Chromaticity Diagram.

Image Source: Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Source: The Pointer’s Gamut
The coverage of real surface colors by RGB color spaces and wide gamut displays

Source: The Pointer’s Gamut
The coverage of real surface colors by RGB color spaces and wide gamut displays

Device Dependent Color Spaces

Capture Devices

Professional Cameras for Cinematography and Videography from

  • Sony
  • Canon
  • Arri
  • Red

Camera Sensor Dynamic Range

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Conversion of RAW to Video Formats

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Sony SLog Transfer Function

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Sony Transfer Functions

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Other Transfer Functions

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Sony Color Spaces

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Slog, Gamma, and Gamut

Source: Are S-Log and Color Space separate things?

S-log is a specific gamma, color space is a general term referring to gamuts. A very crude way of thinking is gamma refers to brightness and gamut refers to color.

It’s important to know which gamma and gamut you are recording in as this helps to ensure there is correct gamma and gamut mapping from capture to exhibition.

What is Gamma?

Gamma is also called Tone Mapping.

Source: What is 4K, UHD, SLog3, Rec 2020

Each pixel has a brightness level, which is the average of {red, green, blue} values, and this is called its luminance. In order to reproduce an image from capture to display, the luminance needs to be accurately reproduced. Since sensors and displays can have different luminance characteristics, there needs to be a mapping or relationship between a pixel’s numerical values and the actual luminance…this relationship is called the Gamma.

Linear Space is counter to Gamma Space or Log Space.

Log Space or Gamma Space

Log Curve simulates a non-linear curve. Log Color Profiles can be created for a camera.

  • Arri LogC
  • Cineon Dpx
  • RedLogFilm
  • Canon-Log

Source: LOG COLOR IN-DEPTH

Every professional camera manufacturer and almost every VFX and grading package has a Log workflow. Camera companies such as Arri, Sony, Canon, Red and many others implement their own flavors of Log color space. With the Log workflow it is possible to fit more dynamic range into an image and simulate nonlinear film response to light. The term Log is derived from the word logarithm, which is a fancy name for a function which outputs exponents for the given number.

Log Spaces of Different Brands

Source: LOG COLOR IN-DEPTH

Gamma Curve = Tone Curve = Log Curve

Log footage is an important part of the post-production workflow. Here’s what you need to know.

Source: UNDERSTANDING LOG AND COLOR SPACE IN COMPOSITING

As digital filmmaking becomes more and more affordable, technologies become increasingly available to colorists or post-production professionals. In this case, Log footage. The Log (logarithmic) color space has been around for quite a while. Initially high-end post houses used it with scanned film negatives in a color space called Cineon Log. Now, pretty much all camera manufacturers offer their own Log curve (or multiple). There is S-Log 2&3 (Sony), LogC (Arri), Canon LogV-Log (panasonic), Red LogfilmBlackmagic Log, etc. Each of them are different, usually tailored for the color science of the particular manufacturer’s products.

The biggest reason to use the Log color curve is how it retains the most dynamic range of information from the camera sensor (or film negative). It encodes what the camera sees logarithmically, meaning that the correlation between the exposure of the image (measured in stops) and the recorded image  is completely constant over a wider range. It utilizes more of the sensor’s information than a standard video curve because it’s saving as much data as possible rather than capturing specifically for the human eye or a video screen. This gives you much more color data to work with in post-production.

Linear Space

Source: Color Management/Blender

For correct results, different Color Spaces are needed for rendering, display and storage of images. Rendering and compositing is best done in scene linear color space, which corresponds more closely to nature, and makes computations more physically accurate.

Log Space to Linear Space Conversion

Source: LOG COLOR IN-DEPTH

In conclusion, to bring an image into the log color space all we need to do is to apply a logarithmic function which transforms values of pixels based on the log curves above. To linearize a log picture, we use an exponent function. Since the log color space is a mathematical transformation of values of pixels, it can be used with any types of file format, bit depth and channel. 

White Point

Is the color temperature of light. Outdoors, Indoor, Sunny, Cloudy conditions affect White Point. In Cameras white point can be adjusted depending on light conditions. D65 simulates daylight.

  • D50 – 5000 K
  • D60 – 6000 K
  • D65 – 6500 K

sRGB uses D65 vs ACES uses D60.

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

So do you understand these now?

  • LUT (Look Up Tables)
  • EOTF (Electro-Optical Transfer Function) – Linear to Non Linear or Log Conversion
  • OETF (Optio-Electro Transfer Function) – Log to Linear Conversion
  • Gamma Curve – Popular Name for EOTF
  • Gamma Correction
  • Log Curve (Non Linear Data)
  • Linear Curve (Linear Data)
  • High Dynamic Range HDR
  • Standard Dynamic Range SDR
  • White Point
  • IDT – Input Data Transform
  • ODT – Output Data Transform
  • Log LUT
  • f-Stops

A pair of Gamma and Gamut data is requied for encoding to display colors.

A device dependent RGB color space has standard primaries, gamma, and a whitepoint such as D50 or D65.

  • Primaries (R G B) for Color
  • Gamma for Luminance, and
  • White Point

Source: The Essential Guide to Color Spaces

Now that we’ve discussed these three parameters, here are some practical examples:

An Arri Alexa records media in Arri Wide Color Gamut, with an Arri Log C tone mapping curve, and a white point ranging from 2,000K to 11,000K.

A RED Dragon captures media in RedWideGamutRGB gamut, with a Log3G10 tone mapping curve, and a white point ranging from 1,700K to 10,000K (other gamut and gamma choices are available).

A cinema projector has a DCI-P3 gamut, a Gamma 2.6 tone mapping curve, and a standard illuminant D63 white point.

An SDR TV has a Rec 709 gamut, a Gamma 2.4 tone mapping curve, and a standard illuminant D65 white point.

Display Devices

  • Display Projectors
  • Television
  • Computer Monitors

Three advantages in newer display devices

  • Color
    • Color Space
    • Bit Depth
    • Gamma
    • Gamma Correction
  • Resolution
    • 4K vs 8K
  • Luminance
    • Nits

Image Source: What is 4K, UHD, SLog3, Rec 2020

Color Spaces used in Display Devices

Image Source: What is 4K, UHD, SLog3, Rec 2020

Display Resolution

Image Source: WHAT IS 4K, UHD, SLOG3, REC 2020

Bit Depth

Image Source: WHAT IS 4K, UHD, SLOG3, REC 2020

Color Specification using Color Management option in displays

Color Management in Digital Video and Cinema Production

In production of

  • Feature Film
  • Television
  • OTT
  • Live Production

SDR with REC 709 Color Space

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

SDR with S-Gamut3 and REC 2020

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Process Flow

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Live Production

Image Source: Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Image Source: WHAT IS 4K, UHD, SLOG3, REC 2020

Operations during Production Process
  • Shoot
  • Convert
  • Edit/Grading
  • Conforming
  • Compositing/Rendering/VFX/CG
  • Convert
  • Deliverables
Color Space Hierarchy in Process Flows

  • Scene Referred – Input data has higher priority
  • Display Referred – Output data has higher priority

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Source:

Process Flows in ACES

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

Working with ACES

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

CG and VFX Process Flows

Source: https://z-fx.nl/ColorspACES.pdf

The ‘Parts’ Of ACES

Source: Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Even though ACES and its various transforms are quite mathematically complex, you can understand ACES better by understanding what each part or transform in the pipeline does.

Here’s the terminology for each of these transforms:

ACES Input Transform (aka: IDT or Input Device Transform)

The Input Transform takes the capture-referred data of a camera and transforms it into scene linear, ACES color space. Camera manufacturers are responsible for developing IDTs for their cameras but the Academy tests and verifies the IDTs. In future versions of ACES, the Academy may take on more control in the development of IDTs. IDTs, like all ACES transforms, are written using the CTL (Color Transform Language) programming language. It’s also possible to utilize different IDTs to compensate for different camera settings that might have been used.

ACES Look Transform (aka: LMT or Look Modification Transform)

The first part of what’s known as the ACES Viewing Transform (the Viewing Transform is a combination of LMT, RRT, & ODT transforms). LMTs provide a way to apply a look in a similar way to a Look Up Table (LUT). It’s important to note that the LMT happens after color grading of ACES data. Also, not every tool supports the use of LMTs.

RRT (Reference Rendering Transform)

Think of the RRT as the render engine component of ACES. The RRT converts scene referred linear data to an ultrawide display-referred data set. The RRT works in combo with the ODT to create viewable data for displays and projectors. While the Academy publishes the standard RRT, some applications have the ability to use customized RRTs (written with CTL). But many color correction systems do not provide direct access to the RRT.

ACES Output Transform (also known as the ODT or Output Device Transform)

The final step in the ACES processing pipeline is the ODT. This takes the high dynamic range data from the RRT and transforms it for different devices and color spaces. Like P3 or Rec 709, 2020, etc. Like IDTs and RRTs, ODTs are written with CTL.

Derivative Standards

Source: Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

There are also three main subsets of ACES used for finishing workflows called ACEScc, ACEScct and ACEScg:

  • ACEScc uses logarithmic color encoding and has the advantage of making color grading tools feel much more like they do when working in a log space that many colorists prefer.
  • ACEScct is just like ACEScc, but adds a ‘toe’ to the encoding. This means that lift operations respond similarly to traditional log film scans. This quasi-logarithmic behavior is described as being more milky, or foggier. ACEScct was added with the ACES 1.03 specification. It’s meant as an alternative to ACEScc based on the feedback of many colorists.
  • ACEScg utilizes linear color encoding and is designed for VFX/CGI artists so their tools behave more traditionally.

The ACES Pipeline

Source: Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Now that we’ve defined the transforms used for ACES, understanding how the various transforms combine to form an ACES processing pipeline is pretty straightforward:

Camera Data -> Input Transform -> Color Grading -> Look Transform (optional) -> Reference Rendering Transform -> Output Transform

As mentioned, ACES is a hybrid color management system of scene referred/scene linear and display referred data.

Source: Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Source: COLOUR MANAGEMENT BASICS

Source: COLOUR MANAGEMENT BASICS

Source: COLOUR MANAGEMENT BASICS

Source: COLOUR MANAGEMENT BASICS/Autodesk

Color Throttle

Because of bottlenecks in hardware and software, the color captured during the image/video capture process does not flow in its entirty to the displays of the users. Use of hardware and color spaces used during production process determines the output displayed. Color is thus throttled.

Color Throttle when using REC 709 Color Space

Image Source: BT.2020: How the Newest Color Range Standard Maximizes 4K Video Quality

Color Throttle when using REC 2020 Color Space

Image Source: BT.2020: How the Newest Color Range Standard Maximizes 4K Video Quality

Human Visual Dynamic Range Vs REC 2020 Range

Source: BT.2020: How the Newest Color Range Standard Maximizes 4K Video Quality

Source:

Softwares used in Post Production in Digital Video and Cinema

Source: digitalfilmpro.com

Video Editing Software and Hardware
  • Non Linear Editor
    • Avid Media Composer
    • Adobe Premiere Pro
    • Final Cut Pro
    • DaVinci Resolve – color correction plus NLE
    • Vegas Pro
  • Digital Audio Workstation
    • Avid Pro Tools
    • Apple Logic Pro X
    • Ableton Live 9
    • Cakewalk Sonar
    • Adobe Audition
  • Close-Captioning and Subtitling
    • Aegisub
    • NLEs
  • Edit Workstation
    • Edit Computer
    • Audio Equipment
    • File Sharing
      • KVM Extender
    • Editing Keyboard
    • Desk Chair
  • Digital Audio Transcipts

Creative Apps
  • RV
  • Adobe After Effects
  • Adobe Premiere Pro
  • SideFX Houdini
  • Unreal Engine
  • Unity
  • Perforce Helix Core
  • Adobe Creative Cloud
  • Adobe Illustrator
  • Autodesk 3DS Max
  • Autodesk Maya
  • Autodesk RV
  • Cinesync
  • Connect
  • Deadline
  • Foundry Hiero
  • Foundry Hiero Player
  • Foundry Nuke
  • Foundry Nuke Studio
  • Maxon Cinema 4D

Free Video Editing Tools
  • DaVinci Resolve
  • Lightworks
  • HitFilm Express
  • Avid Media Composer First
  • iMovie

Free Video Production Software Tools
  • Audacity – multitrack audio recorder
  • Ardour – DAW
  • GIMP- image editing
  • Blender – 3D Creation
  • Nuke Studio – Compositor – Node Based visual FX (VFX), editing, and finishing Studio
  • Blackmagic Fusion – Full feaured Compositor – Motion Graphics

3D Rendering Softwares
  • Unity
  • 3Ds Max Design
  • Maya
  • Cinema 4D
  • Blender
  • Keyshot
  • V-Ray
  • Lumion
  • SOLIDWORKS Visualize
  • Direct 3D
  • RenderMan
  • Redshift
  • Octane Render
  • Arnold
  • Maxwell
Color Management in Applications

Source: DISPLAY CALIBRATION & COLOR MANAGEMENT

Cameras for Video

Budget Cinema Cameras
  • Black Magic Pocket Cinema Camera
  • Black Magic Pocket Camera 4K
  • Z Cam E2C 4K Cine Camera MFT
  • Panasonic GH5

Best Cameras for Videographers

Source: Best cameras for videographers/DPREVIEW.COM

Published Nov 24, 2020

  • Panasonic Lumix DC – S1H
  • Panasonic Lumix DC-GH5
  • Canon EOS R6
  • Fujifilm X-T4
  • Nikon Z6
  • Nikon Z6 II
  • Panasonic Lumix Dc-GH5S
  • Sigma fp
  • Sony a7S III

Best 4K and 6K Cameras for Film making

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o0muduTpveM&t=244s

  • Sony Alpha a7 III
  • Panasonic Lumix GH5S
  • Sony PXW FSM2
  • Panasonic Lumix S1H
  • Blackmagic Pocket Cinema 6K
  • Canon EOS C300 Mark II
  • Panasonic AU-EVA1
  • Blackmagic Design URSA Mini Pro G2
  • Sony PXW FS9
  • Canon C500 Mark II

Best Camcorders for Videographers

Source: Youtube

  • Panasonic HC-X2000
  • Sony PXW-Z280
  • Canon XA55
  • Panasonic AG-CX10
  • JVC GY-HC500U
  • Sony PXW-Z90
  • Panasonic HC-X1
  • Canon XF 705
  • JVC GY-HM250
  • Sony FDR -AX700

My Related Posts

Digital Color and Imaging

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Key Sources of Research

Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Working with ACES in DaVinci Resolve

Oliver Peters

https://digitalfilms.wordpress.com/2020/10/02/working-with-aces-in-davinci-resolve/

Color Management and ACES Workflow

CG Cinematography

The Pointer’s Gamut
The coverage of real surface colors by RGB color spaces and wide gamut displays

Kid Jansen, Updated 19 February 2014

https://www.tftcentral.co.uk/articles/pointers_gamut.htm

ACES: Where Are We Now?

by Geoff Smith on August 14, 2020

https://www.abelcine.com/articles/blog-and-knowledge/tutorials-and-guides/aces-where-are-we-now

What is 4K, UHD, SLog3, Rec 2020

And other really boring things.

Compiled By Peter Morrone

BT.2020: How the Newest Color Range Standard Maximizes 4K Video Quality

BenQ

2020/05/29

https://www.benq.com/en-us/knowledge-center/knowledge/bt2020.html

Color Spaces in Visual Effects

Color Spaces

February 15, 2019

https://ciechanow.ski/color-spaces/

Chapter 1 Color Management

Color Spaces / MAYA/Autodesk

https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/maya/learn-explore/caas/CloudHelp/cloudhelp/2020/ENU/Maya-Rendering/files/GUID-4410C27C-BB49-491B-AD13-14F48A8CCAAE-htm.html

Elle Stone’s Well-Behaved ICC Profiles and Code

https://ninedegreesbelow.com/photography/lcms-make-icc-profiles.html

ACES Workflow

Common Color Spaces

Color for Motion Pictures and Games

From Design to Display
  • Haarm-Pieter Duiker
  • Alex Forsythe
  • Stefan Luka
  • Thomas Mansencal
  • Jeremy Selan
  • Kevin Shaw
  • Nick Shaw

A VES Technology Committee White Paper
2019

https://nick-shaw.github.io/cinematiccolor/common-rgb-color-spaces.html

Cinematic Color From Your Monitor to the Big Screen

A VES Technology Committee White Paper Oct 17, 2012

Color Enhancement and Rendering in Film and Game Production: Color Management

Joseph Goldstone Lilliputian Pictures LLC

COLOR CORRECTION HANDBOOK:
Professional Techniques for Video and Cinema

Second Edition 

Alexis Van Hurkman

Peachpit Press http://www.peachpit.com

Colour Appearance Issues in Digital Video, HD/UHD, and D‐cinema

Charles Poynton

Understanding Color Management,

Second Edition

First published:18 July 2018

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9781119223702

COLOR MANAGEMENT WITH CINEMA

Red

https://www.red.com/red-101/cinema-color-management

Digital Color Management

Encoding Solutions

Giorgianni, Edward J / Madden, Thomas E

The Basics of High Dynamic Range Media Explained [u]

Posted on July 27, 2019 by Larry

Understanding 4K, Ultra HD and HDR

Sony

COLOUR REPRODUCTION IN ELECTRONIC IMAGING SYSTEMS

PHOTOGRAPHY, TELEVISION, CINEMATOGRAPHY

Michael S Tooms

Digital Camera Reviews and Sensor Performance Summary

by Roger N. Clark

https://clarkvision.com/imagedetail/digital.sensor.performance.summary/

How to Use Dynamic Range for Stunning Photos in Bright Light

2 CCD , 3 CCD cameras, 4 CCD and 3 CMOS Cameras

http://www.adept.net.au/cameras/2CCD_3CCD_Cameras.shtml

CCD Sensors, Albert Einstein, and the Photoelectric Effect

https://www.radiantvisionsystems.com/blog/ccd-sensors-albert-einstein-and-photoelectric-effect

Color Management for Photographers – A Simplified Guide

Camera Sensor Sizes Explained: What You Need to Know

https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/camera-sensor-size/

Reading 15: Color

http://web.mit.edu/6.813/www/sp18/classes/15-color/

The Fundamentals of Camera and Image Sensor Technology

Jon Chouinard

Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

Dr. Michael S. Brown

Digital Image Sensors

https://www.sensorland.com/HowPage090.html

Color Spaces, Log and Gamma

3.4 Color Spaces, Log and Gamma

LOG COLOR IN-DEPTH

Renderstory

Exploring the Basic Concepts of HDR: Dynamic Range, Gamma Curves, and Wide Color Gamut

Abhay Sharma

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/msid.1060

Understanding RGB Color Spaces for Monitors, Projectors, and Televisions

Abhay Sharma

First published: 26 March 2019

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/msid.1020

UHDTV – HDR and WCG

Understanding UHDTV Displays with PQ/HLG HDR, and WCG

https://www.lightspace.lightillusion.com/uhdtv.html

Color Management

https://docs.blender.org/manual/en/latest/render/color_management.html

Color Space Management: sRGB, Linear and Log

https://tiberius-viris.artstation.com/blog/3ZBO/color-space-management-srgb-linear-and-log

GAMMA AND LINEAR SPACE – WHAT THEY ARE AND HOW THEY DIFFER

https://www.kinematicsoup.com/news/2016/6/15/gamma-and-linear-space-what-they-are-how-they-differ

Are S-Log and Color Space separate things?

Understanding Log and Color Space In Compositing

RENDER COLOR SPACES

23 JUNE 2016

Anders Langlands

https://www.colour-science.org/anders-langlands/

Understanding High Dynamic Range (HDR) Imaging by Curtis Clark, ASC 

A Cinematographer Perspective

https://cms-assets.theasc.com/curtis-clark-asc-understanding-high-dynamic-range.pdf?mtime=20180502122857

Color Science Fundamentals in Motion Imaging

March 14, 2019 01:00 PM

https://www.smpte.org/events/color-science-fundamentals-in-motion-imaging

What is RAW Development?

Colour Management Basics

Autodesk Feb 2020

The Best Rendering Software for CG Lighting for Animation

by Tina Lee | Feb 14, 2019

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing

January 7, 2020

The Essential Guide to Color Spaces

Cullen Kelly

Dell Color Management Software

User Manual

Adjusting for the Scene Adopted White

White Point Conversion

https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/maya/learn-explore/caas/CloudHelp/cloudhelp/2016/ENU/Maya/files/GUID-2C925F6A-5A9C-4B2B-B732-90F4C3D2EB49-htm.html

A Complex Color Management Example

https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/maya/learn-explore/caas/CloudHelp/cloudhelp/2016/ENU/Maya/files/GUID-7D579180-1E60-43DD-BB9C-0C00D1968F53-htm.html

Common Color Management Scenarios

https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/maya/learn-explore/caas/CloudHelp/cloudhelp/2016/ENU/Maya/files/GUID-B2CD60E0-C100-45A4-9595-84D2DF98B268-htm.html

A Conversation about White Point and Digital Displays [Interview]

https://www.nanolumens.com/blog/an-imaginary-conversation-about-white-point-and-digital-displays/

Gamma and White Point Explained: How to Calibrate Your Monitor

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/symbiartic/how-to-calibrate-your-monitor/

Why is the media white point of a display profile always D50?

http://www.color.org/whyd50.xalter

Colour Management for Video Editors

Display Calibration & Color Management

https://www.mysterybox.us/blog/2017/9/7/display-calibration-color-management

Color Communication

How does a digital camera sensor work?

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

This is a topic close to my heart. My masters thesis research was on color prediction and modeling. My research work was published by IPST Atlanta as Technical paper no 469. Those who work in Paper and Printing Industry know IPST very well. It used to be called Institute of Paper Chemistry and was based in Appleton, Wisconsin.

Key Terms

  • Color Science
  • Human Vision
  • Color Models
  • Industrial Color
  • Measurement
  • Color Physics
  • Color Chemistry
  • Color Perception
  • Color Psychology
  • Instruments
  • Light
  • Color Technology
  • Light Absorption
  • Light Scattering
  • Psycho-Physics of Color
  • Reflectance
  • Refraction
  • Gloss
  • Texture
  • Colorimeter
  • Spectrophotometer
  • Color Dyes and Pigments
  • Paint, Plastics, Paper, Textiles
  • Digital Color
  • Device Independent color
  • Computer Monitors
  • Color Theory
  • Color Physics
  • Kubelka Munk Theory
  • Munsell Colors
  • Pantone Colors
  • RIT
  • Newton’s Optics
  • Goethe Color Theory
  • Four Color Problem
  • Primary Colors
  • CIE LAB color
  • CIE LCH color
  • Visual Match
  • Instrument Match
  • Radiative Transfer Theory
  • Two Flux vs Multi Flux Models
  • CIE
  • ICC
  • Optical Society of America
  • Inter-Society Color Council ISCC
  • Color and Appearance
  • Whiteness
  • Yellowness
  • Color Profiles
  • Color Scales
  • CIE XYZ
  • RGB
  • CMYK
  • Rods and Cones

Human Vision

Retina of Human eye has two kind of cells responsible for color vision

Rod Cells. Rod Cells are used for motion and lightness

Cone Cells. Cone Cells are responsible for color vision in the eye retina.

Image Source: Basics of Color Imaging/Yao Wang

Image Source: Basics of Color Imaging/Yao Wang

Image Source: Clarkvision

In the references, I have included many links to articles and papers on the following importatnt topics of color. Many companies who meaure and do testing of color provide excellent tutorials on color. See References.

  • Light and Visible Spectrum
  • What is Color?
  • Color Perception in Human
  • Color Models for Visual Perception
  • Color Physics
  • Dyes and Pigments
  • Color Chemistry
  • Optical Properties of Materials

Color Standards

  • ICC International Color Consortium
  • CIE
  • ISCC Inter Society Color Council

Coloring of Materials

  • Paper
  • Textiles
  • Paints
  • Plastics

Color Meaurement in Industry

  • Colorimeters
  • Spectrophotometers

Color Measurement Companies

  • Xrite
  • Datacolor
  • Konica Minolta
  • Hunterlab
  • Technidyne

Color Prediction and Control

  • Prediction in Lab
  • Online Prediction and Control

Kubelka Munk Theory (KM)

It was developed using Radiative Transfer Theory to measure Light Absorption and Light Scattering by objects. Reflection and Transmission.

Limitations of KM Theory

  • Only Two Flux
  • Errors in measuring Strong Absorption and Weak Scattering
  • Correlation between K and S. As K goes up S goes down
  • Use of Single Constant Vs Two Constant KM Theory
  • Can not measure effects of Fluroscent Dyes FWA OBA

Several efforts have been made since early 1990s, to revise, modify KM theory or develop other multiflux models to improve prediction better than KM model.

Key Recent Researchers

  • Li Yang
  • Per Edstrom
  • L G Coppel
  • Tarja Shakespeare
  • H Granberg

My related posts

Some of my earlier published papers

Sounds True: Speech, Language, and Communication

Myth of Invariance: Sound, Music, and Recurrent Events and Structures

Understanding Rasa: Yoga of Nine Emotions

Key sources of Research

Measurement and Control of the Optical Properties of Paper

Technidyne

https://www.technidyne.com/product-page/measurement-and-control-of-the-optical-properties-of-paper

https://imisrise.tappi.org/TAPPI/Products/20/MCOPP/20MCOPP.aspx

Optical paper properties and their influence on colour reproduction and perceived print quality

Authors:

Ivana Jurič

Igor Karlovits

Ivana Tomić

Dragoljub Novaković

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275637561_Optical_paper_properties_and_their_influence_on_colour_reproduction_and_perceived_print_quality

An assessment of Saunderson corrections to the diffuse reflectance of paint films

A García-Valenzuela et al 

2011 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274 012125

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/274/1/012125/pdf

Review: Optical properties of paper: theory and practice.

R. Farnood.

In Advances in Pulp and Paper Research, Oxford 2009, 

Trans. of the XIVth Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 2009,
(S.J. I’Anson, ed.), pp 273–352, FRC, Manchester, 2018

Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy; Applications, Standards, and Calibration (With Special Reference to Chromatography)

R. W. Frei

Analytical Research and Development, Pharmaceutical Department Sandoz Ltd., 4002 Basel, Switzerland

(May 26, 1976)

Optical models for colored materials

Mathieu Hébert
Institut d’Optique Graduate School, Saint-Etienne. mathieu.hebert@institutoptique.fr

The Use of Reflectance Measurements in the Determination of Fixation of Reactive Dyes to Cotton

N. Ahmed, D. P. Oulton, J. A. Taylor*

Textile sand Paper Group, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD, United Kingdom

Received 3 January 2005; accepted 9 August 2005

Two-flux and multiflux matrix models for colored surfaces

Mathieu Hébert

Université de Lyon, Université Jean Monnet de Saint-Etienne, CNRS UMR 5516 Laboratoire Hubert Curien, F-42000, Saint-Etienne, France.

Patrick Emmel
14 rue de Münchendorf, 68220 Folgensbourg, France.

https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01179591/document

DETERMINING SCATTERING AND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS BY DIFFUSE ILLUMINATION

USDA 1967

F. A. SIMMONDS and C. L. COENS

Optical Response from Paper

Doctoral Thesis

H Granberg 2003

Sweden

PAPER’S APPEARANCE: A REVIEW

Martin A. Hubbe, Joel J. Pawlak and Alexander A. Koukoulas

2008 BioResources online Journal

Examination of the revised Kubelka–Munk theory: considerations of modeling strategies

Per Edström

Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-87188 Härnösand, Sweden

Received April 5, 2006; revised July 3, 2006; accepted July 18, 2006; posted September 11, 2006 (Doc. ID 70185); published January 10, 2007

Revised KubelkaMunk theory. I. Theory and application

Li Yang and Bjo ̈rn Kruse

Campus Norrko ̈ ping (ITN), Linko ̈ ping University, S-601 74, Norrko ̈ ping, Sweden

Received November 20, 2003; revised manuscript received May 3, 2004; accepted May 5, 2004

Revised Kubelka–Munk theory II Unified framework for homogeneous and inhomogeneous optical media

Article in Journal of the Optical Society of America A · November 2004

Li Yang, Bjo ̈rn Kruse, and Stanley J. Miklavcic

Campus Norrko ̈ ping (ITN), Linko ̈ ping University, S-601 74, Norrko ̈ ping, Sweden

Revised Kubelka–Munk theory. III. A general theory of light propagation in scattering and absorptive media

Li Yang

Graphical Technology/Package Printing Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Karlstad University, S-651 88 Karlstad, Sweden

Stanley J. Miklavcic

Center for Creative Media Technology, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, S-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden

Received January 18, 2005; accepted March 9, 2005

Qualifying the arguments used in the derivation of the revised Kubelka-Munk theory: reply

Yang, Li 

Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.2007 (English)

In: JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION, ISSN 1084-7529, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 557-560

A novel method for studying ink penetration of a print.

Yang L, Fogden A, Pauler N, Sävborg Ö, Kruse B.

Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal. 2005;20(4):423-429.

INK-PAPER INTERACTION

A study in ink-jet color reproduction

L i Y a n g 2003

Department of Science and Technology Link ̈oping University

SE-601 74 Norrko ̈ping Sweden

Color Prediction and Separation Models in Printing

-Minimizing the Colorimetric and Spectral Differences employing Multiple Characterization Curves

Yuanyuan Qu

Department of Science and Technology Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden Norrköping 2013

Deriving Kubelka–Munk theory from radiative transport 

Christopher Sandoval and Arnold D. Kim*

Applied Mathematics Unit, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343, USA
*Corresponding author: adkim@ucmerced.edu

Received November 12, 2013; accepted January 6, 2014;
posted January 16, 2014 (Doc. ID 201164); published February 21, 2014

KUBELKA-MUNK THEORY IN DESCRIBING OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPER (I)

Vesna Džimbeg-Malčić, Željka Barbarić-Mikočević, Katarina Itrić

KUBELKA-MUNK THEORY IN DESCRIBING OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPER (II).

  • Source: Tehnicki vjesnik / Technical Gazette . Jan-Mar2012, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p191-196. 6p. 
  • Author(s): Džimbeg-Malčić, Vesna; Barbarić-Mikočević, Željka; Itrić, Katarina

Applicability conditions of the Kubelka–Munk theory

William E. Vargas and Gunnar A. Niklasson

Extension of the Kubelka–Munk theory of light propagation in intensely scattering materials to fluorescent media 

Leonid Fukshansky and Nina Kazarinova

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • Vol. 70,
  • Issue 9,
  • pp. 1101-1111
  • (1980)

What Has Been Overlooked in Kubelka-Munk Theory?

Author: Yang, Li

Source: NIP & Digital Fabrication Conference, 2005 International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies. Pages 332-679., pp. 376-379(4)

Publisher: Society for Imaging Science and Technology

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ist/nipdf/2005/00002005/00000002/art00012?crawler=true

Kubelka Munk Theory for Efficient Spectral Printer Modeling

Mekides Assefa

https://ntnuopen.ntnu.no/ntnu-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/143732/FinalThesisReportMekidesAssefaHIG2.pdf?sequence=1

On Measurements of Effective Residual Ink Concentration (ERIC) of Deinked Papers Using Kubelka-Munk Theory

D.W. Vahey, J.Y. Zhu and C.J. Houtman

Single‐constant simplification of Kubelka‐Munk turbid‐media theory for paint systems—A review

Roy S. Berns Mahnaz Mohammadi

First published: 25 April 2007

Color Research and Application J

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/col.20309

Spectrophotometric color prediction of mineral pigments with relatively large particle size by single- and two-constant Kubelka-Munk theory

Authors: Li, JunfengWan, Xiaoxia

Source: Color and Imaging Conference, Volume 2017, Number 25, September 2017, pp. 324-329(6)

Publisher: Society for Imaging Science and Technology

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ist/cic/2017/00002017/00000025/art00054

Theory of light propagation incorporating scattering and absorption in turbid media

Li Yang and Stanley J. Miklavcic

Department of Science and Technology, Link ̈oping University, S-601 74, Norrko ̈ping, Sweden

Article in Optics Letters · May 2005

Kubelka-Munk Model for Imperfectly Diffuse Light Distribution in Paper

Li Yang􏰀
Holmen Paper Development Center (HPD), Holmen AB, Sweden E-mail: li.yang@holmenpaper.com

R. D. Hersch

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), School of Computer and Communication Sciences, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland

Quantification of the Intrinsic Error of the Kubelka–Munk Model Caused by Strong Light Absorption

H. GRANBERG and P. EDSTRÖM

JOURNAL OF PULP AND PAPER SCIENCE: VOL. 29 NO. 11 NOVEMBER 2003

Anisotropic reflectance from turbid media. I. Theory

Neuman, Magnus 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.(Pappersoptik och färg)

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.(Pappersoptik och färg)

2010 (English)

In: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, ISSN 0740-3232, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1032-1039

Mathematical modeling and numerical tools for simulation and design of light scattering in paper and print

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.(FSCN – Fibre Science and Communication Network)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0529-1009

Mid Sweden University

2007 (English)

Theoretical Investigation of Bioactive Papers Using the Kubelka-Munk Theory

Elina Levi Gendler

Masters of Applied Science Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry University of Toronto
2015

The color prediction model of fluorescent prints

Na DongYixin ZhangGuoyun Shi

Proceedings Volume 7241, Color Imaging XIV: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications;72411N (2009) 
Event: IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, 2009, San Jose, California, United States

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/7241/72411N/The-color-prediction-model-of-fluorescent-prints/10.1117/12.808459.short?SSO=1

State of the art on macroscopic models for the determination of thin films optical properties

G. Saridakis, D. Kolokotsa

Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Greece

M. Santamouris

Radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media

Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Journal of the Optical Society of America AVol. 26,Issue 8,pp. 1896-1900(2009)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-26-8-1896

Radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media: errata 

A. A. Kokhanovsky  

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • Vol. 27,
  • Issue 9,
  • pp. 2084-2084
  • (2010)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-27-9-2084

Spectral Reflectance Model of a Single Sheet of Blank Paper*

Yongchi XU** and Shisheng ZHOU** **

Faculty of Printing and Packaging Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an, 710048 China

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/nig/51/2/51_103/_pdf

Next Generation Simulation Tools for Optical Properties in Paper and Print

Per Edström
Mid Sweden University, TFM, SE‐87188 Härnösand, Sweden,

Improving the performance of computer color matching procedures 

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America A
  • Vol. 25,
  • Issue 9,
  • pp. 2251-2262
  • (2008)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-25-9-2251

A two-phase parameter estimation method for radiative transfer problems in paper industry applications

Per Edstro ̈ m*

Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, Ha ̈rno ̈sand, Sweden

Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering

Vol. 16, No. 7, October 2008, 927–951

A Guide to Understanding Color

Xrite

Understanding CIE *L*a*b Colour Space

Kydex

Understanding Color

Giordino Beretta 2008 and 2010

HP Labs

SPIE

PRECISE COLOR COMMUNICATION  : COLOR CONTROL FROM PERCEPTION TO INSTRUMENTATION

Konica Minolta

The basics of Color Perception and Measurement

HunterLab

The Color Guide and Glossary

Xrite

Color Differences & Tolerances Commercial Color Acceptability

Datacolor

Defining and Communicating Color: The CIELAB System

SAPPI

Color Science Course

Berns

RIT

ftp://ftp.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/berns/Berns_color_course.pdf

Using Color Effectively in Computer Graphics

Lindsay W. MacDonald

University of Derby, UK

Color Management Fundamentals

Color realism and color science

Alex Byrne

Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139
abyrne@mit.edu mit.edu/abyrne/www

David R. Hilbert

Department of Philosophy and Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607
hilbert@uic.edu http://www.uic.edu/~hilbert/

BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES (2003) 26, 3–64 

Introduction to Color Models

Routledge

Color Appearance Models

Second Edition

Mark D. Fairchild

Munsell Color Science Laboratory Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

COLOR IN GEMS: THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES

By George R. Rossman

THE NATURE OF LIGHT AND COLOR

Kodak

Light and Color

Colour physics and colour measurement: state-of-the-art and challenges

S Westland

THE PHYSICS OF COLOUR

Mil􏰀osz Michalski

Institute of Physics Nicolaus Copernicus University

July 3, 2012

Lecture 26: Color and Light

On the Kubelka-Munk Single-Constant/Two-Constant Theories

Ning Pan and others

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/216567998_On_the_Kubelka-Munk_Single-ConstantTwo-Constant_Theories

Kubelka-Munk Prediction for Dark Mixtures

  • December 2013
  • Conference: 5th International Color and Coatings Congress (ICCC 2013)
  • At: Isfahan, Iran

Authors:

Farhad Moghareh Abed

Roy S. Berns

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323656636_Kubelka-Munk_Prediction_for_Dark_Mixtures

Colour Measurement and Analysis in Fresh and Processed Foods: A Review

Pankaj B Pathare

Umezuruike Linus Opara

Fahad Al-Julanda Al-Said

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225037588_Colour_Measurement_and_Analysis_in_Fresh_and_Processed_Foods_A_Review

Extending Kubelka-Munk’s Theory with Lateral Light Scattering

Safer Mourad *, Patrick Emmel **, Klaus Simon and Roger David Hersch **

IS&T’s NIP17: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies

Kubelka Munk Model in Paper Optics: Successes, Limitations and Improvements

L. Yang

Page 81

DETERMINATION OF OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS FOR COMPUTER COLORANT ANALYSIS

Gülen Bayhan

https://www.academia.edu/5407157/DETERMINATION_OF_OPTICAL_CHARACTERISTICS_OF_MATERIALS_FOR_COMPUTER_COLORANT_ANALYSIS

DETERMINATION OF OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS FOR COMPUTER COLORANT ANALYSIS

Dibakar Raj Pant.

University of Joensuu Department of Computer Science Pro gradu
April, 2006

ftp://www.cs.joensuu.fi/pub/Theses/2005_MSc_Pant_Dibakar_Raj.pdf

Next Generation Simulation Tools for Optical Properties in Paper and Print

Per Edström
Mid Sweden University, TFM, SE‐87188 Härnösand, Sweden, per.edstrom@miun.se

The optical properties of bleached kraft pulp

Steven R. Middleton and Anthony M. Scallan, 

Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, Canada

Light Scattering in Fibrous Sheets

Edwin W Arnold

IPC PhD Thesis 1962

https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/5809/arnold_ew.pdf?…

INFLUENCE OF LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPERS

BARBARA BLAZNIK, DIANA GREGOR-SVETEC and SABINA BRAČKO

Department of Information and Graphic Arts Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Snežniška 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Determining optical properties of mechanical pulps 

Anette Karlsson, Sofia Enberg, Mats Rundlöf, Magnus Paulsson and Per Edström

Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 27 no.3/2012

Color iQC and Color iMatch Multi Flux Matching Guide

Version 8.0 | July 2012

Xrite

Industrial Color Physics 

By Georg A. Klein

PREDICTION OF PAPER COLOR:
A PROCESS SIMULATION APPROACH

G.L. JONES, M. CHATURVEDI, AND R. ARAVAMUTHAN

MARCH 1993

IPST Technical Paper Series 469

Click to access tps-469.pdf

Application of Kubelka-Munk Theory in Device-independent Color Space Error Diffusion

Shilin Guo and Guo Li

Hewlett-Packard Company, San Diego Site

The Practical Guide To Color Theory For Photographers

In-Depth Guide on How to Measure Color in Plastics

https://www.ptonline.com/articles/in-depth-guide-on-how-to-measure-color-in-plastics

A Guide to Understanding Color Communication

Tintometer Group

A partial explanation of the dependence between light scattering and light absorption in the Kubelka-Munk model 

M. Neuman, L. G. Coppel and P. Edström

Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 27 no.2/2012

Limitations of the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper

Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic 

Andersson, Mattias 

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.

Kinnunen, Jussi 

Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Math & Phys, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.

2011 (English) In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 319-328

Determination of light scattering coefficient of dark and heavy sheets

KNOX, J.M., and WAHREN, D.

Tappi J 1984

Whiteness and Fluorescence in Layered Paper and Boards

Perception and Optical Modelling

L G Coppel

PhD Thesis

Mid Sweden University

Extension of the Stokes equation for layered constructions to fluorescent turbid media

Ludovic G. Coppel,1,2 Magnus Neuman,2 and Per Edström2,*
1Innventia AB, Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden
2Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-87188 Härnösand, Sweden 

*Corresponding author: per.edstrom@miun.se

Received January 3, 2012; accepted January 20, 2012;
posted January 24, 2012 (Doc. ID 160521); published March 22, 2012

Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media.

Coppel LG,  Andersson M,  Edström P

Applied Optics, 31 May 2011, 50(17):2784-2792

Extension of the Kubelka–Munk theory of light propagation in intensely scattering materials to fluorescent media 

Leonid Fukshansky and Nina Kazarinova

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • Vol. 70,
  • Issue 9,
  • pp. 1101-1111
  • (1980)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-70-9-1101

Revised Optical Properties of Turbid Media on a Base of Generally Improved Two-Flux Kubelka-Munk Approach

D. A. Rogatkin1, and V. V. Tchernyi2

Understanding Color Communication

Xrite

Correspondences between the Kubelka-Munk and the Stokes model of strongly light-scattering materials. II: Implications

OLF, H. G
[1] North Carolina state univ., dep. wood & paper sci., Raleigh NC 27695-8005, United StatesSource

Tappi journal1989, Vol 72, Num 7, pp 159-163

Precise Color Communication

Konica Minolta

The Color Guide and Glossary

Xrite

CIE LAB Color

Sappi

Principles of Color Technology for Color Imaging Scientists and Engineers

Berns

RIT

ftp://ftp.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/berns/Berns_color_course.pdf

Using Color Effectively in Computer Graphics

Lindsay W. MacDonald

University of Derby, UK

Color Management Fundamentals Wide Format Series

Introduction to Color Models

Anisotropic reflectance from turbid media. I. Theory

Neuman, Magnus 

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.(Pappersoptik och färg)

2010 (English)In: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, ISSN 0740-3232, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1032-1039

Anisotropic reflectance from turbid media. II. Measurements 

Magnus Neuman and Per Edström

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America A
  • Vol. 27,
  • Issue 5,
  • pp. 1040-1045
  • (2010)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-27-5-1040

Angular dependence of fluorescence from turbid media

Ludovic G. Coppel,1,∗ Niklas Johansson,and Magnus Neuman2

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281069011_Angular_dependence_of_fluorescence_from_turbid_media

Limitations in the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper

Ludovic G. Coppel, Mattias Andersson, Per Edström and Jussi Kinnunen

Fluorescence model for multi-layer papers using conventional spectrophotometers

 L. G. Coppel, M. Andersson, M. Neuman and P. Edström

Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal | Volume 27: Issue 2

Whiteness Assessment: A Primer Concepts, Determination and Control of Perceived Whiteness

September 2006

Claudio Puebla

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331802584_Whiteness_Assessment_A_Primer_Concepts_Determination_and_Control_of_Perceived_Whiteness

FLUORESCENCE AND THE PAPER APPEARANCE – CHALLENGES IN PAPER COLORING

Dr. Tarja Shakespeare1, Dr. John Shakespeare2

2009

MODELING A COLORING PROCESS 

Tarja Shakespeare, John Shakespeare 

US Patent

A fluorescent extension to the Kubelka–Munk model

Tarja Shakespeare

John Shakespeare

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229559432_A_fluorescent_extension_to_the_Kubelka-Munk_model

Radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media

Alexander A Kokhanovsky 1

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-26-8-1896

A New Look at Fundamentals of the Photometric Light Transport and Scattering Theory. Part 2: One-Dimensional Scattering with Absorption

Authors: Persheyev S.Rogatkin D.A.Published: 22.11.2017 
Published in issue: #6(75)/2017 
DOI: 10.18698/1812-3368-2017-6-65-78

http://vestniken.ru/eng/catalog/phys/opt/787.html

Spectral prediction model for color prints on paper with fluorescent additives.

Hersch RD1

Applied Optics, 30 Nov 2008, 47(36):6710-6722

https://europepmc.org/article/med/19104523

Relationship between the Kubelka-Munk scattering and radiative transfer coefficients

Suresh N Thennadil 1

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18594602/

Effect of strong absorption on the Kubelka-Munk scattering coefficient

A. KoukoulasB. Jordan

Published 1997

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Effect-of-strong-absorption-on-the-Kubelka-Munk-Koukoulas-Jordan/fee09ae8d3bfd2e8d58eff34321f60eec89d445b

A note concerning the interaction between light scattering and light absorption in the application of the Kubelka-Munk equations

Mats RundlöfJ. A. Bristow

Published 1997

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-note-concerning-the-interaction-between-light-and-Rundlöf-Bristow/c87c601ad12a90ba9e241469dd45f85797c19f70

Color Measurements on Prints Containing Fluorescent Whitening Agents

Mattias Andersson and Ole Norberg

Digital Printing Center, Mid Sweden University, 89118 Örnsköldsvik, Sweden

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/238022968_Color_measurements_on_prints_containing_fluorescent_whitening_agents_-_art_no_64930Q

Colorant modelling for on-line paper coloring: evaluations of models and an extension to Kubelka-Munk model

Shakespeare, T. (2000)

Tampere University of Technology

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328873794_Colorant_Modelling_for_On-Line_Paper_Coloring_Evaluations_of_Models_and_an_Extentsion_to_Kubelka-Munk_Model

Fluorescent White Dyes: Calculation of Fluorescence from Reflectivity Values 

Eugene Allen

1964 OSAJ

https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-4-506

Extension of the Kubelka–Munk theory for fluorescent turbid media to a nonopaque layer on a background

Article in Journal of the Optical Society of America A · July 2011

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51472634_Extension_of_the_Kubelka-Munk_theory_for_fluorescent_turbid_media_to_a_nonopaque_layer_on_a_background

Tutorial on Fluorescence and Fluorescent Instrumentation

Colour measurement in practice 

Contemporary wool dyeing and finishing

Dr Rex Brady Deakin University

Separation of the Spectral Radiance Factor Curve of Fluorescent Substances into Reflected and Fluoresced Components 

Eugene Allen

  • Applied Optics
  • Vol. 12,
  • Issue 2,
  • pp. 289-293
  • (1973)

https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-12-2-289

Fluorescence and kubelka‐munk theory

James S. Bonham

First published: Autumn (Fall) 1986

Color Research and Application J

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/col.5080110310

Spectrophotometry of fluorescent pigments

R Donaldson1

1954


British Journal of Applied PhysicsVolume 5Number 6

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0508-3443/5/6/303

KUBELKA-MUNK THEORY OF FLUORESCENT COLORANTS

He Guoxin (Department of Textile Technology)

1988

http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-DHDZ198804018.htm

Problems in colour measurement of fluorescent paper grades

Tarja Shakespeare John Shakespeare11

Analytica Chimica Acta

Volume 380, Issues 2–3, 2 February 1999, Pages 227-242

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003267098004838

Spectral Colour Prediction Model for a Transparent Fluorescent Ink on Paper*

Patrick Emmel, Roger David Hersch

Laboratoire de Systèmes Périphériques

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL),

The extended Kubelka–Munk theory and its application to spectroscopy

2020

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40828-019-0097-0

The color prediction model of fluorescent prints

Na DongYixin ZhangGuoyun Shi

Author Affiliations +Proceedings Volume 7241, Color Imaging XIV: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications;72411N (2009) 
Event: IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, 2009, San Jose, California, United States

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/7241/72411N/The-color-prediction-model-of-fluorescent-prints/10.1117/12.808459.short?SSO=1

REVIEW: USE OF OPTICAL BRIGHTENING AGENTS (OBAs) IN THE PRODUCTION OF PAPER CONTAINING HIGH-YIELD PULPS

He Shi,a Hongbin Liu,a,b,* Yonghao Ni,a,c Zhirun Yuan,d Xuejun Zou,d and Yajun Zhou

The Kubelka-Munk Theory for Color Image Invariant Properties

Jan-Mark Geusebroek, Theo Gevers, Arnold W.M. Smeulders Intelligent Sensory Information Systems, University of Amsterdam

Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media 

Ludovic Gustafsson Coppel, Mattias Andersson, and Per Edström

Applied OpticsVol. 50,Issue 17,pp. 2784-2792(2011)

https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-50-17-2784

4.2 Colour Science

ALAN MARTIN

Quantification of the Intrinsic Error of the Kubelka–Munk Model Caused by Strong Light Absorption

H. GRANBERG and P. EDSTRÖM

Effect of Moisture on Paper Color

SHAKESPEARE TARJA and SHAKESPEARE JOHN

page 85

Basic equations used in computer color matching, II. Tristimulus match, two-constant theory 

Eugene Allen

Journal of the Optical Society of AmericaVol. 64,Issue 7,pp. 991-993(1974)

Spectrophotometric color formulation based on two-constant Kubelka-Munk theory

Eric Walowit

(1985). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology

Basic Equations Used in Computer Color Matching 

Eugene Allen

Journal of the Optical Society of AmericaVol. 56,Issue 9,pp. 1256-1259(1966)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-56-9-1256

Computer-Aided Color Formulation (How to Formulate Color)

Posted March 02, 2017 by Mike Huda

Xrite

https://www.xrite.com/blog/computer-aided-color-formulation

COMIC: An Analog Computer in the Colorant Industry

July-Sept. 2014, pp. 4-18, vol. 36

Computer

https://www.computer.org/csdl/magazine/an/2014/03/man2014030004/13rRUx0Pqrq

An investigation of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of dyed handsheets and the application of the ICI system of color specification to these handsheets

Foote, William J. (William John)

1938 PhD Thesis IPC

https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/5491

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF FORMATION ON THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPER

DOUGLAS WAHREN

FEBRUARY, 1987 IPC Technical Paper 223

Mathematical Modelling of
Light Scattering in Paper and Print

Per Edström

PhD Thesis Mid Sweden University Sweden 2004

A Comparison Between the Coefficients of the Kubelka-Munk and DORT2002 Models

Per Edström
Mid Sweden University 2003

Simulation and modeling of light scattering in paper and print applications

Edström P. (2010)

In: Kokhanovsky A. (eds) Light Scattering Reviews 5. Springer Praxis Books. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-10336-0_10

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-10336-0_10

Measuring and Modelling Light Scattering in Paper

Niklas Johansson

Department of Natural Sciences Mid Sweden University

Doctoral Thesis No. 224 O ̈ rnsko ̈ ldsvik, Sweden 2015

Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh

B. Chance

D. A. Boas

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A/Vol. 14, No. 12/December 1997