Regional Trading Blocs and Economic Integration

Regional Trading Blocs and Economic Integration

 

 

From Asia’s Rise in the New World Trade Order

Asia Rising

RTA5

 

 

From What is Regional Trade Blocs or Free Trade Agreements?

As trade integration across countries is intensifying, we hear more and more about Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) and Regional Trade Blocs (RTBs). As their name suggests these RTBs/FTAs are arrangements aimed for faster trade liberalisation at regional levels.

Countries are convinced that trade is an engine of growth and they are searching for arrangements that promote trade.

The WTO that contains 162 countries is the most popular one; a truly multilateral forum for trade liberalisation. But the history of WTO led trade liberalisation shows that the organisation is facing difficulty in bringing further trade liberalisation because of conflicting interest among large number of countries.

This has led to interest in trade liberalisation within a limited number of countries that may be regionally close together. These regional trade promoting arrangements advocate more tariff cuts and removal of other restrictions within the group while maintaining restrictions against the rest of the world.

Though many regional trade agreements like the EU, NAFTA and ASEAN were established before or around the time of WTO’s formation, there is mushrooming of RTBs in recent years. Recently formed Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) shows this increasing affinity towards RTBs. Many RTBs like the TPP would like to make advanced level trade liberalisation and hence they are not satisfied with the slow pace of trade liberalisation within the WTO.

What are Regional Trade Blocs (RTBs)?

Regional Trade Blocs or Regional Trade Agreements (or Free Trade Agreements) are a type of regional intergovernmental arrangement, where the participating countries agree to reduce or eliminate barriers to trade like tariffs and non-tariff barriers.  The RTBs are thus historically known for promoting trade within a region by reducing or eliminating tariff among the member countries.

Over the last few decades, international trade liberalisations are taking place in a serious manner through the formation of RTBs. They are getting wide attention because of many important international developments. First, now the world is trying hard to escape from the ongoing great recession phase. Second is the failure of the WTO to take further liberalisation measures on the trade liberalisation front.

The EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, SAFTA etc are all examples for regional integration. The triad of North America, Western Europe, and Asia Pacific have the most successful trade blocs. Recently signed Trans Pacific Partnership is a powerful RTB. Similarly, another one called RCEP is in negotiation round. India has signed an FTA with the ASEAN in 2009. Simultaneously, the country has signed many bilateral FTAs.

Different types of RTBs

All regional trade blocs don’t have the same degree of trade liberalisation. They may differ in terms of the extent of tariff cutting, coverage of goods and services, treatment of cross border investment among them, agreement on movement of labour etc.

The simple form of regional trade bloc is the Free Trade Area. The Free Trade Area is a type of trade bloc, a designated group of countries that have agreed to eliminate tariffs, quotas and preferences on most (if not all)goods and services traded between them.

From the lowest to the highest, regional trade integration may vary from just tariff reduction arrangement to adoption of a single currency. The most common type of regional trade bloc is the free trade agreement where the members abolish tariffs within the region. Following are the main types of regional economic integrations.

Classification of RTBs

Preferential trading union: Here, two or more countries form a trading club or a union and reduce tariffs on imports of each other ie, when they exchange tariff preferences and concessions.

Free trade union or association: Member countries abolish all tariffs within the union, but maintain their individual tariffs against the rest of the world.

Customs union: countries abolish all tariffs within and adopt a common external tariff against the rest of the world.

Common market: in addition to the customs union, unrestricted movement of all factors of production including labour between the member countries. In the case of European Common Market, once a visa is obtained one can get employed in France or Germany or in any other member country with limited restrictions.

Economic union: The Economic Union is the highest form of economic co-operation. In addition to the common market, there is common currency, common fiscal and monetary policies and exchange rate policies etc. European Union is the example for an Economic Union. Under the European Monetary Union, there is only one currency- the Euro.

At present, out of the total regional trade arrangements FTAs are the most common, accounting for nearly 90 per cent.

 

From Regionalism in a globalizing world: an Asia-Pacific perspective

RTA7

From Asia’s Rise in the New World Trade Order

RTA4

 

From The world’s free trade areas – and all you need to know about them

International trade is a driving force behind economic growth, and two so-called “mega-regional” trade deals are dominating public debate on the issue: the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP).

But there are around 420 regional trade agreements already in force around the world, according to the World Trade Organization. Although not all are free trade agreements (FTAs), they still shape global trade as we know it.

 Global exports and trade agreements

Image: The Economist

 

What exactly are free trade areas?

The OECD defines a free trade area as a group of “countries within which tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers between the members are generally abolished but with no common trade policy toward non-members”.

The free movement of goods and services, both in the sense of geography and price, is the foundation of these trading agreements. However, tariffs are not necessarily completely abolished for all products.

 

Which are the world’s major free trade areas?

 

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

 

Free trade between the three member nations, Canada, the US and Mexico, has been in place since January 1994. Although tariffs weren’t fully abolished until 2008, by 2014 total trilateral merchandise trade exceeded US$1.12 trillion.

According to the US government, trade with Canada and Mexico supports more than 140,000 small and medium-size businesses and over 3 million jobs in the US. Gains in Canada are reportedly even higher, with 4.7 million new jobs added since 1993. The country is also the largest exporter of goods to the US.

 US Trade with NAFTA Partner 1993-2012

Image: Congressional Research Service

 

However, the Council on Foreign Relations suggests that the impact on Mexico is harder to assess. Per capita income has not risen as fast as expected; nor has it slowed Mexican emigration to the US. However, farm exports to the US have tripled since 1994, and the cost of goods in Mexico has declined. The cost of basic household goods has halved since NAFTA came into force, according to estimates by GEA, a Mexican economic consulting firm.

 

Association of Southeast Asian Nations Free Trade Area (AFTA)

 

The AFTA was signed in January 1992 in Singapore. The original members were Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Four countries have subsequently joined: Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia.

The bloc has largely removed all export and import duties on items traded between the nations. It has also entered into agreements with a number of other nations, including China, eliminating tariffs on around 90% of imported goods.

 The ASEAN AFTA

Image: ASEAN Briefing

 

The AFTA nations had a combined GDP of US$2.3 trillion in 2012, and they’re home to 600 million people. The agreement has therefore helped to dramatically reduce the cost of trade for a huge number of businesses and people.

 

Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR)

 

Although MERCOSUR was envisaged as a Latin American single market, enabling the free movement of people, goods, capitals and services, this vision is yet to become reality. Internal disputes have slowed progress towards removing tariffs and the free movement of people and goods.

But MERCOSUR is still one of the world’s leading economic blocs, and has a major influence on South American trade and the global economy.

 

Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)

 

Formed in December 1994, the organization aims to develop natural and human resources to benefit the region’s population. Its primary focus, according to the United Nations, is to establish a large economic and unit to overcome barriers to trade.

With 19 member states, and an annual export bill in excess of $80 billion, the organization is a significant market place, both within Africa and globally.

 COMESA Member States

Image: United Nations

 

COMESA utlimately aims to remove all barriers to intra-regional trade, starting with preferential tariffs and working towards a tariff-free common market and economic union.

 

What about the European Union?

 

The EU is a single market, which is similar to a free trade area in that it has no tariffs, quotas or taxes on trade; but a single market allows the free movement of goods, services, capital and people.

The EU strives to remove non-tariff barriers to trade by applying the same rules and regulations to all of its member states. The region-wide regulations on everything from working hours to packaging are an attempt to create a level playing field. This is not necessarily the case in a free trade area.

 The European Union

Image: BBC

 

The creation of the single market was a slow process. In 1957, the Treaty of Rome established the European Economic Community (EEC) or Common Market. However, it was not until 1986 that the Single European Act was signed. This treaty formed the basis of the single market as we know it, as it aimed to establish the free-flow of trade across EU borders. By 1993 this process was largely complete, although work on a single market for services is still ongoing.

Today, the EU is the world’s largest economy, and the biggest exporter and importer. The EU itself has free trade agreements with other nations, including South Korea, Mexico and South Africa.

 The State of EU Trade

Image: European Union

 

What about the TPP and TTIP?

 

Once fully ratified, the Trans-Pacific Partnership is set to become the world’s largest trade agreement. The TPP already covers 40% of global GDP, and trade between member nations is already significant.

However, by removing tariffs and other barriers to trade, the agreement hopes to further develop economic ties and boost economic growth.

 The Trans-Pacific Trade Deal

Image: Reuters

 

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership is a deal currently being negotiated between the EU and the US. If reached, it would itself become the world’s largest trade agreement – covering 45% of global GDP.

Like the TPP, it aims to cut tariffs and regulatory barriers to trade. Among these is the removal of customs duties, according to the EU’s negotiation factsheet.

The Center for Economic Policy Research has estimated that the deal would be worth $134 billion a year for the EU and $107 billion for the US – although opponents have disputed these figures.

 Transatlantic Negotiations

Image: Brookings

As the World Economic Forum’s E15 Initiative has highlighted, effective global trade is central to economic growth and development. Trade agreements are an integral part of making this a reality.

From Regional Trade Agreements and the Multi-polar Global Order:
Implications for South Korea’s Economy

RTA2RTA3

From Regional Trade Agreements and the Multi-polar Global Order:
Implications for South Korea’s Economy

RTA

From Regional Trade Agreements: Promoting conflict or building peace?

RTA8

Key Terms:

  • Rising Powers
  • Global Economic Governance
  • Mega-Regionals
  • World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)
  • Transpacific Trade and Investment Partnership (TPP)
  • MFN (Most Favored Nation)
  • PTA (Preferred Trading Agreement)
  • FTA (Free Trade Agreement)
  • RTA (Regional Trade Agreement)
  • MTS (Multi Lateral Trade System)
  • BTA (Bilateral Trade Agreement)
  • Belt and Road Initiative
  • Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
  • ASEAN
  • AEC
  • APEC
  • BRICS
  • EU
  • SAARC
  • MERCOSUR
  • Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP)
  • NAFTA
  • ASEAN+3
  • ASEAN+6
  • Custom Unions
  • Common Markets
  • Economic Unions
  • GATT
  • WTO
  • SADC
  • COMESA
  • ECOWAS
  • ECCAS/CEEAC
  • SACU
  • AFTA
  • SAPTA/SAFTA

Key Sources of Research:

 

 

What is Regional Trade Blocs or Free Trade Agreements?

http://www.indianeconomy.net/splclassroom/107/what-is-regional-trade-blocs-or-free-trade-agreements/

 

 

 

The world’s free trade areas – and all you need to know about them

2016

WEF

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/05/world-free-trade-areas-everything-you-need-to-know/

 

Regional trade agreements: Blessing or burden?

Caroline Freund, Emanuel Ornelas

02 June 2010

http://voxeu.org/article/regional-trade-agreements-blessing-or-burden

 

 

 

Regional Trade Agreements: Promoting conflict or building peace?

Oli Brown
Faisal Haq Shaheen
Shaheen Rafi Khan
Moeed Yusuf

October 2005

https://www.iisd.org/pdf/2005/security_rta_conflict.pdf

 

 

 

Regional trade agreements

WTO

https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/region_e/region_e.htm

 

A COMPLETE GUIDE TO THE REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC

WRITTEN BY TIM MARTYN
MARCH 2001

http://www.apec.org.au/docs/martyn.pdf

 

 

 

Globalization and the Growth in Free Trade Agreements

SHUJIRO URATA

2002

http://www.wright.edu/~tdung/Globalization_and_FTA.pdf

 

 

 

Regional trade agreements: blessing or burden?

 

http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/cp313.pdf

 

 

 

Mexico’s Free Trade Agreements

M. Angeles Villarreal
Specialist in International Trade and Finance

April 25, 2017

https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R40784.pdf

 

 

Regional Trade Agreements in a Multilateral Trade Regime: An Overview

Parthapratim Pal

http://www.networkideas.org/feathm/may2004/survey_paper_RTA.pdf

 

 

 

REGIONAL TRADE INTEGRATIONS: A Comparative Study of African RTAs

Sannassee R., Boopendra S and Tandrayen Verena

http://sites.uom.ac.mu/wtochair/Conference%20Proceedings/15.pdf

 

 

 

Trade Blocks and the Gravity Model: A Study of Economic Integration among Asian
Developing Countries

E. M. Ekanayake

Amit Mukherjee

Bala Veeramacheneni

http://www.e-jei.org/upload/9180KU76078V3656.pdf

 

 

Free Trade Agreements, the World Trade Organization and Open Trade

Michael SUTTON

http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/ir/college/bulletin/vol.20-1/04sutton.pdf

 

 

 

REGIONAL TRADE BLOCS THE WAY TO THE FUTURE?

ALEJANDRO FOXLEY

http://carnegieendowment.org/files/regional_trade_blocs.pdf

 

 

 

Regional Trade Agreements and the WTO

Ildikó Virág-Neumann

2009

https://kgk.uni-obuda.hu/sites/default/files/32_Neumann-Virag.pdf

 

 

 

PREFERENTIAL TRADE AGREEMENTS AND THE WTO: IMPETUS OR IMPEDIMENT?

Committee on International Trade

Principal Drafters:
Helena Sullivan, Chair
Stuart Shroff
Mark Du
Albert Bloomsbury

THE ASSOCIATION OF THE BAR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK
42 WEST 44TH STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10036

http://www.nycbar.org/pdf/report/uploads/20071935-PreferentialTradeAgreementsandtheWTO.pdf

 

 

 

Regional Trade Agreements and the Multi-polar Global Order:
Implications for South Korea’s Economy

Dr. Mi Park

http://www.akes.or.kr/eng/papers(2014)/84.full.pdf

 

 

 

Rising Powers in the Global Trading System – China and Mega-Regional Trade Negotiations

Clara Brandi

2016

http://risingpowersproject.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/vol1.1.Clara-Brandi.pdf

 

Asia’s Rise in the New World Trade Order

The Effects of Mega-Regional Trade Agreements on Asian Countries

Part 2 of the GED Study Series:

Effects of Mega-Regional Trade Agreements

https://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/fileadmin/files/BSt/Publikationen/GrauePublikationen/NW_Asia_s_Rise_in_the_New_World_Trade_Order.pdf

 

 

 

 

Regional Trade Agreements: Development Challenges and Policy Options

By Antoni Estevadeordal, Kati Suominen, Christian Volpe Martinicus,
December 2013

 

http://e15initiative.org/publications/regional-trade-agreements-development-challenges-and-policy-options/

http://e15initiative.org/themes/regional-trade-agreements/

 

 

 

Regional Trade Agreements

https://ustr.gov/trade-agreements/wto-multilateral-affairs/wto-issues/regional-trade-agreements

 

 

 

What are mega-regional trade agreements?

WEF

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/07/trade-what-are-megaregionals/

 

Regional trade agreements, integration and development

2017

 

http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/ser_rp2017d1_en.pdf

 

Mega-Regional Trade Agreements and the Future of the WTO

Chad Brown
PIIE

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1758-5899.12391/epdf

https://piie.com/commentary/speeches-papers/mega-regional-trade-agreements-and-future-wto

 

 

CHINA’S NEW REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS

Agata Antkiewicz

John Whalley

December 2004

 

http://www.nber.org/papers/w10992.pdf

 

 

CHINA’S REGIONAL AND BILATERAL TRADE AGREEMENTS

Chunding Li Jing

Wang John Whalley

January 2014

 

https://www.imf.org/external/np/seminars/eng/2006/mekong/pt.pdf

 

 

Currency Unions and Regional Trade Agreements: EMU and EU Effects on Trade

Reuven Glick

Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

October 2016

http://www.frbsf.org/economic-research/files/wp2016-27.pdf

 

Regionalism in a globalizing world: an Asia-Pacific perspective

Dilip Das

2001

http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/2038/

 

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Global Liquidity and Cross Border Capital Flows

Global Liquidity and Cross Border Capital Flows

 

Types of Cross Border Capital Flows

  • Intra Bank Flows (Intra Firm Transfers)
  • Inter Bank Flows (wholesale Money Markets)
  • International Shadow Banking
  • Euro Dollar Market
  • International Bond and Equity Portfolio Flows

Growth of Capital Flows and FX Reserves

From INTERNATIONAL MONETARY RELATIONS: TAKING FINANCE SERIOUSLY

Capitalflows

 

From INTERNATIONAL MONETARY RELATIONS: TAKING FINANCE SERIOUSLY

Capital Flows 2

From Stitching together the global financial safety net

Cap Flows 6

 

Decline in Global Trade and Cross Border Capital Flows since 2008

 

From Global Liquidity and Cross-Border Bank Flows

Cap Flows 7

 

US DOLLAR FLOWS – Inter regional Flows

  • Not all dollar flows are from USA.
  • Through Eurodollar Market, firms in many countries are engaged in US Dollar transactions.
  • US Dollar dominates cross border capital flows.

 

From External dimension of monetary policy

Cap Flows 4

 

 

From Economic resilience: a financial perspective

 

Cap Flow 15

 

 

ALL CURRENCIES

From Breaking free of the triple coincidence in international finance

Cap Flows 10

 

Who is Involved in Cross Border Capital Flows

From The shifting drivers of global liquidity

Cap Flows 8

 

Recent Trends in Capital Flows

 

From The shifting drivers of global liquidity

Cap Flows 9

 

Problem of Boundaries

From Breaking the Triple Coincidence in International Finance

Capital Flows 3

Cross Border (International) Capital Flows (Networks) for

  • Intra Bank Flows
  • Inter-bank Lending
  • Debt and Securities Flows
  • International Shadow Banking

Capital Flows are not confined to National Boundaries.

Boundaries for

  • Monetary Policy
  • National Income Accounting
  • National Currencies

Types of Flows

From From Breaking the Triple Coincidence in International Finance

Cap Flows 11

 

A. Round tripping of Capital Flows

From Breaking the Triple Coincidence in International Finance

Cap Flows 12

B. International Debt Issuance by Non Financial Corporates in Emerging Markets

 

From From Breaking the Triple Coincidence in International Finance

Cap Flows 13

From Global dollar credit: links to US monetary policy and leverage

Cap flow 14

 

From  What does the new face of international financial intermediation mean for emerging market economies?

capflows 16

 

 

From Economic resilience: a financial perspective

 

Cap Flow 16

Please see my other related posts:

The Dollar Shortage, Again! in International Wholesale Money Markets

Currency Credit Networks of International Banks

Low Interest Rates and International Capital Flows

Low Interest Rates and International Investment Position of USA

Economics of Trade Finance

External Balance sheets of Nations

 

Key Sources of Research:

 

 

Breaking the Triple Coincidence in International Finance

Hyun Song Shin

Bank for International Settlements
Keynote speech at seventh conference of
Irving Fisher Committee on Central Bank Statistics

Basel, 5 September 2014

http://www.bis.org/ifc/publ/ifcb39_keynote-rh.pdf

 

 

Breaking free of the triple coincidence in international finance

Hyun Song Shin, BIS

Eighth IFC Conference on “Statistical implications of the new financial landscape”
Basel, 8–9 September 2016

http://www.bis.org/ifc/publ/ifcb43_zp_rh.pdf

 

 

 

Breaking free of the triple coincidence in international finance

by Stefan Avdjiev, Robert N McCauley and Hyun Song Shin

Monetary and Economic Department

BIS

October 2015

http://www.bis.org/publ/work524.pdf

 

 

 

Global Liquidity and Cross-Border Bank Flows

Eugenio Cerutti (International Monetary Fund)
Stijn Claessens (Federal Reserve Board)
Lev Ratnovski (International Monetary Fund)

Economic Policy
63rd Panel Meeting
Hosted by the De Nederlandsche Bank

Amsterdam, 22-23 April 2016

http://www.economic-policy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Global-liquidity-and-cross-border-bank-flows.pdf

 

 

 

Stitching together the global financial safety net

Edd Denbee, Carsten Jung and Francesco Paternò

Financial Stability Paper No. 36 – February 2016

BOE

http://www.reinventingbrettonwoods.org/sites/default/files/fs_paper36.pdf

 

 

 

Gross Capital Inflows to Banks, Corporates and Sovereigns

Stefan Advjiev

Bryan Hardy

Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan

Luis Serven

January 2017

http://www.econweb.umd.edu/~kalemli/GrossFlows_jan17_final.pdf

 

 

External dimension of monetary policy

Hyun Song Shin

Remarks at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System conference
“Monetary policy implementation and transmission in the post-crisis period”

Washington DC, Friday 13 November 2015

https://www.bis.org/speeches/sp151113.pdf

 

 

 

 

Financial deglobalisation in banking?

Robert N McCauley, Agustín S Bénétrix,
Patrick M McGuire and Goetz von Peter

TEP Working Paper No. 1717

July 2017

http://www.tcd.ie/Economics/TEP/2017/tep1717.pdf

 

 

Monetary policy spillovers and currency networks in cross-border bank lending

by Stefan Avdjiev and Előd Takáts
Monetary and Economic Department

March 2016

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2749311

 

 

 

Accounting for global liquidity: reloading the matrix

Hyun Song Shin
Economic Adviser and Head of Research

IMF-IBRN Joint Conference “Transmission of macroprudential and monetary policies across borders”

Washington DC, 19 April 2017

https://www.bis.org/speeches/sp170419.pdf

 

 

 

 

INTERNATIONAL MONETARY RELATIONS: TAKING FINANCE SERIOUSLY

Maurice Obstfeld
Alan M. Taylor
May 2017

http://econ.sciences-po.fr/sites/default/files/file/w23440.pdf

 

 

 

The Currency Dimension of the Bank Lending Channel in International Monetary Transmission

BIS Working Paper No. 600

Posted: 2 Jan 2017

Előd Takáts

Judit Temesvary

 

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2891530

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Elod_Takats/publication/311451202_The_Currency_Dimension_of_the_Bank_Lending_Channel_in_International_Monetary_Transmission/links/587dd04808ae9a860ff2723a/The-Currency-Dimension-of-the-Bank-Lending-Channel-in-International-Monetary-Transmission.pdf

 

 

 

The Second Phase of Global Liquidity and Its Impact on Emerging Economies

Hyun Song Shin
Princeton University

November 7, 2013

 

http://www.frbsf.org/economic-research/events/2013/november/asia-economic-policy-conference/program/files/The-Second-Phase-of-Global-Liquidity-and-Its-Impact-on-Emerging-Economies.pdf

 

 

 

 

BIS Quarterly Review

September 2017

International banking and financial market developments

 

http://www.bis.org/publ/qtrpdf/r_qt1709.pdf

 

 

 

 

The Three Phases of Global Liquidity

https://www.springer.com/cda/content/document/cda_downloaddocument/9789812872838-c2.pdf?SGWID=0-0-45-1490720-p177066168

 

 

 

 

The Shifting Drivers of Global Liquidity

Stefan Avdjiev
Leonardo Gambacorta
Linda S. Goldberg
Stefano Schiaffi

Staff Report No. 819
June 2017

https://www.newyorkfed.org/medialibrary/media/research/staff_reports/sr819.pdf?la=en

 

 

 

How Do Global Liquidity Phases Manifest Themselves in Asia?

Iwan J. Azis
Asian Development Bank and Cornell University
Hyun Song Shin
Princeton University
August 2013

http://www.iwanazis.com/files/documents/Iwan-Azis-Paper-Shin-Global-Liquidity2013.pdf

 

 

 

 

GLOBAL LIQUIDITY—ISSUES FOR SURVEILLANCE

2014

IMF

http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2014/031114.pdf

 

 

 

 

The shifting drivers of global liquidity

Stefan Avdjiev, Leonardo Gambacorta, Linda S. Goldberg and Stefano Schiaffi

May 2017

FED NY

 

https://www.chapman.edu/business/_files/faculty-research/2017-conference-presentations/linda-goldberg.pdf

 

 

 

CAPITAL FLOWS AND GLOBAL LIQUIDITY

IMF Note for G20 IFA WG
February 2016

 

http://g20chn.org/English/Documents/Current/201608/P020160811536051676178.pdf

 

 

 

 

Capital Flows, Cross-Border Banking and Global Liquidity∗

Valentina Bruno

Hyun Song Shin

March 15, 2012

http://www.igier.unibocconi.it/files/capital_flows_global_liquidity.pdf

 

 

Cross-Border Banking and Global Liquidity

Valentina Bruno

Hyun Song Shin

August 28, 2014

 

http://www.bis.org/publ/work458.pdf

 

 

The international monetary and financial system: a capital account historical perspective

by Claudio Borio, Harold James and Hyun Song Shin

2014

 

http://www.bis.org/publ/work457.pdf

 

 

Banks and Cross-Border Capital Flows: Policy Challenges and Regulatory Responses

 

https://www.tcd.ie/policy-institute/assets/pdf/CIEPR_banking_capital_flows_report_Sept12.pdf

 

 

 

Global dollar credit and carry trades: a firm-level analysis

Valentina Bruno

Hyun Song Shin

August 2015

 

http://www.bis.org/publ/work510.pdf

 

 

Global dollar credit: links to US monetary policy and leverage

by Robert N McCauley, Patrick McGuire and Vladyslav Sushko

2015

 

http://www.bis.org/publ/work483.pdf

 

 

 

Global liquidity and procyclicality

Hyun Song Shin

Bank for International Settlements

“The State of Economics, The State of the World” World Bank conference,

8 June 2016

 

http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/710301465395290548/Shin-Son-Shin-Presentation.pdf

 

 

 

 

Economic resilience: a financial perspective

Note submitted to the G20 on 7 November 2016

December 2016

 

http://www.g20.utoronto.ca/2017/2017-Germany-BIS-economic-resilience.pdf

 

 

Emerging Market Nonfinancial Corporate Debt: How Concerned Should We Be?,

Beltran, Daniel, Keshav Garud, and Aaron Rosenblum (2017).

IFDP Notes. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, June 2017.

 

https://www.federalreserve.gov/econres/notes/ifdp-notes/emerging-market-nonfinancial-corporate-debt-how-concerned-should-we-be-20170601.pdf

 

 

 

 

International capital flows and financial vulnerabilities in emerging market economies: analysis and data gaps

By Nikola Tarashev, Stefan Avdjiev and Ben Cohen

Note submitted to the G20 International Financial Architecture Working Group

August 2016

 

https://www.bis.org/publ/othp25.pdf

 

 

 

Recent trends in EME government debt volume and composition

Corporate Debt in Emerging Economies: Threat to Financial Stability

Viral Acharya et al
2015

 

 

 

 

 Dollar credit to emerging market economies

Robert N McCauley Patrick McGuire Vladyslav Sushko

2015

 

https://www.bis.org/publ/qtrpdf/r_qt1512e.pdf

 

 

 

 

What does the new face of international financial intermediation mean
for emerging market economies?

Hyun song shin and PhiliP Turner, Bank for International Settlements

2015

 

https://publications.banque-france.fr/sites/default/files/medias/documents/financial-stability-review-19_2015-04.pdf

Cash and Investments: Corporate Savings Glut in USA

Cash and Investments: Corporate Savings Glut in USA

 

Profits/Retained Earnings of a firm can be used in number of ways:

  • Capital Investments
  • Debt Repayment
  • Dividends
  • Cash and Short Term Investments
  • Long Term Investments
  • Share Buybacks
  • M&A Investments

Please see three quarterly reports from FACTSET on trends in

  • Dividents
  • Buybacks
  • Cash and Investments

Share buybacks are very common for several years.

Please see my related posts

Why do Firms buyback their Shares? Causes and Consequences.

Low Interest Rates and Business Investments : Update August 2017

Short term Thinking in Investment Decisions of Businesses and Financial Markets

Mergers and Acquisitions – Long Term Trends and Waves

Business Investments and Low Interest Rates

 

From The Corporate Saving Glut in the Aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis

cash

From Why Are Corporations Holding So Much Cash?

cash 2cash3

 

From FACTSET Cash and Investment Quarterly

cash4

Companies are holding on to the large sum of cash.  Rather than capital investments (CAPEX), cash is being used for share buybacks, dividend payouts, mergers and acquisitions, and cash investments (short and long term).

 

From FACTSET Cash and Investment Quarterly

cash5

Key Sources of Research:

 

The Corporate Saving Glut in the Aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis

Joseph W. Gruber
Steven B. Kamin

This Draft: June 2015

https://www.imf.org/external/np/seminars/eng/2015/secularstag/pdf/Gruber.pdf

 

The global corporate saving glut: Long-term evidence

Peter Chen, Loukas Karabarbounis, Brent Neiman

05 April 2017

http://voxeu.org/article/global-corporate-saving-glut

 

 

 

Declining Labor Shares and the Global Rise of Corporate Saving

Loukas Karabarbounis

Brent Neiman

October 2012

http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/brent.neiman/research/labshare.pdf

 

The Global Rise of Corporate Saving

Peter Chen

Loukas Karabarbounis

Brent Neiman

March 2017

http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/brent.neiman/research/CKN.pdf

http://www.nber.org/papers/w23133.pdf

 

FACTSET Dividend Quarterly

https://www.factset.com/websitefiles/PDFs/dividend

 

FACTSET Buyback Quarterly

https://www.factset.com/websitefiles/PDFs/buyback

FACTSET Cash and Investment Quarterly

https://www.factset.com/websitefiles/PDFs/cashinvestment

https://insight.factset.com/hubfs/Cash%20and%20Investment%20Quarterly/Cash%20and%20Investment%20Quarterly%20Q3%202016_12.21.16_v2.pdf

 

 

 

Why Are Corporations Holding So Much Cash?

By Juan M. Sanchez and Emircan Yurdagul

2013

 

https://www.stlouisfed.org/~/media/Files/PDFs/publications/pub_assets/pdf/re/2013/a/RE_Jan_2013.pdf

 

 

Why Do Companies Hold Cash?

Gianni La Cava and Callan Windsor

RDP 2016-03

 

https://www.rba.gov.au/publications/rdp/2016/pdf/rdp2016-03.pdf

 

 

MULTINATIONALS AND THE HIGH CASH HOLDINGS PUZZLE

Lee Pinkowitz

René M. Stulz Rohan Williamson

June 2012

 

http://www.nber.org/papers/w18120.pdf?new_window=1

 

 

 

The Determinants and Implications of Corporate Cash Holdings

Tim Opler, Lee Pinkowitz, Rene Stulz, Rohan Williamson

Issued in October 1997

http://www.nber.org/papers/w6234.pdf

 

 

WHY DO U.S. FIRMS HOLD SO MUCH MORE CASH THAN THEY USED TO?

Thomas W. Bates Kathleen M. Kahle Rene M. Stulz

September 2006

 

http://www.nber.org/papers/w12534.pdf

 

 

Why do firms hold so much cash? A tax-based explanation

C. Fritz Foley, Jay C. Hartzell, Sheridan Titman, and Garry Twite

October 2006

 

http://www.nber.org/papers/w12649.pdf

 

 

It’s Alive! Corporate Cash and Business Investment

Finn Poschmann

 

https://www.cdhowe.org/sites/default/files/attachments/research_papers/mixed/e-brief_181.pdf

 

 

Dead money

There are good reasons for hoarding cash.

John Lorinc

 

http://www.canadianbusiness.com/economy/dead-money/

 

 

IS “DEAD” MONEY ALIVE? A FIRM-LEVEL ANALYSIS OF CANADIAN NON-FINANCIAL LISTED CORPORATIONS CASH HOLDING AND CAPITAL EXPENDITURE BEHAVIOR

2014

IMF

 

https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2014/cr1428.pdf

Understanding Trade in Intermediate Goods

Understanding Trade in Intermediate Goods

 

One of the key source of International Trade statistics is a document published by the UNCTAD since 2013:

Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade

Please see references below to access reports for 2015 and 2016.

 

In 2014, out of USD 18.5 trillion in global trade, about USD 8 trillion was in intermediate goods.

 

From TRADE IN INTERMEDIATE GOODS AND SERVICES

Introduction: the international dimension of the exchange of intermediate inputs

1. Trade in intermediate inputs has been steadily growing over the last decade. However, despite the internationalisation of production and the increasing importance of outsourcing and foreign investment, some studies have found little rise in intermediate goods trade as a share of total trade1. More than half of goods trade is however made up of intermediate inputs and trade in services is even more of an intermediate type with about three quarters of trade flows being comprised of intermediate services. Trade in intermediate goods and services thus deserves special attention from trade policymakers and so far few studies have investigated how it differs from trade in consumption goods or services.

2. An intermediate good can be defined as an input to the production process that has itself been produced and, unlike capital, is used up in production3. The difference between intermediate and capital goods lies in the latter entering as a fixed asset in the production process. Like any primary factor (such as labour, land, or natural resources) capital is used but not used up in the production process4. On the contrary, an intermediate good is used, often transformed, and incorporated in the final output. As an input, an intermediate good has itself been produced and is hence defined in contrast to a primary input. As an output, an intermediate good is used to produce other goods (or services) contrary to a final good which is consumed and can be referred to as a “consumption good”.

3. Intermediate inputs are not restricted to material goods; they can also consist of services. Thelatter can be potentially used as an input to any sector of the economy; that is for the production of the same, or other services, as well as manufacturing goods. Symmetrically, manufacturing goods can be potentially used to produce the same, or other manufacturing goods, as well as services.

4. An important question we can ask is how to identify inputs among all goods and services produced in an economy. Many types of goods can be easily distinguished as inputs, when their use excludes them from final consumption. Notable examples include chemical substances, construction materials, or business services. The exact same type of good used as an input to some production process can however be destined to consumption. For instance, oranges can be sold to households as a final good, as well as to a factory as an input for food preparation. Telecommunication services can be sold to individuals or to business services firms as an intermediate input for their output. The United Nations distinguish commodities in each basic heading on the basis of the main end-use (United Nations, 2007). It is however recognized that many commodities that are traded internationally may be put to a variety of uses. Other methodologies involve the use of input-output (I-O) tables to distinguish between intermediate and consumption goods.

5. The importance of intermediate goods and services in the economy and trade is associated with a number of developments in the last decades. Growth and increased sophistication of production has given birth to strategies involving fragmentation and reorganisation of firm’s activities, both in terms of ownership boundaries, as in terms of the location for production. In what follows, the international dimension of the exchange of intermediate goods and services is explored by clarifying terms and concepts as well as the links between trade in intermediate inputs and FDI.

From Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2015

inter8

 

From Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2015

inter2

 From Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2015

inter3

From Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2015

inter4

From Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2015

inter

From Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2015

inter5

From Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2015

inter6

From Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2015

inter7

From Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2015

Trade networks relating to global value chains have evolved during the last 10 years. In 2004, the East Asian production network was still in its infancy. Most trade flows of parts and components concerned the USA and the European Union, with a number of other countries loosely connected with these two main hubs. As of 2014 trade of parts and components was much more developed. The current state is characterized not only by the prominent role of China, but also by a much more tightly integrated network with a much larger number of countries many of which have multiple connections to different hubs.

From Mapping Global Value Chains: Intermediate Goods Trade and Structural Change in the World Economy

inter10inter11inter12

Key sources of Research:

 

TRADE IN INTERMEDIATE GOODS AND SERVICES

OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 93
by Sébastien Miroudot, Rainer Lanz and Alexandros Ragoussis

2009

https://www.oecd.org/trade/its/44056524.pdf

 

 

An Essay on Intra-Industry Trade in Intermediate Goods

Rosanna Pittiglio

2014

http://file.scirp.org/pdf/ME_2014051916452646.pdf

 

 

The Rise of International Supply Chains: Implications for Global Trade

http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GETR/2012/GETR_Chapter1.2.pdf

 

 

 

Growing Trade in Intermediate Goods: Outsourcing, Global Sourcing or Increasing
Importance of MNE Networks?

by
Jörn Kleinert
October 2000

https://www.ifw-kiel.de/ifw_members/publications/growing-trade-in-intermediate-goods-outsourcing-global-sourcing-or-increasing-importance-of-mne-networks/kap1006.pdf

 

 

 

Imported Inputs and the Gains from Trade

Ananth Ramanarayanan
University of Western Ontario
September, 2014

https://www.economics.utoronto.ca/index.php/index/research/downloadSeminarPaper/49816

 

 

 

Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2015

Division on International Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/ditctab2015d1_en.pdf

 

 

 

Key Statistics and Trends in International Trade 2016

Division on International Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/ditctab2016d3_en.pdf

 

 

Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy

Robert C. Feenstra
Revised, April 1998

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.39.7178&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

 

 

GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY

OECD, WTO and World Bank Group
Report prepared for submission to the G20 Trade Ministers Meeting Sydney, Australia, 19 July 2014

https://www.oecd.org/tad/gvc_report_g20_july_2014.pdf

 

 

Trade in Value Added: Concepts, Estimation and Analysis

Marko Javorsek* and Ignacio Camacho

20015

http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/AWP150Trade%20in%20Value%20Added.pdf

 

 

The Similarities and Differences among Three Major Inter-Country Input-Output Databases and their Implications for Trade in Value-Added Estimates

Lin Jones and Zhi Wang, United States International Trade Commission Li Xin, Beijing Normal University and Peking University Christophe Degain, World Trade Organization

December, 2014

https://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/ec201412b.pdf

 

 

Advanced Topics in Trade
Lecture 9 – Multinational Firms and Foreign Direct Investment

Heiwai Tang – SAIS
April 8, 2015

http://www.hwtang.com/uploads/3/0/7/2/3072318/lecture_8_new.pdf

 

 

Efforts to Measure Trade in Value-Added and Map Global Value Chains: A Guide

Andrew Reamer

May 29, 2014

https://gwipp.gwu.edu/files/downloads/Reamer_ISA_Trade_in_Value_Added_05-29-2014.pdf

 

 

 

Global Value Chains for Value Added and Intermediate Goods in Asia

N Shrestha

20015

http://www.econ.ynu.ac.jp/cessa/publication/pdf/CESSA%20WP%202015-07.pdf

 

 

 

Global Value Chains: The New Reality of International Trade

Sherry Stephenson
December 2013

http://e15initiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/E15-GVCs-Stephenson-Final.pdf

 

 

Asia and Global Production Networks Implications for Trade, Incomes and Economic Vulnerability

Benno Ferrarini

David Hummels

20014

https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/149221/asia-and-global-production-networks.pdf

 

 

Participation of Developing Countries in Global Value Chains:
Implications for Trade and Trade-Related Policies

by
Przemyslaw Kowalski, Javier Lopez Gonzalez, Alexandros Ragoussis
and Cristian Ugarte

https://www.die-gdi.de/uploads/media/OECD_Trade_Policy_Papers_179.pdf

 

 

GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS: SURVEYING DRIVERS, MEASURES AND IMPACTS

João Amador
Sónia Cabral

2014

https://www.bportugal.pt/sites/default/files/anexos/papers/wp20143.pdf

 

World Intermediate goods Exports By Country and Region

2014

WITS World International Trade Statistics

http://wits.worldbank.org/CountryProfile/en/Country/WLD/Year/2014/TradeFlow/Export/Partner/all/Product/UNCTAD-SoP2

 

 

Trade in global value chains

2013

WTO

https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2013_e/its13_highlights4_e.pdf

 

 

The Rise of Trade in Intermediates: Policy Implications

  • February 10, 2011

http://carnegieendowment.org/2011/02/10/rise-of-trade-in-intermediates-policy-implications-pub-42578

 

 

International trade with intermediate and final goods under economic crisis

Elżbieta Czarny, Warsaw School of Economics
Paweł Folfas, Warsaw School of Economics
Katarzyna Śledziewska, Warsaw University

http://www.etsg.org/ETSG2012/Programme/Papers/375.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Intermediate Goods: Implications for Productivity and Welfare in Korea

Young Gui Kim

Hak K. PYO

Date Written: December 30, 2016

 

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2929118

 

 

Growing Together: Economic Ties between the United States and Mexico

BY CHRISTOPHER WILSON

https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/growing_together_economic_ties_between_the_united_states_and_mexico.pdf

 

 

Mapping Global Value Chains: Intermediate Goods Trade and Structural Change in the World Economy

Timothy J. Sturgeon
Olga Memedovic

https://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Publications/Research_and_statistics/Branch_publications/Research_and_Policy/Files/Working_Papers/2010/WP%2005%20Mapping%20Glocal%20Value%20Chains.pdf

 

India’s Intermediate Goods Trade in the Inter Regional Value Chain:
An examination based on Trade data and Input Output Analysis

Simi Thambi

https://www.jsie.jp/Annual_Meeting/2013f_Yokohoma_n_Univ/pdf/10_2%20fp.pdf

 

Global Supply Chains

https://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/pub4253_2.pdf

 

 

Global value chains in a changing world

Edited by Deborah K. Elms and Patrick Low

https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/aid4tradeglobalvalue13_e.pdf

 

Trends in Intra Firm Trade of USA

Trends in Intra Firm Trade of USA

 

 

Intra Firm Trade

Intra-firm trade consist of trade between parent companies of a compiling country with their affiliates abroad and trade of affiliates under foreign control in this compiling country with their foreign parent group.

Intra Industry Trade

Different types of trade are captured in measurements of intra-industry trade:

a) Trade in similar products (“horizontal trade”) with differentiated varieties (e.g. cars of a similar class and price range).

b) Trade in “vertically differentiated” products distinguished by quality and price (e.g. exports of high-quality clothing and imports of lower-quality clothing).

 

From GLOBALISATION AND INTRA-FIRM TRADE: AN EMPIRICAL NOTE

 

Products which are traded internationally, but which stay within the ambit of a multinational enterprise (MNE), represent a significant portion of foreign trade for several OECD countries. This type of trade is called intra-firm trade as opposed to international trade among unrelated parties, also called arm’s length trade. Intra-firm trade is an important part of the process of globalisation, by which is meant the increasing interdependence of markets and production in different countries through trade in goods and services, cross-border flows of capital, and exchanges of technology.

The phenomenon of intra-firm trade is of interest to trade policy makers, as well as to competition and tax authorities. The use of transfer pricing in intra-firm trade may introduce an element of uncertainty into the value of a fairly large part of international trade and into customs valuation needed for the application of tariffs or similar measures. Competition and tax issues may also arise from intra-firm trade to the extent that the latter may facilitate the dissimulation of real transaction prices between the parent company and its affiliates.

A surge in foreign direct investment (FDI) during the 1980s’ has been cited as evidence in favour of globalisation; it is argued that MNEs have played a central role in globalisation by extending their corporate networks beyond national boundaries through the establishment of foreign branches and subsidiaries. It is often assumed that intra-firm trade reflects these foreign production activities by MNEs, as they trans- fer their factors of production from one country to another.

Little attention has been paid so far to the phenomenon of intra-firm trade. The literature on the subject is still relatively limited and recent. This is partly because most international trade statistics do not distinguish between intra-firm trade and arm’s length trade.

 

From GLOBALISATION AND INTRA-FIRM TRADE: AN EMPIRICAL NOTE

In considering the interrelationship between globalisation and international trade, it is conceptually useful to distinguish between four types of international trade:

(A) intra industry, intra-firm trade;

(B) intra-industry, arm’s-length trade;

(C) inter-industry, intra firm trade;

(D) inter-industry, arm’s-length trade.

Intra-industry trade is defined as the mutual exchange of similar goods within the same product category (Grubel and Lloyd, 1975, and Greenaway and Milner, 1986).

Intra-industry trade is generally a function of product differentiation and may or may not involve intra-firm trade. If motor vehicles produced in France are exported to the United States and U.S.-built motor vehicles are exported to France, the two countries are said to be involved in intra-industry trade even though such trade is not necessarily intra-firm trade. Intra-industry trade can be readily calculated for any given product category, as only the traditional bilateral trade statistics for that product category are needed.

Intra firm trade is harder to quantify, since knowledge of the relationship between the firms involved in the transactions is necessary. Data on intra-firm trade are available only. through firm surveys, involving the preparation of questionnaires by national authorities.

Most trade in manufactured goods among OECD countries is of the intra-industry type.  Intra-industry trade is particularly important within Europe, and to a lesser extent, in North America, accounting for roughly 60 to 70 per cent of total trade in manufacture.  This trade generally concerns differentiated products exchanged between countries that are similar in terms of per capita income and relative factor endowments. It has also been argued that economies of scale play an important role in explaining the industry pattern of intra-industry trade.

On the other hand, trade between developed and developing countries (“North-South”) is mostly of the inter-industry type, reflecting large differences in relative factor endowments between the two groups of countries. Inter-industry trade among unrelated parties (type D) – e.g. international exchange of cotton cloth produced by northern manufacturers for wine produced by southern farmers .- is the type of trade which international trade textbooks traditionally deal with.

Trade in manufactured goods between developed countries is predominantly of the intra-industry type and often takes the form of intra-firm trade. An important example of intra-industry, intra-firm trade (Type A) is United States-Canada-Mexico automobile trade. Intra-firm trade is also the dominant pattern of U.S. exports to Canada and Europe in the case of non-electrical machinery and chemicals. Another example is trade in manufactured goods between Pacific Asian economies. These economies have seen a rapid increase in intra-industry trade as a proportion of their total trade over the last decade. Such increase in intra-industry trade in Pacific Asian economies can be primarily attributed to the globalisation of corporate activities by U.S. and Japanese firms and, more recently, by other Asian firms. This involves assembly-line production based on imported parts and components in different countries in East and South East Asia (Fukasaku, 1992; Gross, 1986).

 

 

IFT

 

From An Overview of U.S. Intrafirm-trade Data Sources

 

ift2

There are large differences in BEA data and Census data particularly for Imports.  There are some measurement issues.  Import data from Mexico and China show big errors.

 

From An Overview of U.S. Intrafirm-trade Data Sources

IFT3

 

From An Overview of U.S. Intrafirm-trade Data Sources

IFT4

 

Data sources of Intra Firm Trade

  • BEA (Intra Firm Trade Data)
  • US Census Bureau (Related party trade data)

 

From Intrafirm Trade and Vertical Fragmentation in U.S. Multinational Corporations

First, we show that, although intra-MNC trade represents an important fraction of aggregate U.S. exports and imports, the median manufacturing foreign affiliate ships nothing to — and receives nothing from — its parent in the United States. Intra-MNC trade is concentrated in a small group of large affiliates and large corporations: The largest five percent of affiliates accounts for around half of the total trade to and from the parent, while the largest five percent of corporations accounts for almost two thirds of total intra- MNC trade. This skewness is also observed within the corporation: Intra-MNC trade tends to be concentrated in a small number of an MNC’s largest foreign affiliates.

The lack of intra-MNC cross-border trade that we find for foreign affiliates of U.S. multinationals is more surprising than the similar finding in Atalay et al. (2014) for intrafirm trade within the United States. Factor price differences — the theoretical motivation for vertical fragmentation and the intrafirm trade that accompanies it — are much larger across countries than across U.S. cities. In this regard, Brainard (1993) first documented the weak relationship between factor endowments and intra-MNC trade across borders.

The skewness of intra-MNC trade towards large affiliates and corporations in our first finding is reminiscent of the skewness in the distributions of other international activities. Manufacturing exports are concentrated in large firms (Bernard and Jensen, 1995), and even larger firms own foreign affiliates (Helpman et al., 2004). These patterns are consistent with theories of the firm that are based on economies of scale in production. In Grossman et al. (2006), for example, the production of inputs for the entire multinational corporation is concentrated into a few large affiliates, which exploit the strong economies of scale in production. Affiliates created to supply a foreign market — as an alternative to exporting, in order to avoid transportation costs — are relatively small. The model predicts that a small number of large affiliates ship goods within the corporation, while numerous smaller affiliates serve local markets. The concentration of intra-MNC trade in the largest firms is also consistent with the contract theory of the multinational firm proposed by Antras and Helpman (2004): In their framework with heterogeneous firms, only the largest firms choose to integrate offshore activities.

Our second set of facts relates intra-MNC trade to the upstream and downstream links between the industries of the parent and affiliate, as defined by the U.S. input-output table. As previously shown in Alfaro and Charlton (2009), we find that multinational corporations own affiliates in industries that are vertically linked to the parent’s industry. The input-output coefficient between the affiliate’s and the parent’s industries of operation, however, is not related to the existence and the magnitude of the trade in goods between the two. These findings are similar to those in Atalay et al. (2014), who study multi-establishment firms within the United States: The ownership of vertically linked affiliates is not related to the transfer of goods within the boundaries of the firm.

 

 

 

Key Sources of Research:

 

GLOBALISATION AND INTRA-FIRM TRADE: AN EMPIRICAL NOTE

Marcos Bonturi and Kiichiro Fukasaku

1993

http://www.oecd.org/unitedstates/33948827.pdf

 

 

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

James K. Jackson
Specialist in International Trade and Finance

June 29, 2017

https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RS21118.pdf

 

Foreign Direct Investment in the United States (FDIUS): Final Results from the 2012 Benchmark Survey

 

https://www.bea.gov/international/fdius2012_final.htm

 

 

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad (USDIA): Revised 2009 Benchmark Data

https://www.bea.gov/international/usdia2009r.htm

 

U.S. Intrafirm Trade in Goods

By William J. Zeile

1997

https://www.bea.gov/scb/pdf/internat/bpa/1997/0297iid.pdf

 

Global Production: Firms, Contracts, and Trade Structure

Pol Antràs
Harvard University
June, 2015

http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/antras/files/global_production_slides.pdf

 

 

Trade in Goods Within Multinational Companies:
Survey-Based Data and Findings for the United States of America

William J. Zeile
U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
Washington, DC 20230
2003

https://www.bea.gov/papers/pdf/IFT_OECD_Zeile.pdf

 

 

An Overview of U.S. Intrafirm-trade Data Sources

Kim J. Ruhl
New York University Stern School of Business
May 2013

https://archive.nyu.edu/bitstream/2451/31994/2/Ruhl_USIntrafirm-tradeData_May2013.pdf

 

 

How Well is U.S. Intrafirm Trade Measured?

By KIM J. RUHL

20015

https://static1.squarespace.com/static/562636cfe4b043d43a7492bf/t/56746f21d8af102d24cf4264/1450471201862/How_Well_March_2015.pdf

 

 

 

An Overview of U.S. Intrafirm-trade Data Sources

Kim J. Ruhl
New York University Stern School of Business
May 2013

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.343.7532&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

 

THE DETERMINANTS OF INTRAFIRM TRADE

Gregory Corcos

Delphine M. Irac

Giordano Miony

Thierry Verdier

First draft: January 26, 2008. This draft : December 9, 2010.

http://gregory.corcos.free.fr/coirmive.pdf

 

 

MULTINATIONAL FIRMS AND THE STRUCTURE OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Pol Antràs
Stephen R.Yeaple

Working Paper 18775

February 2013

http://www.nber.org/papers/w18775.pdf

 

 

INTRA-FIRM TRADE AND PRODUCT CONTRACTIBILITY (LONG VERSION)

Andrew B. Bernard
J. Bradford Jensen
Stephen J. Redding
Peter K. Schott

April 2010

http://www.nber.org/papers/w15881.pdf

 

 

FIRMS, CONTRACTS, AND TRADE STRUCTURE

POL ANTRAS

https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/antras/files/fcts.pdf

 

 

On Intra-firm Trade and Multinationals: Offshoring and Foreign Outsourcing in Manufacturing

  • Ashok Deo Bardhan
  • Dwight Jaffee

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057%2F9780230522954_2

 

 

INTRAFIRM TRADE AND VERTICAL FRAGMENTATION IN U.S. MULTINATIONAL
CORPORATIONS

Natalia Ramondo
Veronica Rappoport
Kim J. Ruhl
August 2015

http://www.nber.org/papers/w21472.pdf

 

 

 

INTRA-FIRM TRADE: PATTERNS, DETERMINANTS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

Rainer Lanz,
Sébastien Miroudot,

OECD

https://www.biblioteca.fundacionicbc.edu.ar/images/d/d6/5kg9p39lrwnn.pdf

 

 

Intrafirm Trade and Product Contractibility

By Andrew B. Bernard, J. Bradford Jensen, Stephen J. Redding,
and Peter K. Schott

http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/28616/1/Intrafirm_trade_and_product_compatibility_(lsero).pdf

 

Vertical Specialization in Multinational Firms

Gordon H. Hanson

Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr.

Matthew J. Slaughter

Initial Draft: September 2002

https://www.princeton.edu/~erossi/courses_files/VertSpec.pdf

 

 

GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS SURVEYING DRIVERS AND MEASURES

João Amador and Sónia Cabral

2014

https://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp1739.en.pdf?13f6d86f40a3c60325f27cbc08a18742

https://www.bportugal.pt/sites/default/files/anexos/papers/wp20143.pdf

 

 

EU-US ECONOMIC LINKAGES:
THE ROLE OF MULTINATIONALS AND INTRA-FIRM TRADE

C. Lakatos and T. Fukui

2013

http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2013/november/tradoc_151922.%202_November%202013.pdf

 

 

THREE ESSAYS ON INTRAFIRM TRADE

Sooyoung Lee

2015

http://scholar.colorado.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1061&context=econ_gradetds

 

 

 

On Intra-Firm Trade and Multinationals: Foreign Outsourcing and Offshoring in Manufacturing

Ashok Deo Bardhan

Dwight Jaffee

2004

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9360/d993275ddc9ba520060c9022fb84435a4d6a.pdf

 

International Fragmentation of Production and the Intrafirm Trade
of U.S. Multinational Companies

Maria Borga and William J. Zeile

January 22, 2004

https://www.bea.gov/papers/pdf/intrafirmtradejanuary04.pdf

 

 

 

Globalization and trade flows: what you see is not what you get!

Andreas Maurer and Christophe Degain

https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/reser_e/ersd201012_e.pdf

 

 

How US corporations structure their international production chains

Natalia Ramondo, Veronica Rappoport, Kim Ruhl

07 October 2015

http://voxeu.org/article/international-production-networks-and-intra-firm-trade-new-evidence

 

 

 

WHY DO FIRMS OWN PRODUCTION CHAINS?

Enghin Atalay
Ali Hortacsu
Chad Syverson

April 2012

http://www.nber.org/papers/w18020.pdf

 

 

 

Vertical Integration and Input Flows

Enghin Atalay

Ali Hortaçsu

Chad Syverson

August, 2013

http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/chad.syverson/research/verticalownership.pdf

http://ssc.wisc.edu/~eatalay/viplantevidence.pdf

 

 

Outsourcing versus Vertical Integration: A Dynamic Model of Industry Equilibrium.

Román Fossati

March 2014

http://webmeets.com/files/papers/EARIE/2014/101/1March2014-RomanFossati.pdf

 

 

Production Networks, Geography and Firm Performance

Andrew B. Bernardy

Andreas Moxnesz

Yukiko U. Saitox

This Version: May 2014 –

http://cepr.org/sites/default/files/MOXNES%20-%20j_network_ERWIT4.pdf

 

 

 

 

Vertical Integration and Firm Boundaries: The Evidence

FRANCINE LAFONTAINE AND MARGARET SLADE

2007

http://eva.fcs.edu.uy/pluginfile.php/52932/mod_resource/content/2/Lafontaine_Slade%20-%20Vertical%20integration%20and%20firm%20boundaries.pdf

 

 

 

 

Foreign affiliates with and without intra-firm trade:
Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa

Sotiris Blanas

Adnan Seric

http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Research_and_Statistics/WPs_2010/WP_13.pdf

 

 

 

Outsourcing, Vertical Integration, and Cost Reduction

Simon Loertscher†

Michael H. Riordan‡

September 8, 2014

http://www.law.northwestern.edu/research-faculty/searlecenter/events/antitrust/documents/Loertscher_Outsourcing.pdf

 

 

 

VERTICAL PRODUCTION NETWORKS IN MULTINATIONAL FIRMS

Gordon H. Hanson
Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr.
Matthew J. Slaughter

May 2003

http://www.nber.org/papers/w9723.pdf

 

 

Network structure of production

Enghin Atalaya, Ali Hortaçsua,1, James Robertsb, and Chad Syversonc

Edited by Lars Peter Hansen, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, and approved February 2, 2011 (received for review October 15, 2010)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3069152/pdf/pnas.201015564.pdf

 

 

 

Cross-border Vertical Integration and Intra-firm Trade:
New evidence from Korean and Japanese firm-level data

Hyunbae CHUN

Jung HUR

Young Gak KIM

Hyeog Ug KWON

http://www.rieti.go.jp/jp/publications/dp/17e049.pdf

http://hompi.sogang.ac.kr/hchun/chun_aep_2017.pdf

 

 

 

Offshoring in the Global Economy
Lecture 1: Microeconomic Structure
Lecture 2: Macroeconomic Implications

Robert C. Feenstra

September 2008
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.294.715&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

 

 

THE NETWORK STRUCTURE OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Thomas Chaney

January 2011

http://www.nber.org/papers/w16753.pdf

FDI vs Outsourcing: Extending Boundaries or Extending Network Chains of Firms

FDI vs Outsourcing: Extending Boundaries or Extending Network Chains of Firms

 

Foreign Direct Investments of Firms can have three objectives:

  • Vertical Integration (Control of Supply Chain)
  • Horizontal Integration (Seeking Market Share)
  • Diversification ( Market Seeking)

In this post, Focus is on Sourcing of Goods and Services in FDI and Outsourcing Decisions of Firms.  That means focusing on supply chain related issues.

 

From GLOBAL SOURCING

A fi…rm that chooses to keep the production of an intermediate input within its boundaries can produce it at home or in a foreign country. When it keeps it at home, it engages in standard vertical integration. And when it makes it abroad, it engages in foreign direct investment (FDI) and intra-…firm trade. Alternatively, a …firm may choose to outsource an input in the home country or in a foreign country. When it buys the input at home, it engages in domestic outsourcing. And when it buys it abroad, it engages in foreign outsourcing, or arm’s-length trade.

Intel Corporation provides an example of the FDI strategy; it assembles most of its microchips in wholly-owned subsidiaries in China, Costa Rica, Malaysia, and the Philippines. On the other hand, Nike provides an example of the arm’s-length import strategy; it subcontracts most of its manufacturing to independent producers in Thailand, Indonesia, Cambodia, and Vietnam.

 

 

Intermediate Goods – Make vs.  Buy Decisions of Firms

 

Outsourcing2

 

From Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy

 

The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. Companies are now finding it profitable to outsource increasing amounts of the production process, a process which can happen either domestically or abroad. This represents a breakdown in the vertically-integrated mode of production – the so-called “Fordist” production, exemplified by the automobile industry – on which American manufacturing was built. A number of prominent researchers have referred to the importance of the idea that production occurs internationally: Bhagwati and Dehejia (1994) call this “kaleidoscope comparative advantage,” as firms shift location quickly; Krugman (1996) uses the phrase “slicing the value chain”; Leamer (1996) prefers “delocalization;” while Antweiler and Trefler (1997) introduce “intra-mediate trade.” There is no single measure that captures the full range of these activities, but I shall compare several different measures of foreign outsourcing, and argue that they have all increased since the 1970s.

 

Types of Supply Chain Relations:

  • Intra-firm Trade of MNCs
  • Foreign Outsourcing
  • Domestic Outsourcing
  • Vertical Integration

 

Key Terms:

  • Production Sharing
  • Vertical Integration
  • Fragmentation of Production
  • Global Value Chains
  • Outsourcing
  • Delocalization
  • Intermediate Goods Trade
  • FDI
  • Domestic Outsourcing
  • Production Offshoring
  • Onshoring
  • Economic Globalization
  • Value Added Tasks
  • Intra-firm Trade
  • Multinational Firms
  • Vertical Specialization
  • Vertical Disintegration
  • Transaction Cost Economics
  • Trade in Value Added Tasks
  • Vertical Production Networks
  • Production Unbundling

 

Key Sources of Research:

PHYSICAL CAPITAL, KNOWLEDGE CAPITAL AND THE CHOICE BETWEEN FDI AND OUTSOURCING

Yongmin Chen
Ignatius J. Horstmann
James R. Markusen

Working Paper 14515
http://www.nber.org/papers/w14515

December 2008

http://www.nber.org/papers/w14515.pdf

 

 

OUTSOURCING VERSUS FDI IN INDUSTRY EQUILIBRIUM

Gene M.Grossman
Elhanan Helpman

Working Paper 9300
http://www.nber.org/papers/w9300

October 2002

http://www.nber.org/papers/w9300.pdf

 

 

GLOBAL SOURCING

Pol Antràs
Elhanan Helpman

Working Paper 10082
http://www.nber.org/papers/w10082

November 2003

http://www.nber.org/papers/w10082.pdf

 

 

OUTSOURCING IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY

Gene M. Grossman
Elhanan Helpman

Working Paper 8728
http://www.nber.org/papers/w8728

January 2002

http://www.nber.org/papers/w8728.pdf

 

 

 

Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality

Robert C. Feenstra

Gordon H. Hanson

January 1996

http://www.nber.org/papers/w5424.pdf

 

Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality:  A Survey of Trade and wages

Robert C. Feenstra

Gordon H. Hanson

2001

http://www.nber.org/papers/w8372.pdf

 

 

TRADE, FDI, AND THE ORGANIZATION OF FIRMS

Elhanan Helpman

Working Paper 12091
http://www.nber.org/papers/w12091

March 2006

http://www.nber.org/papers/w12091.pdf

 

 

 

HOME AND HOST COUNTRY EFFECTS OF FDI

Robert E. Lipsey

Working Paper 9293
http://www.nber.org/papers/w9293

October 2002

http://www.nber.org/papers/w9293.pdf

 

 

Chapter Title: Introduction to “Foreign Direct Investment”

Chapter Author: Kenneth A. Froot
Chapter URL: http://www.nber.org/chapters/c6531

1992

http://www.nber.org/chapters/c6531.pdf

 

Chapter Title: Where Are the Multinationals Headed?

Chapter Author: Raymond Vernon
Chapter URL: http://www.nber.org/chapters/c6534

1992

http://www.nber.org/chapters/c6534.pdf

 

 

 

Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: A Sectoral and Institutional
Approach

James P. Walsh and Jiangyan Yu

2010

https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2010/wp10187.pdf

 

 

 

DETERMINANTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

Bruce A. Blonigen
Jeremy Piger

Working Paper 16704
http://www.nber.org/papers/w16704

January 2011

http://www.nber.org/papers/w16704.pdf

 

 

 

Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis

Khondoker Abdul Mottaleba
Kaliappa Kalirajanb

2010

https://asiaandthepacificpolicystudies.crawford.anu.edu.au/acde/asarc/pdf/papers/2010/WP2010_13.pdf

 

 

 

Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment

Bruce A. Blonigen

Jeremy Piger

 

2014

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2535582

 

Trends and Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in South Asia

World Bank

2013

http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/157221468164351904/pdf/ACS48460WP0P13055B00PUBLIC00A9RBBB1.pdf

 

 

Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

Yi Feng
Publication Date: Jun 2017

http://politics.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-559

http://politics.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-559?print=pdf

 

 

 

Foreign direct investment (FDI)

http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s4IP1_8736.pdf

 

 

 

Foreign Direct Investment and the Multinational Enterprise: An Introduction

Steven Brakman and Harry Garretsen

2008

https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/content/9780262026451_sch_0001.pdf

 

 

 

AN EXTENSIVE EXPLORATION OF THEORIES OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

Patricia Lindelwa Makoni

http://virtusinterpress.org/IMG/pdf/10-22495_rgcv5i2c1art1.pdf

 

 

 

A selective review of foreign direct investment theories.

Nayak, Dinkar and Rahul N. Choudhury (2014).

ARTNeT Working Paper Series No. 143, March 2014,

https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/103862/1/782793517.pdf

 

 

Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy

Robert C. Feenstra

Revised, April 1998

 

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.39.7178&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

 

 

The Distributional Effects of International Fragmentation,

Kohler, Wilhelm (2002)

Working Paper, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, No. 0201

 

https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/73205/1/wp0201.pdf

 

 

 

International Fragmentation of Production and the Intrafirm Trade of U.S. Multinational Companies

Maria Borga and William J. Zeile
WP2004-02
January 22, 2004

Paper presented at:

The National Bureau of Economic Research/Conference on Research in Income and Wealth meeting on Firm-level Data, Trade, and Foreign Direct Investment, Cambridge, Massachusetts
August 7-8, 2003,
and
The OECD Committee on Industry and Business Environment/Working Party on Statistics
Session on Globalization,
Paris, France
November 3-4, 2003.

https://www.bea.gov/papers/pdf/intrafirmtradejanuary04.pdf

 

 

The governance of global value chains

Gary Gereffi
John Humphrey
Timothy Sturgeon
2005

http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/fisheries/docs/GVC_Governance.pdf

 

The economic consequences of increased protectionism

Riksbank of Sweden

2017

http://www.riksbank.se/Documents/Rapporter/PPR/2017/170427/ppr_fordjupning_3_170427_eng.pdf

 

 

 

Deep integration and production networks: an empirical analysis

Gianluca Orefice
Nadia Rocha
World Trade Organization
Manuscript date: July 2011

https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/reser_e/ersd201111_e.pdf

 

 

 

Measuring success in the global economy: international trade, industrial
upgrading, and business function outsourcing in global value chains

Timothy J. Sturgeon and Gary Gereffi

http://unctad.org/en/docs/diaeiia200910a1_en.pdf

 

 

 

Topics in International Trade

Reading list

http://www.iwb.econ.uni-muenchen.de/studium_lehre/veranstaltungsarchiv/ss09/trade09/documents/readings-topics09.pdf

 

 

 

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT, TRADE, AND GLOBAL PRODUCTION NETWORKS
IN ASIA AND EUROPE

GPN Working Paper 2
October 2002

http://hummedia.manchester.ac.uk/schools/seed/geography/research/workingpapers/gpn/gpnwp2.pdf

 

 

Why has world trade grown faster than world output?

Mark Dean

Maria Sebastia-Barriel
http://www.columbia.edu/~md3405/Other_Paper_1.pdf

 

 

Vertical Specialization, Global Value Chains and the changing Geography of Trade: the Portuguese Rubber and Plastics Industry Case

João Carlos Lopes and Ana Santos

http://pascal.iseg.utl.pt/~depeco/wp/wp122015.pdf

 

 

The changing structure of trade linked to global production systems: What are the policy implications?

William MILBERG

 

https://static1.squarespace.com/static/53ce7840e4b01d2bd01192ee/t/53e8f8a5e4b0b053addadd1f/1407776933063/Changing-Structure-of-Trade-Linked-to-Global-Production-Systems.pdf

 

 

WHO PRODUCES FOR WHOM IN THE WORLD ECONOMY?

Guillaume Daudin (Lille-I (EQUIPPE) & Sciences Po (OFCE), Christine Rifflart, Danielle
Schweisguth (Sciences Po (OFCE))1

This version: July 2009

https://www.ofce.sciences-po.fr/pdf/dtravail/WP2009-18.pdf

 

THE NATURE AND GROWTH OF VERTICAL SPECIALIZATION IN WORLD TRADE

David Hummels
Jun Ishii
Kei-Mu Yi
March 1999

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.475.3874&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

https://www.newyorkfed.org/medialibrary/media/research/staff_reports/sr72.pdf

 

 

Expansion Strategies of U.S. Multinational Firms

Gordon H. Hanson, Raymond J. Mataloni, and Matthew J. Slaughter

WP2001-01
May 10-11, 2001

Paper presented at:

The Brookings Trade Forum 2001, Washington, D.C.
May 10-11, 2001

https://www.bea.gov/papers/pdf/HMS1.PDF

 

 

INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURES AND THE BOUNDARIES OF THE FIRM

Mihir A. Desai C. Fritz Foley James R. Hines Jr.

Working Paper 9115 http://www.nber.org/papers/w9115
August 2002

 

http://dl.kli.re.kr/dl_image/IMG/02/000000005694/SERVICE/000000005694_01.PDF

 

 

 

The Globalization of Production

Gordon H. Hanson

 

http://www.nber.org/reporter/spring01/hanson.html

 

 

 

The Politics of Transnational Production Systems A Political Economy Perspective

Helge Hveem
Department of Political Science
University of Oslo

https://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/pais/research/researchcentres/csgr/csgr-events/conferences/conference2007/papers/hveem.pdf

 

 The Architecture of Globalization: A Network Approach to International Economic Integration.

Raja Kali and Javier Reyes

Second Revision: October 9, 2006

http://comp.uark.edu/~kali/TradeNetwork.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

Paris School of Economics – Summer School on Trade

2017

https://www.parisschoolofeconomics.eu/IMG/pdf/trade-sumschool-pse-2017.pdf

 

 

Spain in the global value chains

2017

https://www.bde.es/f/webbde/SES/Secciones/Publicaciones/InformesBoletinesRevistas/ArticulosAnaliticos/2017/T3/files/beaa1703-art20e.pdf

 

 

 An Outsourcing Bibliography

Foreign Policy magazine

2004

An outsourcing bibliography

 

 

 

OFFSHORING, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT, AND THE STRUCTURE OF U.S. TRADE

2006

 

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.564.6639&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

 

 A Survey of Literature on Research of Intra-firm Trade

WANG Li, SHEN Rui

http://www.seiofbluemountain.com/upload/product/201309/2013jrgjgc311b13.pdf

 

 

Global Value Chains

OECD, WTO and World Bank Group
Report prepared for submission to the G20 Trade Ministers Meeting Sydney, Australia, 19 July 2014

https://www.oecd.org/g20/topics/trade-and-investment/gvc_report_g20_july_2014.pdf

 

 

 

TRADE IN INTERMEDIATE GOODS AND SERVICES

OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 93
by Sébastien Miroudot, Rainer Lanz and Alexandros Ragoussis

https://www.oecd.org/trade/its/44056524.pdf

 

 

The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade

James R. Markusen

 

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.551.4665&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

 

Incomplete Contracts and the Boundaries of the Multinational Firm

Nathan Nunn

Daniel Trefler

June 2008

https://www.princeton.edu/~ies/IESWorkshop/NunnTreflerPaper.pdf

 

 

Slowdown in Global Investment (FDI) Flows

Slowdown in Global Investment (FDI) Flows

 

 

From Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a major component of globalization, together with international trade. Its operation is made possible by movements of factors across countries, in particular, capital. By definition, FDI involves long-term cross-country commitments. According to International Monetary Fund (IMF), FDI entails the establishment of a “lasting interest” by a resident entity of one economy in an enterprise located in another economy (International Monetary Fund, 1993). Lasting interest implies a long-term relationship between the foreign investor and the overseas enterprise where the said investor holds significant influence over management. The IMF defines a direct investment enterprise as one in which a foreign investor holds at least 10% of the ordinary shares or voting power (International Monetary Fund, 1993). The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 1996, p. 10) classifies enterprises of direct foreign investors into three groups: subsidiaries, in which a nonresident investor holds more than 50% of the ownership; associates, in which a nonresident investor’s shares range between 10 and 50%; and branches, which are unincorporated enterprises owned by a nonresident investor, wholly or jointly. Obviously, such definitions and the resultant measurements leave ambiguities and imprecisions. However, they do help maintain relative consistency in cross-country comparisons.

From 1995 to 2015, the world saw a dramatic increase in FDI. The FDI inflows in 2015 were 8.6 times those in 1995, an increase from about 0.2 trillion USD in 1995 to about 1.8 trillion USD in 2015. While FDI inflows to developed countries increased 8.6-fold, those to developing countries and transitional economies increased 23 times. In 1995, FDI inflows to developing and transitional economies were 17% of the world total, and in 2015 they accounted for 45%. FDI flows to OECD countries peaked in 2007, at about 1.3 trillion USD. Between 2013 and 2014, for the first time, developing countries received more FDI than developed countries (UNCTAD, 2016), though the developed world recaptured the position as the largest FDI recipient in 2015 (see Figure 1).

There is an ever-growing body of literature on FDI. As Markusen (2008) demonstrated, three strands of relevant literature exist:

  • the international business approach that is oriented toward the rationale of individual firms,
  • the macroeconomic approach that focuses on aggregate flows of FDI without making a distinction between direct and portfolio investments,
  • and the international trade theory approach, which increasingly moves closer to the international business approach, combining firm-level FDI analysis with aggregate analysis of capital flows.

 

 

From UNCTAD World Investment Report 2017

FDI2

 

 

Key Sources of Research:

 

2017 AT Kearney FDI Confidence Index

http://www.iberglobal.com/files/2017/fdi_index_atkearney.pdf

 

UNCTAD World Investment Report 2017

http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/wir2017_en.pdf

 

 

Recent Developments in Trade and Investment

Pierre Sauvé
Trade and Competitiveness Global Practice
World Bank Group
MIKTA Workshop on Trade and Investment
Session 2
Geneva, 20 March 2017

https://www.wto.org/english/forums_e/business_e/pierre_sauve_world_bank.pdf

 

 

OECD FDI Data

https://data.oecd.org/fdi/fdi-flows.htm

 

 

UNCTAD FDI Data

http://unctad.org/en/Pages/DIAE/FDI%20Statistics/Interactive-database.aspx

 

 

GLOBAL FDI FLOWS SLIP IN 2016, MODEST RECOVERY EXPECTED IN 2017

http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/webdiaeia2017d1_en.pdf

 

 

Cross border mergers make India favoured FDI route: UNCTAD

June 2017

 

http://www.deccanchronicle.com/business/economy/080617/cross-border-mergers-make-india-favoured-fdi-route-unctad.html

 

 

Cross-border M&As push global FDI flows to $1.76 trillion

June 2016

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/business/cross-border-mas-push-global-fdi-flows-to-1-76-trillion/articleshow/52860326.cms

 

 

OECD Bilateral FDI Data

http://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?DataSetCode=FDI_FLOW_PARTNER

 

 

UNCTAD Bilateral FDI Data

http://unctad.org/en/Pages/DIAE/FDI%20Statistics/FDI-Statistics-Bilateral.aspx

 

 

World Bank FDI Database

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD

 

 

FDI Markets

https://www.fdimarkets.com

 

 

FDI Reports

http://www.fdireports.com/home/index.cfm?CFID=16605395&CFTOKEN=534deb8f9bfff240-CA8D9CBD-9042-6C79-7D3F0DD68E9B6616&jsessionid=2030aa76f30310567d2372163935674e554c

 

 

Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

Yi Feng

Online Publication Date: Jun 2017

http://politics.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-559?print=pdf