The Strength of Weak Ties

The Strength of Weak Ties

Key Terms

  • Loosly Coupled Systems
  • Weak Ties
  • Strong Ties
  • Connections
  • Networks
  • Diffusion
  • Lockdown
  • Isolation
  • Quarantine
  • Separation
  • Preferences
  • Epidemiology
  • Tightly Coupled Systems
  • Slack
  • Buffer
  • Communities in Networks
  • Ties
  • Borders
  • Boundaries
  • Brokers
  • Boundary Spanners
  • Cooperation
  • Competition
  • Divisions
  • Risks
  • Contagion
  • Interconnectedness
  • Clusters

The Strength of Weak Ties is quite a relevant topic currently due to focus on

  • Diffusion of Innovation
  • Spread of Diseases
  • Global Supply Chains
  • Community Formation in Networks
  • Communication in Networks
  • Relations between Groups
  • Resilience
  • Risks and Fragility
  • Contagion and Spillovers

The Strength of Weak Ties

Mark Granovetter

The Strength of Weak Ties – Continued

My Related Posts

Boundaries and Networks

Contagion in Financial (Balance sheets) Networks

Boundaries and Relational Sociology

Boundaries and Distinctions

Boundary Spanning in Multinational and Transnational Corporations

FDI vs Outsourcing: Extending Boundaries or Extending Network Chains of Firms

Global Flow of Funds: Statistical Data Matrix across National Boundaries

Balance Sheets, Financial Interconnectedness, and Financial Stability – G20 Data Gaps Initiative

Micro Motives, Macro Behavior: Agent Based Modeling in Economics

Multiplex Financial Networks

Multilevel Approach to Research in Organizations

On Holons and Holarchy

Networks and Hierarchies

Key Sources of Research

The Strength of Weak Ties

Mark Gronovetter

The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No. 6. (May, 1973), pp. 1360-1380

Click to access granovetterTies.pdf

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Strength-of-Weak-Ties-Granovetter/c9aece346139711b8c65c618da99cdbecb162575

THE STRENGTH IN WEAK TIES

WILLIAM T. LIU,  ROBERT W. DUFF

Public Opinion Quarterly, Volume 36, Issue 3, FALL 1972, Pages 361–366, https://doi.org/10.1086/268018

Published: 01 January 1972

https://academic.oup.com/poq/article-abstract/36/3/361/1875803

The Future of Weak Ties

Aral, Sinan. “The Future of Weak Ties.”

American Journal of Sociology 121, no. 6 (May 2016): 1931–1939.

MIT

Attention on Weak Ties in Social and Communication Networks

Lilian Weng, Ma ́rton Karsai, Nicola Perra, Filippo Menczer and Alessandro Flammini

2017

Algebraic Analysis of Social Networks: Models, Methods and Applications Using R

By J. Antonio R. Ostoic

A test of structural features of granovetter’s strength of weak ties theory

Noah Friedkin

Department of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, U.S.A.

Social Networks
Volume 2, Issue 4, 1980, Pages 411-422

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0378873380900064

Social network Analysis
Lecture 5–Strength of weak ties paradox

Donglei Du

Faculty of Business Administration, University of New Brunswick, NB Canada Fredericton E3B 9Y2 (ddu@unb.ca)

Click to access Lec5_weak_tie_handout.pdf

THE STRENGTH OF WEAK TIES: A NETWORK THEORY REVISITED

Mark Granovetter

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK, STONY BROOK

Sociological Theory, Vol. 1 (1983), pp. 201-233
John Wiley & Sons
http://www.jstor.org/stable/202051 .

Social Interactions and Well-Being: The Surprising Power of Weak Ties

Gillian M. Sandstrom, Elizabeth W. Dunn
First Published April 25, 2014
https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167214529799

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0146167214529799

Information Flow Through Strong and Weak Ties in Intraorganizational Social Networks

Noah E Friedkin

UCSB

Social Networks 3, 1982

Click to access SNIflow.PDF

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

Márton KarsaiNicola PerraAlessandro Vespignani

https://arxiv.org/abs/1303.5966

https://www.technologyreview.com/2013/03/28/83867/how-strong-social-ties-hinder-the-spread-of-rumours/

Strong and Weak Ties

Web Science (VU) (707.000)

Elisabeth Lex
KTI, TU Graz
April 20, 2015

Click to access strongweakties.pdf

Communication boundaries in networks

Trusina, Ala 

Rosvall, Martin 

Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.

Sneppen, Kim 

2005 (English)

In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 94, no 23, p. 238701-

What are Problem Structuring Methods?

What are Problem Structuring Methods?

Source: PROBLEM STRUCTURING IN PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS

Problem structuring methods provide a methodological complement to theories of policy design. Arguably, structuring a problem is a prerequisite of designing solutions for that problem.4 In this context, problem structuring methods are metamethods. They are “about” and “come before” processes of policy design and other forms of problem solving.

Source: Strategic Development: Methods and Models

Key Terms

  • PSM
  • Soft OR
  • Hard OR
  • Unstructured Problems
  • Systems
  • System Sciences
  • SODA Strategic Options Development and Analysis
  • SSM Soft Systems Methodology
  • SCA Strategic Choice Approach
  • Robustness Analysis
  • Drama Theory
  • Interactive Planning
  • Scenario Planning
  • Critical Systems Heuristics
  • SWOT
  • Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing
  • Viable Systems Model VSM
  • System Dynamics
  • Decision Conferencing
  • Multi-methodology
  • John Mingers
  • Jonathan Rosenhead
  • John Morecroft
  • MC Jackson
  • Operational Research
  • Problem Structuring Methods PSM
  • Stafford Beer
  • Robert Dyson
  • Jay Forrester
  • Russell Ackoff
  • Robert Flood
  • Peter Checkland
  • Group Model Building
  • Behaviour Operational Research
  • Community Operations Research
  • Ill-structured versus Well-structured Problems
  • Wicked Versus Tame Problems
  • Ill-Defined versus Well-Defined Problems
  • Nigel Howard
  • Metagames
  • Hypergames

Problem Structuring Methods

Source: Past, present and future of problem structuring methods

The problematic situations for which PSMs aim to provide analytic assistance are characterized by

  • Multiple actors,
  • Differing perspectives, 
  • Partially conflicting interests,  
  • Significant intangibles,
  • Perplexing uncertainties.

The relative salience of these factors will differ between situations (and different methods are selective in the emphasis given to them). However, in all cases there is a meta-characteristic, that of complexity, arising out of the need to comprehend a tangle of issues without being able to start from a presumed consensual formulation. For an introduction to PSMs, see Rosenhead and Mingers, 2001

Source: Problem structuring methods in action

Strategic options development and analysis (SODA) is a general problem identification method that uses cognitive mapping as a modelling device for eliciting and recording individuals’ views of a problem situation. The merged individual cognitive maps (or a joint map developed within a workshop session) provide the framework for group discussions, and a facilitator guides participants towards commitment to a portfolio of actions.

Soft systems methodology (SSM) is a general method for system redesign. Participants build ideal-type conceptual models (CMs), one for each relevant world view. They compare them with perceptions of the existing system in order to generate debate about what changes are culturally feasible and systemically desirable. 

Strategic choice approach (SCA) is a planning approach centered on managing uncertainty in strategic situations. Facilitators assist participants to model the interconnectedness of decision areas. Interactive comparison of alternative decision schemes helps them to bring key uncertainties to the surface. On this basis the group identifies priority areas for partial commitment, and designs explorations and contingency plans.

Robustness analysis is an approach that focuses on maintaining useful flexibility under uncertainty. In an interactive process, participants and analysts assess both the compatibility of alternative initial commitments with possible future configurations of the system being planned for, and the performance of each configuration in feasible future environments. This enables them to compare the flexibility maintained by alternative initial commitments. 

Drama theory draws on two earlier approaches, meta games and hyper games. It is an interactive method of analysing co-operation and conflict among multiple actors. A model is built from perceptions of the options available to the various actors, and how they are rated. Drama theory looks for the “dilemmas” presented to the actors within this model of the situation. Each dilemma is a change point, tending to cause an actor to feel specific emotions and to produce rational arguments by which the model itself is redefined. When and only when such successive redefinitions have eliminated all dilemmas is the actors’ joint problem fully resolved. Analysts commonly work with one of the parties, helping it to be more effective in the rational-emotional process of dramatic resolution. (Descriptions based substantially on Rosenhead, 1996.)

Given the ill-defined location of the PSM/non- PSM boundary, there are a number of other methods with some currency that have at least certain family resemblances. These include critical systems heuristics (CSH) (Ulrich, 2000), interactive planning (Ackoff, 1981), and strategic assumption surfacing and testing (Mason and Mitroff, 1981). Other related methods which feature in this special issue are SWOT (Weihrich, 1998), scenario planning (Schoemaker, 1998), and the socio-technical systems approach (Trist and Murray, 1993). Those which are particularly close to the spirit of PSMs in at least some of their modes of use, and therefore thought to merit inclusion in Rosenhead and Mingers (2001), are the following:

Viable systems model (VSM) is a generic model of a viable organization based on cybernetic principles. It specifies five notional systems that should exist within an organization in some form––operations, co-ordination, control, intelligence, and policy, together with the appropriate control and communicational relationships. Although it was developed with a prescriptive intent, it can also be used as part of a debate about problems of organizational design and redesign (Harnden, 1990). 

System dynamics(SD) is a way of modelling peoples’ perceptions of real-world systems based especially on causal relationships and feedback. It was developed as a traditional simulation tool but can be used, especially in combination with influence diagrams (causal–loop diagrams), as a way of facilitating group discussion (Lane, 2000; Vennix, 1996).

Decision conferencing is a variant of the more widely known “decision analysis”. Like the latter, it builds models to support choice between decision alternatives in cases where the consequences may be multidimensional; and where there may be uncertainty about future events which affect those consequences. What distinguishes decision conferencing is that it operates in workshop mode, with one or more facilitators eliciting from the group of participants both the structure of the model, and the probabilities and utilities to be included in it. The aim is cast, not as the identification of an objectively best solution, but as the achievement of shared understanding, the development of a sense of common purpose, and the generation of a commitment to action (Phillips, 1989; Watson and Buede, 1987).

There are a number of texts which present a different selection of “softer” methods than do Rosenhead and Mingers. These include Flood and Jackson (1991), who concentrate on systems-based methods, Dyson and O’Brien (1998) who consider a range of hard and soft approaches in the area of strategy formulation; and Sorensen and Vidal (1999) who make a wide range of methods accessible to a Scandinavian readership. There is clearly an extensive repertoire of methods available. In fact it is common to combine together a number of PSMs, or PSMs together with more traditional methods, in a single intervention––a practice known as multimethodology (Mingers and Gill, 1997). So the range of methodological choice is wider even than a simple listing of methods might suggest.

Source: Are project managers ready for the 21th challenges? A review of problem structuring methods for decision support

Benefits of Problem Structuring Methods

Source: Are project managers ready for the 21th challenges? A review of problem structuring methods for decision support

My Related Posts

Systems and Organizational Cybernetics

Micro Motives, Macro Behavior: Agent Based Modeling in Economics

Production and Distribution Planning : Strategic, Global, and Integrated

Drama Theory: Choices, Conflicts and Dilemmas

Drama Theory: Acting Strategically

Quantitative Models for Closed Loop Supply Chain and Reverse Logistics

Hierarchical Planning: Integration of Strategy, Planning, Scheduling, and Execution

Stock Flow Consistent Input Output Models (SFCIO)

Stock Flow Consistent Models for Ecological Economics

Gantt Chart Simulation for Stock Flow Consistent Production Schedules

Shell Oil’s Scenarios: Strategic Foresight and Scenario Planning for the Future

Water | Food | Energy | Nexus: Mega Trends and Scenarios for the Future

Global Trends, Scenarios, and Futures: For Foresight and Strategic Management

HP’s Megatrends

Global Flow of Funds: Statistical Data Matrix across National Boundaries

Credit Chains and Production Networks

Supply Chain Finance (SCF) / Financial Supply Chain Management (F-SCM)

Financial Social Accounting Matrix

Morris Copeland and Flow of Funds accounts

Systems Biology: Biological Networks, Network Motifs, Switches and Oscillators

Oscillations and Amplifications in Demand-Supply Network Chains

Portfolio Planning Models for Corporate Strategic Planning

Cyber-Semiotics: Why Information is not enough

Truth, Beauty, and Goodness: Integral Theory of Ken Wilber

Key Sources of Research

Understanding behaviour in problem structuring methods interventions with activity theory.

White, L., Burger, K., & Yearworth, M. (2016).

European Journal of Operational Research, 249(3), 983-1004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2015.07.044

https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/en/publications/understanding-behaviour-in-problem-structuring-methods-interventi

“Is Value Focused Thinking a Problem Structuring Method or Soft OR or what?”

Keisler, Jeffrey,

(2012). 

Management Science and Information Systems Faculty Publication Series. Paper 42.


http://scholarworks.umb.edu/msis_faculty_pubs/42

Rational Analysis for a Problematic World Revisited: Problem Structuring Methods for Complexity, Uncertainty and Conflict

John Mingers, Jonathan Rosenhead

2001 Book Second ed.

The characteristics of problem structuring methods: A literature review

https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/the-characteristics-of-problem-structuring-methods-a-literature-review(e4bbf605-6df1-4a33-853c-2bc17dc18a8e).html

Problem structuring methods in action

John Mingers a,*, Jonathan Rosenhead b

a Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK 

b London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, UK

European Journal of Operational Research 152 (2004) 530–554

Click to access Problem%20structuring%20methods%20in%20action.pdf

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Problem-structuring-methods-in-action-Mingers-Rosenhead/752fdb5dfaddbc0a7946f281a9c454d6f4203542

Click to access Problem%20structuring%20methods%20in%20action.pdf

Introduction to the Special Issue: Teaching Soft O.R., Problem Structuring Methods, and Multimethodology.

John Mingers, Jonathan Rosenhead, (2011)

INFORMS Transactions on Education 12(1):1-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/ited.1110.0073

Click to access Mingers-Rosenberg-PSM-SoftOR.pdf

https://pubsonline.informs.org/toc/ited/12/1

Problem Structuring Methods, 1950s-1989: An Atlas of the Journal Literature

Georgiou, Ion and Heck, Joaquim,

(June 26, 2017).

Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3077648 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3077648

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3077648

“An Investigation on the Effectiveness of a Problem Structuring Method in a GroupDecision-Making Process”

Thaviphoke, Ying.

(2020). Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Dissertation, Engineering Management, Old Dominion University,

DOI: 10.25777/cx7x-z403
https://digitalcommons.odu.edu/emse_etds/182

What’s the Problem? An Introduction to Problem Structuring Methods

Jonathan Rosenhead

Published Online:1 Dec 1996

https://doi.org/10.1287/inte.26.6.117

PROBLEM STRUCTURING IN PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS

William N. Dunn
Graduate School of Public and International Affairs University of Pittsburgh

Past, present and future of problem structuring methods

J Rosenhead

London School of Economics, London, UK

Journal of the Operational Research Society (2006), 1–7

Framing and Reframing as a Creative Problem Structuring Aid

Victoria J Mabin, and John Davies Management Group Victoria University of Wellington PO Box 600 Wellington
email: vicky.mabin@vuw.ac.nz

Tel +4-495 5140
email: john.davies@vuw.ac.nz Tel + 4-471 5382
Fax + 4-471 2200

Reassessing the scope of OR practice: the influences of problem structuring methods and the analytics movement

Ranyard, J.C., Fildes, R. and Hun, T-I (2014).

(LUMS Working Paper 2014:8).

Lancaster University: The Department of Management Science.

Reasoning maps for decision aid: an integrated approach for problem-structuring and multi-criteria evaluation


G Montibeller1∗, V Belton2, F Ackermann2 and L Ensslin3

1London School of Economics, London, UK; 2University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK; and 3Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Floriano ́polis, Brazil

Journal of the Operational Research Society (2008) 59, 575–589

Special issue on problem structuring research and practice

Fran Ackermann • L. Alberto Franco • Etie ̈nne Rouwette • Leroy White

EURO J Decis Process (2014) 2:165–172 DOI 10.1007/s40070-014-0037-6

Soft OR Comes of Age – But Not Everywhere!

Mingers, John (2011)

ISSN 0305-0483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2011.01.005

Omega, 39 (6). pp. 729-741

An Investigation on the Effectiveness of a Problem Structuring Method in a Group Decision-Making Process

Ying Thaviphoke
Old Dominion University, ythav001@odu.edu

2020

OR competences: the demands of problem structuring methods

Richard John Ormerod

EURO J Decis Process (2014) 2:313–340

DOI 10.1007/s40070-013-0021-6

Hard OR, Soft OR, Problem Structuring Methods, Critical Systems Thinking: A Primer

Hans G. Daellenbach

Department of Management University of Canterbury Christchurch, NZ

h.daellenbach@mang.canterbury.ac.nz

Are project managers ready for the 21th challenges? A review of problem structuring methods for decision support

José Ramón San Cristóbal Mateo

Emma Diaz Ruiz de Navamuel

María Antonia González Villa

https://repositorio.unican.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10902/13669/ijispm-050203.pdf?sequence=1

Towards a new framework for evaluating systemic problem structuring methods

Gerald Midgley  Robert Y. Cavana  John Brocklesby , Jeff L. Foote  David R.R. Wood , Annabel Ahuriri-Driscoll 

European Journal of Operational Research 229 (2013) 143–154

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377221713000945

Problem structuring methods

Jonathan Rosenhead1

Chapter in book

(1) The London School of Economics and Political Science, London, England

Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-0611-X_806

Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science

2001 Edition | Editors: Saul I. Gass, Carl M. Harris

Beyond Problem Structuring Methods: Reinventing the Future of OR/MS

Author(s): M. C. Jackson

Source: The Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 57, No. 7, Special Issue: Problem Structuring Methods (Jul., 2006), pp. 868-878

Published by: Palgrave Macmillan Journals on behalf of the Operational Research Society

Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4102274

Strategic Development: Methods and Models

Robert G. Dyson (Editor)Frances A. O’Brien (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-471-97495-6 

May 1998 346 Pages

https://www.wiley.com/en-al/Strategic+Development:+Methods+and+Models-p-9780471974956

Group Model Building:
Problem Structuring, Policy Simulation and Decision Support

David F. Andersen, University at Albany
Jac A.M. Vennix, Radboud University Nijmegen George P. Richardson, University at Albany Etiënne A.J.A. Rouwette, Radboud University Nijmegen

Reassessing the Scope of OR Practice: the Influences of Problem Structuring Methods and the Analytics Movement

J. C. Ranyard, R. Fildes* and Tun-I Hu

The Department of Management Science Lancaster University Management School Lancaster LA1 4YX
UK

Victor Turner’s Postmodern Theory of Social Drama

Victor Turner’s Postmodern Theory of Social Drama

Although it might be argued that the social drama is a story in [Hayden] White’s sense, in that it has discernible inaugural, transitional, and terminal motifs, that is, a beginning, a middle, and an end, my observations convince me that it is, indeed, a spontaneous unit of social process and a fact of everyone’s experience in every human society. My hypothesis, based on repeated observations of such processual units in a range of sociocultural systems and in my reading in ethnography and history, is that social dramas, “dramas of living,” as Kenneth Burke calls them, can be aptly studied as having four phases. These I label breach, crisis, redress, and either reintegration or recognition of schism. Social dramas occur within groups of persons who share values and interests and who have a real or alleged common history. The main actors are persons for whom the group has a high value priority. Most of us have what I call our “star” group or groups to which we owe our deepest loyalty and whose fate is for us of the greatest personal concern. It is the one with which a person identifies most deeply and in which he finds fulfillment of his major social and personal desires. We are all members of many groups, formal or informal, from the family to the nation or some international religion or political institution. Each person makes his/her own subjective evaluation of the group’s respective worth: some are “dear” to one, others it is one’s “duty to defend,” and so on. Some tragic situations arise from conflicts of loyalty to different star groups.

Victor Turner is professor of anthropology and a member of the Center for Advanced Studies at the University of Virginia. His many publications include Schism and Continuity in an African Society, The Forest of Symbols, The Ritual Process, and, with Edith Turner, Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture

Social Dramas and Stories about Them
Victor Turner
Critical Inquiry 7 (1):141-168 (1980)

Key terms

  • Social Drama
  • Frames
  • Victor W Turner
  • David M Boje
  • Liminality
  • Meta theater
  • Meta Commentary
  • Conflict
  • Fragmentation
  • Spectcle
  • Carnival
  • Communitas
  • Anti structure
  • Mela
  • Tamasha
  • Circus
  • Khel
  • Natak
  • Nautanki
  • Leela
  • Communication
  • Reflexivity
  • Social Reflexivity
  • Public Reflexivity
  • Cybernetics
  • Higher Order Cybernetics
  • Processual
  • Performance processes
  • Interpretative Anthropology
  • Cultural Anthropology
  • Clifford Geertz

Below, I am reposting an article by David Boje on Victor Turner’s theory of social drama.

Victor Turner’s Postmodern Theory of Social Drama:

Implications for Organization Studies

David M. Boje, Ph.D., New Mexico State University

August 1, 2003

Abstract

I review Victor Turner’s more postmodern moves, such as process, indeterminacy, liminality, fragmentation, and metatheatre. 

The contribution to organization theory of studying Turner’s social drama is in developing a postmodern theatrics that is more processual and dynamitic than dramaturgical theories advanced by Burke and Goffman. Turner acknowledges the influence of Burke and Goffman in his postmodern theatre concepts, but moves off to explore the indeterminacy, liminality, and fragmentation aspects (defined below).  This postmodern dramaturgy allows us to explore how patterns emerged in the seeming chaos of successive situations. 

Theatre Theory

Most reviews of theatre theory focus on contrasts of Burke and Goffman (Boje, Luhman, Cunliffe, 2003; Gusfield, 1989; K’rreman, 2001; Oswick, Keenoy & Grant, 2001), while hardly mentioning Victor Turner’s work (1969; 1974, 1982a, 1982b, 1985). Goffman (1959, 1974) is often criticized, in these reviews, for using theatre as metaphor and for being less sociological than Burke. Burke (1937, 1945, 1972), by contrast, is said to view theatre as part of everyday life and extend literary criticism to politics and sociology.  Goffman is also criticized for engaging in “sociological reductionism” and for not being “particularly dramaturgical at all” (K’rreman, 2001: 96, 107).  

 Turner acknowledges roots to Burke (Turner, 1982a) and to Goffman (Turner, 1985: 181). Burke and Goffman have been applied to organization and public administration studies. Within organization studies, there is a growing body of research taking Goffman seriously. His approach fits neatly with Mintzberg’s (1973) managerial roles and more recent studies of charismatic leadership behavior as dramaturgic (Gardner & Alvolio, 1998; Harvey, 2001), emotional improvisation (Morgan & Krone, 2001) where the leader is the spokesperson and dramatist of organizational life.  Work by Czarniawska-Joerges (1997), Mangham (1990),  Mangham  and Overington (1987), and Rosen (1985, 1987) also seeks to apply tools and devices from theatre to organizational realities and the dramaturgical perspective has become quite central to charismatic leadership studies (Conger, 1991; Gardner & Alvolio, 1998; Harvey, 2001; Howell & Frost, 1989; Jones & Pittman, 1982). 

Theatre for Burke is not a metaphor used in some areas of organizational or social life; human action is dramatic (Gusfield, 1989; p. 36; K’rreman, 2001, p. 106).  As Maital (1999) puts it, “organizing is not like theatre — it is theatre” (as cited in Oswick, Keenoy & Grant, 2001, p. 219). Burke’s dramatistic pentad has been used widely to analyze organizations as theatres of action (Czarniawska-Joerges & Wolff, 1991; Mangham & Overington, 1987; Pine & Gilmour, 1999). Pine and Gilmour (1999) use Burke’s dramatism to assert work is theatre and every business is a stage. Czarniawska (1997) explores how the identities of organizational actors are constituted theatrically through role-playing and image construction.  

We see this critical postmodern integration in the writings of Guy Debord (1967) on “spectacle,” Mikhail Bakhtin (1984) on “carnivalesque,” and Augusto Boal (1972, 1992, 1995) on Theatre of the Oppressed.  

Social drama, says Turner, is defined as aharmonic or disharmonic social process, arising in conflict situations (1974: 37; 1985: 180).   Social drama is defined by Turner (1985: 196), as an eruption from the level surface of ongoing social life, with its interactions, transactions, reciprocities, its customs making for regular, orderly sequences of behavior. Turner’s social drama theory has four phases of public action:

  1. Breach of norm-governed social relations that have liminal characteristics, a liminal between more or less stable social processes;
  2. Crisis, during which there is a tendency for the breach to widen and in public forums, representatives of order are dared to grapple with it;
  3. Redressive action, ranging from personal advice and informal mediation or arbitration to formal juridical and legal machinery, and to resolve certain kinds of crisis or legitimate other modes of resolution, to the performance of public ritual. 
  4. Reintegration of the disturbed social group, or of the social recognition and legitimation of irreparable schism between the contesting parties. 

There is a sequence of processual acts and scenes across the four phases of social drama, with dynamic shifts in scripts, characterizations, rhetoric, and symbolism. The processes were more dynamic, rapid, and forceful during the crisis, and now there is a lull in the action.  There are six key concepts which we can use to explore the dialectic of spectacle and carnival, as well as reactionary counter-carnival theatrics. 

Conflict  Conflict situations between patriotic nationalism and the peaceniks make us aware of the beaches in the societal fabric. Conflict seems to bring fundamental aspects of society, normally overlaid by the customs and habits of daily intercourse, into frightening prominence (Turner, 1974).  People are divided, taking sides, using theatre to dramatize their differences.  In the weeks leading up to the war, and during the war, a cleavage occurs between antagonistic groups. At the same time in crisis, there is the flash of imaginative fire, an inspirational force to be harnessed. The conflict escalates locally, as a reflections of the globally conflict in the Middle East. Some crises spread, and more and more people turn out for vigils, marches, parades, rallies, and teach-ins. For Turner, public crisis has a liminal quality, betwixt and between, more or less stable phases of the social process. Antagonists dare and taunt each other, to deal with liminal forces. For example, the majority accept U.S. occupation of Iraq, even though no weapons of mass destruction were found. On May 30th, members of the administration disclosed that there never had been proof of WMD, but saying they were there, served as a way to rally the nation to go to war.

Within the spectacles and carnivals there are factions.  There were a series of social dramas in the U.S. that weakened the solidarity of the peace movement. Acts of repression under the U.S.A. PATRIOT act and Homeland Security were used to make peace people fearful of being blacklisted.  They have a chilling effect on free speech. We resist being reintegrated back into that social fabric of the status quo; communitas is broken, and our freedoms are curtailed.

Performance Processes  A society is defined by Turner (1985: 44, Paraphrasing) as a set of interactive processes that are punctuated by situations of conflict, with intervals between them.  Turner’s theatrical approach, being processual and dynamic, is more appropriate than Burke or Goffman’s to explore the rise and fall of social movements. In his 1985 book, (On the Edge of the Bush: Anthropology as Experience), Turner develops a postmodern treatment of social drama. He explores the contingent, ad hoc, and emergent character of the phases of social drama (breach, crisis, redress, & reintegration), focusing on how conflicts run their course. The situations interact over time. One set of interactions influence the premises for the next (Turner, 1985: 48).  During periods of intense global conflict, such as the outbreak of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, we became a dense network of social organizing. During the week leading up to March 19th war in Iraq, we had events, such as rallies, teach-ins, retreats, marches, and vigils happening daily.  We joined the millions of people who tried to persuade the administration not to go to war. Once war happened we persisted with our vigils and marches, trying to bring a swift end to the conflict.  After the administration declared an end to the war (though the fighting continued), our numbers dropped off, and many people reintegrated into more normal patterns of social life. 

As the antagonist to disputation play out the conflict phases of social drama, there is resistance to acts of suppression and repression (Turner, 1985: 44).  Contentious issues are kept in abeyance in ritual situations, but can surface again in public situations; some political situations threaten to turn violent, both in their protest and in their repression.  Solidarity of a nation at war, for example, has a chilling effect on political rivalry, so as not to threaten the safety of troops deployed in battle theatres.  The unresolved conflicts and rivalries carry over into subsequent ritual situations in ways that affect behavioral patterns. In this way as Pondy observed, conflict events are interdependent over time. 

The performance events interact such that situations develop spontaneously out of quarrels with domestic and foreign policy which rapidly acquire formalized or structural character (Turner, 1985: 45). For example, contending factions draw apart, consolidate their ranks, and develop spokesmen who represent their cases in terms of a rhetoric that is culturally standardized (p. 45). 

Liminality  Key to Turner is the ‘betwixt and between’ features that have liminal qualities (Turner, 1985: 113). Liminality is defined by Turner (1974: 52), as being ‘between successive participations in social milieu.’ There is a grander ‘liminal transition’ in the peace movement, and seemingly no way to stop the growth of fascism that embeds American governance (Turner, 1974: 47).  There is liminality in the transition from the conceptual system of democracy to another one, we in the movement call, fascism (Turner, 1974: 51). There is also liminal decay, a reluctant reincorporation into the charade and facade of polite society, into more stable social processes.  The reentry is accompanied by rituals of humiliation for the peace movement heroes, such as Susan Sarandon, Michael Moore, Gore Vidal, Howard Zinn, and Noam Chomsky. For example, status degradation and social leveling are indicated by the distribution of playing cards depicting peace heroes as traitors, and most wanted. The tricksters have won the symbolism wars, and liminality is existentially untenable to those of us hanging in with the peace movement. 

Each situation in the peace movement affects the premises of the next one.  There is am emergent pattern to the inter-situational events. The successive events have liminal spaces between them.  Liminal space is Turner’s concept of what is betwixt and between situated events.  In the liminality between situations, a leader is without a situation to rally around.  For example, as the Iraq invasion drew nearer, the number of local organizing events that I lead and facilitated was denser, and in the final weeks, there was an event every day.  Now that the invasion has morphed into an occupation, local events are few and far between.  This liminal space is a time for mourning our failure to get our President to stop the war; it is a time for rest and reflection, a time to plan for the next situation. For a few weeks in late April and early May, it looked like Syria would be the next campaign. But, that has subsided. The 2004 election is a bit far off to worry about. 

I am neither what I have been nor what I will become. Similarly, peace consciousness is a liminal space, not yet what it will be. The peace movement refuses reintegration until the social order transforms to something more non-violent than what it is.

Summer vacations, the exodus of students from a university town, also decreased our numbers. Our rebellion is low-key, smoldering factionalism divides us. Members of PeaceAware slip back into anonymity of daily routine. Only a few die-hards persist with vigils or demonstrations outside Congressman Peace’s events. 

Indeterminacy  Indeterminacy is always present in the background of any ritualized performance, ready to intrude. Spectacles, even with expert choreography, scripting, and stage handling, fail to contain the embedded chaos. For example, the search for weapons of mass destruction slips into a sea of indeterminacy along with the war on terror. Each emplotment unravels.  The exact meaning of a speaker’s utterance or performance is a contextualized exchange in which meaning is often indeterminate. Various stakeholders will apprehend different views of the performance. Aristotle’s poetic elements of theatre are in constant flux, with ever-shifting indeterminate plots, characters, themes, dialogs, rhythms, and spectacles. All the president’s men cannot bind chaos with the most advanced theatrics. The spectacle is always self-deconstructing.  Yet, chaos can be used to confuse. There is a sequence of rhetoric switching in the justification and legitimation for war. 

The rhetorical and speech styles have shifted since the war was a way to find weapons of mass destruction hidden from the UN inspectors, to war being way to protect the troops, to a way to support the president. On 30 May 2003, Paul Wolfowitz told Vanity Fair, they the administration did not believe there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq; officials thought it was best way to get officials to go to war.[1] “For bureaucratic reasons we settled on one issue, weapons of mass destruction, because it was the one reason everyone could agree on,” says Wolfowitz. It was also a way to get the public on board. In this sense, the spectators cannot determine the cause for the war, and now that war is declared officially over, the original premises no loner matter. 

Spectacle cannot fix the fluidity of context, nor bind the shifting context from infecting performance processes.  The situational adjustments of President Bush’s handlers, betrays the flux and fluidity, and indeterminacy of everyday life. This indeterminacy, says Turner (1985: 185), ‘is towards postmodern ways of thinking’ about social life. 

Fragmentation – Fragmentation is definable as a persistent dialectical ‘opposition of processes’ with many ‘levels of processes’ (Turner, 1985: 185). Postmodern theory spotlights moments when fragmentation takes center stage, revealing how social reality invades spectacle during moments of conflict.  Spectacle role-playing is not able to cover the breakdowns between official perspectives and countless counter stories revealing fragmentation.  For Turner ‘the truly ‘spontaneous’ unit of human social performance is not role-playing sequence in an institutionalized or ‘corporate group’ context; it is the social drama which results precisely form the suspension of normative role-playing, and in its passionate activity abolishes the usual distinction between flow and reflection, since in the social drama it becomes a matter of urgency to become reflexive about the cause and motive of action damaging to the social fabric (Turner, 1985: 196). 

There are moments in institutionalized spectacle, where the social drama of conflict emerges, and Bush engages in reflection. In such moments the fragmentarity of the social fabric becomes temporarily visible, ‘as factors giving meaning to deeds that may seem at first sight meaningless’ (p. 196). These are moments of reflection when we can see an irreparable schism between war and peace factions.

The more the Bush handlers defragment, the more Bush’s performance processes reveal oppositions and layers. The thespian nature of his performance unmasks itself, resulting in a media that begins to reflect upon the fragmentation covered over by performance controls. The president is detected as a performing actor. 

Metatheatre – Turner (1985: 181) invents the term ‘meta-theater.’ Where for Burke and Goffman, all the world is a theatre stage, for Turner, ‘meta-theatre’ is the communication about the communication process, spectators and actors reflect upon how the actors do what they do on stage, ‘the ability to communicate about the communication process itself’ (p. 181). In contrasting his own dramaturgy work with Goffman’s, Turner (1985; 181) says that for him ‘dramaturgical analysis begins when crises arise in the daily flow of social interaction.’   Turner continues, ‘Thus, if daily living is a kind of theater, social drama is a kind of meta-theater, that is, a dramaturgical language about the language of ordinary role-playing and status-maintenance which constitutes communication in the quotidian social process’ (p. 181). Metatheatre then is for Turner, reflexivity by everyday actors about the communication system, where they consciously show spectators what they are doing. Turner studies reflexivity in crisis phase of social interaction, but also within the redressive phase.  Turner theorizes four phases, breech, crisis, redressive action, and reintegration in what he calls ‘social drama.’

Metacommentary, is a term Turner, 1982a: 104) borrows from Geertz, ‘a story a group tells itself about itself’ or ‘a play a society acts about itself.’  Metatheatre then builds upon the idea of metacommentary, ‘an interpretive reenactment of its experience’ (Turner, 1982a: 104). In the positive, metatheatre reenacts conflicts, giving them contextualization, so that with metacommentary, facets are illuminated and accessible for remedial action. Through multiple reflections, spectators are able to provoke transformations in everyday life.  On the negative side, the metatheatre distorts event and context in ways that provoke conformity. For example, our weekly street theatre is a metacommentary on global, national, and local conflicts, a time for reflection and reflexivity. Our signs are commentary, and we resist conformity. We are opposed by metacommentary of our critics, what see our acts as traitorous, seditious, and rebellious. Both sides use drama to provoke and persuade.

Metatheatre is about the dialectic process of framing through theatre, in ways that appeal to the frame of mind of the spectator; resistance is about bringing counter-frames to bear on dominant frames.

In the next section I apply Turner’s constructs of conflict, performance processes, liminality, indeterminacy, fragmentation, and metatheatre to that antagonism of the war and peace movements. 

References

Aristotle (written 350BCE). Citing in the (1954) translation Aristotle: Rhetoric and poetics. Introduction by F. Solmsen, Rhetoric. (W Rhys Roberts, Tran.); Poetics (I. Bywater, Tran.).  New York, NY: The Modern Library (Random House).  Poetics was written 350 BCE. Custom is to cite part and verse (i.e. Aristotle, 1450: 5, p. 23) refers to part 1450, verse 5, on p. 23 of the Solmsen (1954) book.  There is also an on line version translated by S. H. Butcher http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/poetics.html or http://eserver.org/philosophy/aristotle/poetics.txt

Bakhtin, M. (1981). The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays (Caryl Emerson, Michael Holquist, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bakhtin, Mikhail M.  (1973). Rabelais and His World. Translated by H’ l’ ne Iswolsky. 1st ed. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Best, Steve & Douglas Kellner (1991) Postmodern Theory. NY: Guilford Press.

Best, Steve & Douglas Kellner (1997) Postmodern Turn. NY: Guilford Press.

Best, Steve & Douglas Kellner (2001) Postmodern Adventure. NY: Guilford Press.

Boal, A. (1992). Games for actors and non-actors. (A. Jackson, Trans). A conflation of two books, Stop C’est Magique (Paris: Hachette, 1980) and  Jeuz pour acteurs et non-acteurs (Paris: La D’couverte, 1989) with additions by Boal. London, UK: Routledge.  

Boje, David M. (2001). Carnivalesque resistance to global spectacle: A critical postmodern theory of public administration, Administrative Theory & Praxis, 23(3): 431-458.

Boje, David M. (2003). Theatres of Capitalism. NJ: Hampton Press. In press. 

Boje, David M.  John T. Luhman, & Ann L. Cunliffe (2003). A Dialectic Perspective on the Organization Theatre Metaphor American Communication Journal. Volume 6 (2): 1-16.

Bumiller, Elisabeth (2003). Keepers of Bush Image Lift Stagecraft to New Heights.  The New York Times. 16 May, accessed on the web May 31 2003 at http://www.nytimes.com/2003/05/16/politics/16IMAG.html

Burke, K. (1937). Attitudes toward history. Las Altos, CA: Hermes Publications. 

Burke, K. (1945). A grammar of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press.  

Burke, K. (1972). Dramatism and development. Barre, MA: Clark University Press with Barre Publishers.  

Carr, Adrian (1996) Putative Problematic Agency in a Postmodern World: Is It Implicit in the Text–Can It Be Explicit in Organization Analysis? Vol 18 (1): 79-.

Debord Guy (1967). Society of the Spectacle. La Soci’t’ du Spectacle was first published in 1967 by Editions, Buchet-Chastel (Paris); it was reprinted in 1971 by Champ Libre (Paris). The full text is available in English at http://www.nothingness.org/SI/debord/index.html It is customary to refer to paragraph numbers in citing this work. 

Fox, Charles J. and Miller Hugh T. (1996) Modern/Postmodern Public Administration: A Discourse About What is Real. Vol 18 (1): 41-.  

Fox, Charles J. and High T. Miller. (1995a). Postmodern Public Administration: A short treatise on self-referential epihenomena. Administrative Theory & Praxis 15(2): 52-70. 

Fox, Charles J. and High T. Miller. (1995b). Postmodern Public Administration: Toward Discourse. Thousand Oaks :Sage Publications, Inc.

Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books. 

Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis. New York, NY: Harper Books. 

Gusfield, J. R. (1989). The bridge over separated lands: Kenneth Burke’s significance for the study of social action.  In H. Simmons & T. Melia (Eds.), The legacy of Kenneth Burke, pp. 28-54. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. 

Hoffman, Leslie (2003). Bush Brings Tax Cut Message To Bernalillo. The Associated Press, May 12. Accessed May 31st at http://www.abqjournal.com/news/apbush05-12-03.htm

K’rreman, D. (2001). The Scripted Organization: Dramaturgy from Burke to Baudrillard. Pp. 95-111 In R. Westwood and S. Linstead (Eds.) The language of organization.  London: Sage Publications.

Kristeva, Julia (1980a) Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. Edited by L’on Roudiez. Translated by Alice Jardine, Thomas Gora and L’on Roudiez. New York, Columbia University Press, London, Basil Blackwell

Kristeva, Julia (1980b) “Word, Dialogue, and Novel.” Desire and Language. Ed. Leon S. Roudiez. Trans. Thomas Gora et al. New York: Columbia UP, pp. 64-91.

Kristeva, Julia (1986).  Word, dialogue, and the novel.    In T. Moi (Ed.), The Kristeva reader.    (pp. 35-61).   New York: Columbia University Press.

Oswick, C., Keenoy, T. & Grant, D. (2001). Dramatizing and organizing: Acting and being. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 14 (3), 218-224. 

Saunders, Doug (2003). White House insider cleans up Bush’s image on film. Globe and Mail. May 28th. On line at http://www.globeandmail.ca/servlet/story/RTGAM.20030528.ufilm0528/BNStory/International/

Swartz, Marc J., Victor W. Turner, & Arthur Tuden (1966) Political Anthropology. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company. 

Turner, Victor (1967) Carnival, Ritual, and play in Rio de Janeiro. pp. 74- 92. In Alessandro Falassi (Ed.) Time Out of Time: Essays on the Festival. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Turner, Victor (1974). Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society. Ithaca/London: Cornell University Press. 

Turner, Victor (1982a). From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play. NY: PAJ Publications (Division of Performing Arts Journal, Inc.). 

Turner, Victor (1982b, Editor). Celebration: Studies in Festivity and Ritual. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Turner, Victor (1985). On the Edge of the Bush: Anthropology as Experience. Edith L. B. Turner (Ed). Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press. 

Zanetti, Lisa A. (1997) Advancing praxis: Connecting critical theory with practice in public administration. 27(2): 145-167.

Zanetti, Lisa A. and Carr, Adrian (1999) Exaggerating the Dialectic: Postmodernism’s ‘New Individualism’ and the Detrimental Effects on Citizenship.  AT&P Vol 21 (2) 205-.

Zanetti, Lisa A. & Carr, Adrian (1997). Putting critical theory to work: Giving the public administrator the critical edge. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 19(2): 208-224

My Related Posts

Erving Goffman: Dramaturgy of Social Life

Kenneth Burke and Dramatism

Dialogs and Dialectics

Narrative, Rhetoric and Possible Worlds

Networks, Narratives, and Interaction

The Social Significance of Drama and Narrative Arts

Drama Therapy: Self in Performance

Drama Theory: Acting Strategically

Drama Theory: Choices, Conflicts and Dilemmas

Third and Higher Order Cybernetics

Narrative Psychology: Language, Meaning, and Self

Psychology of Happiness: Value of Storytelling and Narrative Plays

Paradoxes, Contradictions, and Dialectics in Organizations

Key Sources of Research

Victor Turner’s Postmodern Theory of Social Drama:

Implications for Organization Studies

David M. Boje, Ph.D., New Mexico State University

August 1, 2003

https://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/theatrics/7/victor_turner.htm

‘Themes in the Symbolism of Ndemdu Hunting Ritual, 

Turner, Victor (1962)

Anthropological Quarterly 35, pp. 37-57 reprinted in Myth and Cosmos: Readings in Methodology and Symbolism, edited by John Middleton, 1967, New York: Natural History Press, pp. 249-69.

“Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage.” 

Turner, V.W. (1967)

The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual pp. 93-111. Ithaca: Cornell UP.

The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure 

Turner, V.W. (1969) 

London: Routledge & Kegan Paul

Dramas, Fields and Metaphors 

Turner, V.W. (1974) 

Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press

The Anthropology of Performance 

Turner, V.W. (1988) 

New York: PAJ Publications.

From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play

by Victor Turner

Social Dramas and Stories about Them

Victor Turner

Critical Inquiry 7 (1):141-168 (1980)

Frame, Flow and Reflection: Ritual and Drama as Public Liminality

Victor Turner

Japanese Journal of Religious Studies Vol. 6, No. 4 (Dec., 1979),

pp. 465-499 (35 pages) 

Published By: Nanzan University 

https://www.jstor.org/stable/30233219

“Symbols in African Ritual,” 

Victor Turner

Science March 16, 1972, vol. 179, 1100-05.

http://thury.org/Myth/Turner2.html

Performing Ethnography

Victor Turner; Edith Turner

The Drama Review: TDR, Vol. 26, No. 2, Intercultural Performance. (Summer, 1982), pp. 33-50. Stable URL:

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0012-5962%28198222%2926%3A2%3C33%3APE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C

Victor Turner

https://lindseypullum.wordpress.com/2017/01/17/victor-turner/

Victor Witter Turner

https://www.encyclopedia.com/people/social-sciences-and-law/sociology-biographies/victor-witter-turner

The Drama of Social Life 

A Dramaturgical Handbook

Edited By Charles Edgley

Edition 1st Edition

First Published 2013

DOI https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315615691 

https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/edit/10.4324/9781315615691/drama-social-life-charles-edgley?refId=08738592-4e3e-4260-a624-c2b9edd005f0

Notes towards an Anthropology of Political Revolutions

BJØRN THOMASSEN

Society and Globalization, Roskilde University

Comparative Studies in Society and History 2012;54(3):679–706.
0010-4175/12

# Society for the Comparative Study of Society and History 2012

doi:10.1017/S0010417512000278

Variations on a theme of Liminality

Victor Turner

chapter in a book Secular Ritual

The Ritual Process

Structure and Anti-Structure

VICTOR TURNER

Acting in Everyday life, Life in Everyday Acting

Click to access Turner.pdf

Paradoxes, Contradictions, and Dialectics in Organizations

Paradoxes, Contradictions, and Dialectics in Organizations

Source: The role of paradox theory in decision making and management research

In our increasingly complex, global and fast-paced world, competing demands on individuals and teams continually surface in the context of organizational life. Individuals face challenges between work and family, learning and performing, collaborating and competing. Teams grapple with tensions between individual and collective accomplishments, specializing and coordination, and meeting creativity and efficiency goals. Leaders need to maintain both distance and closeness, treat subordinates uniformly while allowing individualism, and ensure decision control while allowing autonomy. Moreover, in an increasingly global environment, individuals and leaders must increasingly act globally, while dealing with local demands or nuances. Perhaps as an even greater challenge, they may value nationalistic concerns, while simultaneously embracing multiculturalism and a global mindset.

Key Words

  • Paradox
  • Conflicts
  • Contradictions
  • Dialectics
  • Process
  • Disequilibria
  • Disruption
  • Opposition
  • Synthesis
  • Competing Poles
  • Dilemmas
  • Trade-offs
  • Dualities
  • Polarities
  • Virtuous Cycles
  • Vicious Cycles
  • Conflicts of Interest
  • Oxymora
  • This and That
  • This or That
  • Either/ Or
  • Both/And
  • Inclusion and Exclusion
  • Networks and Boundaries
  • Outside and Inside
  • Before and After
  • Japanese Zen Koans
  • Chinese Yin Yang
  • Aristotle Logic
  • Hegel Dialectics
  • Tensions
  • Ambidexerity
  • Paradox Theory
  • Ambivalence
  • Double Bind
  • Contingency Theory
  • African Ubuntu
  • Trialectics
  • Verbs: working with (through), addressing, resolving, combining, embracing, mediating, simultaneously achieving, managing contradictions, achieving balance, dealing with, coexisting, aligning, reconciling, solving the struggle between, enabling multiple interests, negotiating tensions, facing, synthesizing opposites, mastering the paradox, overcoming;
  • Nouns: coping strategies, emerging strategies, resolutions, solutions, tactics, compromises (trade-offs), framework, mediator
  • Coping strategies : the presence or absence of coping strategies in the paper and the type of coping strategies (splitting, specializing, suppressing, opposing and synthesizing).
  • Key concept (paradox, dilemma, duality, polarity, dialectic or ambidexterity)

Organizational Paradox

Source: https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199846740/obo-9780199846740-0201.xml

Organizational paradox offers a theory of the nature and management of competing demands. Historically, the dominant paradigm in organizational theory depicted competing demands as trade-offs or dilemmas that could be resolved by choosing one option. In the late 1960s, scholars such as Joan Woodward, Paul Lawrence, and Jay Lorsch introduced contingency theory, suggesting that individuals resolve these tensions by taking the context and environment into account. Paradox theory offers an alternative approach, suggesting that these tensions cannot be resolved. By depicting competing demands as tensions that are not only contradictory, but also interdependent and persistent, paradox theory argues that actors need to accept, engage, and navigate tensions rather than resolve them. Foundational work on paradox in organizations emerged starting in the late 1970s and 1980s. This work drew from rich insights across a variety of disciplines, including Eastern philosophy (Taoism, Confucianism), Western philosophies (Hegel, Heraclitus), psychodynamics (Jung, Adler, Frankel), psychology (Schneider, Watzlawick), political science (Marx, Engel), communications and sociology (Taylor, Bateson), and negotiations and conflict resolution (Follett). More recent work has advanced foundational building blocks toward a theory of paradox. Underlying the theory of paradox is ontologies of dualism—two opposing elements that together form an integrated unity—and dynamism— ongoing change. Scholars have defined paradox as tensions that are contradictory, interdependent, and persistent, noting their dynamic, everchanging, cyclical nature. Some scholars describe the origins of paradox as inherent within systems, while others highlight their social construction through cognition, dialogue, and rationality. Still others explore the relationship between the inherent and socially constructed nature of tensions, depicting tensions as latent within a system, becoming salient through social construction and external conditions. Moreover, some scholars focus more on understanding the poles of paradox, while others depict the ongoing dynamic interaction and evolution. As paradox theory continues to grow and expand, scholars have also added complexity to our understanding, emphasizing paradoxes as nested across levels and as knotted and interwoven across various tensions, while also taking into account the power dynamics, uncertainty, plurality, and scarcity of systems within which paradoxes emerge. This article identifies scholarship that depicts these varied approaches and ideas, providing the foundations of paradox theory for scholars new to this field and in-depth analysis for those seeking to expand their understanding. Section 1 offers foundational work. Section 2 introduces early scholarship that launched the field. Section 3 includes work describing foundational building blocks toward a theory of paradox. Section 4 highlights research that recognizes the nested nature of paradox and describes how this theory has been applied across different levels. Section 5 includes papers that address the meta-theoretical and multi-paradigmatic aspect of paradox theory, noting how these ideas have been applied across phenomena and across theoretical lenses. Section 6 describes papers that draw on the varied methodological traditions associated with paradox. Finally, section 7 identifies several handbooks and special issues that offer an introduction to or integration of paradox theory.

The Pillars of the Paradox: Foundational Papers

The early foundational work in organizational paradox dates back to the late 1970s and 1980s, and it established paradox as a core lens through which to understand organizational phenomena. These different insights emerged out of multiple traditions. One of the earliest pieces, Benson 1977 draws on the work of Hegel, Marx, and Engels to introduce the idea of dialectics in organizations. Discussion continues to this day about the distinctions and synergies between dialectical and paradoxical perspectives (see, e.g., Hargrave and van de Ven 2017, cited under Different Traditions and Influences). Putnam 1986, a foundational work, draws its roots from communication and sociology from writers such as Taylor, Bateson, and Watzlewick, while the core insight of Smith and Berg 1987 grew out of work on psychodynamics from scholars such as Jung, Adler, Frankel, and Freud. In 2000, Marianne Lewis wrote her AMR paper, “Exploring Paradox: Toward a More Comprehensive Guide” (Lewis 2000), which brings together these traditions and has inspired the next generation of those examining paradox. In doing so, she won AMR’s best paper of the year award.

  • Benson, J. Kenneth. “Organizations: A Dialectical View.” Administrative Science Quarterly 22.1 (1977): 1–21. Benson draws heavily on insights from Marx and Engels, providing a dialectical perspective of organizations in which contradictions morph and change over time into new integrations. This piece constitutes an early introduction to thinking about organizational systems as embodiments of oppositional tensions. Benson suggests that understanding these tensions depends on four basic principles: social construction, totality, contradiction, and praxis.
  • Cameron, Kim S. “Effectiveness as Paradox: Consensus and Conflict in Conceptions of Organizational Effectiveness.” Management Science 32.5 (1986): 539–553. Cameron reviews the areas of consensus and conflicts in the literature on effectiveness and in doing so describes the inherently paradoxical nature of effectiveness in organizations. He argues that to be effective an organization must own attributes that are simultaneously contradictory, even mutually exclusive.
  • Clegg, Stewart R., ed. Management and Organization Paradoxes. Advances in Organization Studies 9. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2002. Scholars debate the source of paradox as socially constructed and symbolic or inherent and material. Clegg organizes this edited volume to address this paradox of paradoxes. The first section addresses “representing paradoxes,” highlighting the role of symbols and discourse to create paradoxes. The second section focuses on “materializing paradoxes,” describing paradox within various organizational phenomena.
  • Clegg, Stewart R., João Vieira da Cunha, and Miguel Pina e Cunha. “Management Paradoxes: A Relational View.” Human Relations 55.5 (2002): 483–503. The authors offer a relational view of paradox. They discern four regularities from the literature: first, the simultaneous presence of opposites is the everyday experience in management; second, a relationship is often found between the opposing poles (synthesis); third, this synthesis emerges when the relationship’s structural side is kept at a minimal level, and the relationship is mutually reinforcing; finally, this relationship is local, it cannot be designed but emerges from situated practice.
  • Lewis, Marianne. W. “Exploring Paradox: Toward a More Comprehensive Guide.” Academy of Management Review 25.4 (2000): 760–776. This article advances foundational ideas of organizational paradox. Lewis defines paradox as “contradictory yet interrelated elements—elements that seem logical in isolation but absurd and irrational when appearing simultaneously” (p. 760). She develops a framework that starts with tensions (self-referential loops, mixed messages, and system contradictions), identifies defense mechanisms that lead to reinforcing cycles, and explores management strategies to tap into the power of paradox. She further categorizes paradoxes of learning, organizing, and belonging.
  • Poole, Marshall S., and Andrew H. van de Ven. “Using Paradox to Build Management and Organization Theories.” Academy of Management Review 14.4 (1989): 562–578. The authors explore how paradox thinking can be used to improve our approaches to theorizing. They describe paradoxes as “social paradoxes” that exist in the real world, subject to temporal and spatial constraints, and they propose four strategies for addressing social paradoxes: opposition, accepting the contradiction and using it; spatial separation, defining clear levels of analysis; temporal separation, taking time into account; and synthesis, adopting new term to overcome paradoxes. They illustrate each of these four approaches by exploring the paradoxical tension between structure and agency.
  • Putnam, Linda L. “Contradictions and Paradoxes in Organizations.” In Organization-Communication: Emerging Perspectives. Edited by Lee Thayer, 151–167. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1986. Putnam draws on theories of discourse, communication, and group relations to introduce a categorization of three types of paradoxes: contradictory messages in which words conflict with actions or in roles; paradoxes or double binds, which highlights self-referential interactions due to the dynamics between actors; and system contradictions in which the tensions are embedded within the organizational structures.
  • Quinn, Robert E., and Kim S. Cameron, eds. Paradox and Transformation: Toward a Theory of Change in Organization and Management. Cambridge MA: Ballinger, 1988. This edited volume includes essays from luminaries in organizational theory offering insights about how paradox can inform and is informed by strategic thinking, organizational change, communication, and group dynamics. These now classic essays provide foundational insights for applying paradox theory to organizational phenomena.
  • Smith, Kenwyn K., and David N. Berg. Paradoxes of Group Life: Understanding Conflict, Paralysis, and Movement in Group Dynamics. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987. Smith and Berg define paradox as “a statement or set of statements that are self-referential and contradictory and trigger a vicious cycle” (p. 12). They trace the roots of paradoxical thought drawing heavily on psychoanalysis, and they highlight twelve paradoxes within groups and merge them in three different categories: paradoxes of belonging, paradoxes of engaging, and paradoxes of speaking. This text offers an early approach to exploring paradox within organizational phenomena.

SWG 09: Organizational Paradox: Engaging Plurality, Tensions and Contradictions


Coordinators

Costas Andriopoulos, City, University London, United Kingdom
Josh Keller, UNSW Sydney, Australia
Marianne W. Lewis, University of Cincinnati, USA
Ella Miron-Spektor, INSEAD, Europe Campus, France
Camille Pradies, EDHEC Business School, France
Jonathan Schad, King’s College London, United Kingdom
Wendy K. Smith, University of Delaware, USA

Organizational life faces unprecedented complexity. Multiple and contradictory goals, competing stakeholder demands, and fast-paced change increasingly give rise to persistent and interwoven tensions, such as today and tomorrow, social missions and business demands, centralization and decentralization, stability and change. Whereas traditional management research emphasizes contingency approaches to make explicit choices between alternatives of a tension, a paradox approach underlines the value of embracing competing demands simultaneously (Lewis, 2000). A paradox depicts a tension’s elements as contradictory and inconsistent, yet also interdependent, synergistic, and mutually constituted (Farjoun, 2010; Smith & Lewis, 2011). Engaging competing demands simultaneously enables long term organizational sustainability.

The aim of SWG 09 is to advance our understanding of plurality, tensions, and contradictions to better engage them for managerial practice (see Putnam et al., 2016; Schad et al., 2016).

Throughout continuous sub-themes at EGOS Colloquia, we have been able to further our understanding of tensions and contradictions, and thereby define clear boundaries and definitions. Building on a thriving community of scholars, we now seek to apply new theoretical terrains and discuss methodological possibilities to uncover the full potential of paradox research.
 
This SWG aims to specifically explore and advance research on plurality, tensions, and contradictions as follow:

  • Understanding the sources of tensions: Tensions are depicted as inherent to organizing as well as socially constructed (Smith & Lewis, 2011). Recent research explains that tensions can be rooted in complex systems, which is why they can be latent and become salient (Schad & Bansal, 2018).
  • Multiple, interwoven tensions: Given the pervasiveness of multiple tensions, scholars may study co-occurrence of tensions (Jarzabkowski et al., 2013), which span levels of an organizations (Andriopoulos & Lewis, 2009), and can be interrelationships among tensions (Sheep et al., 2017).
  • Microfoundations: What are the microfoundations of paradoxes (Miron-Spektor et al., 2018)? What is the role of emotions – anxiety, ambivalence, vulnerability – in sustaining or leveraging paradoxical tensions (Vince & Broussine, 1996)? What are the consequences for management and organization (Hahn et al., 2014)?
  • Paradoxes of grand and complex challenges:Given the changing landscape of organizations and the environment they are embedded in (social values, political orientations, technological, etc.) how does paradox as a lens inform in dealing with grand and complex challenges?
  • New methods in paradox research: What are new methods or combinations of methods that can help us examine paradoxes empirically (Andriopoulos & Gotsi, 2017; Jarzabkowski et al., 2019)? Are there new ways of triangulation informed by paradox theory, combining qualitative, quantitative and experimental approaches? Can paradox theory benefit from the analysis of big data or simulations? How can paradox be used to explore tensions between theory and methods?
  • The challenge of managing paradox: Addressing paradoxes is challenging (Denis et al., 2001), since tensions surface uncertainty and ambiguity (Tsoukas & Chia, 2002). What are the risks of engaging paradoxes (Pina e Cunha & Putnam, 2019)?
     
References
  • Abdallah, C., Denis, J.L., & Langley, A. (2011): “Having your cake and eating it too Discourses of transcendence and their role in organizational change dynamics.” Journal of Organizational Change Management, 24 (3), 333–348.
  • Andriopoulos, C., & Gotsi, M. (2017): “Methods of Paradox.” In: W. Smith, M. Lewis, P. Jarzabkowski & A. Langley (eds.): The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Paradox. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 513–528.
  • Andriopoulos, C., & Lewis, M.W. (2009): “Exploitation-Exploration Tensions and Organizational Ambidexterity: Managing Paradoxes of Innovation.” Organization Science, 20 (4), 696–717.
  • Denis, J.-L., Lamothe, L., & Langley, A. (2001): “The Dynamics of Collective Leadership and Strategic Change in Pluralistic Organizations.” Academy of Management Journal, 44 (4), 809–837.
  • Farjoun, M. (2010): “Beyond Dualism: Stability and Change as Duality.” Academy of Management Review, 35 (2), 202–225.
  • Hahn, T., Preuss, L., Pinkse, J., & Figge, F. (2014): “Cognitive Frames in Corporate Sustainability: Managerial Sensemaking with Paradoxical and Business Case Frames.” Academy of Management Review, 39 (4), 463–487.
  • Jarzabkowski, P., Bednarek, R., Chalkias, K., & Cacciatori, E. (2019): “Exploring inter-organizational paradoxes: Methodological lessons from a study of a grand challenge.” Strategic Organization, 17 (1), 120–132.
  • Jarzabkowski, P., Lê, J.K., & Van de Ven, A.H. (2013): “Responding to competing strategic demands: How organizing, belonging, and performing paradoxes coevolve.” Strategic Organization, 11 (3), 245–280.
  • Lewis, M.W. (2000): “Exploring Paradox: Toward a More Comprehensive Guide.” Academy of Management Review, 25( 4), 760–776.
  • Miron-Spektor, E., Ingram, A., Keller, J., Smith, W.K., & Lewis, M.W. (2018): “Microfoundations of Organizational Paradox: The Problem Is How We Think about the Problem.” Academy of Management Journal, 61 (1), 26–45.
  • Pina e Cunha, M., & Putnam, L.L. (2019): “Paradox theory and the paradox of success.” Strategic Organization, 17 (1), 95–106.
  • Putnam, L.L., Fairhurst, G.T., & Banghart, S. (2016): “Contradictions, Dialectics, and Paradoxes in Organizations: A Constitutive Approach.” Academy of Management Annals, 10 (1), 65–171.
  • Schad, J., & Bansal, P. (2018): “Seeing the Forest and the Trees: How a Systems Perspective Informs Paradox Research.” Journal of Management Studies, 55 (8), 1491–1506.
  • Schad, J., Lewis, M.W., Raisch, S., & Smith, W.K. (2016): “Paradoxical Research in Management Science: Looking Backward to Move Forward.” Academy of Management Annals, 10 (1), 5–64.
  • Sheep, M.L., Fairhurst, G.T., & Khazanchi, S. (2017): “Knots in the Discourse of Innovation: Investigating Multiple Tensions in a Reacquired Spin-off.” Organization Studies, 38 (3–4), 463–488.
  • Smith, W.K., & Lewis, M.W. (2011): “Towards a Theory of Paradox: A Dynamic Equilibrium Model of Organizing.” Academy of Management Review, 36 (2), 381–403.
  • Tsoukas, H., & Chia, R. (2002): “On organizational becoming: Rethinking organizational change.” Organization Science, 13 (5), 567–582.
  • Vince, R., & Broussine, M. (1996): “Paradox, Defense and Attachment: Accessing and Working with Emotions and Relations Underlying Organizational Change.” Organization Studies, 17 (1), 1–21.

The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Paradox  

Edited by Wendy K. Smith, Marianne W. Lewis, Paula Jarzabkowski, and Ann Langley

Abstract

Organizations are rife with paradoxes. Contradictory and interdependent tensions emerge from and within multiple levels, including individual interactions, group dynamics, organizational strategies, and the broader institutional context. Examples abound such as those between stability and change, empowerment and alienation, flexibility and control, diversity and inclusion, exploration and exploitation, social and commercial, competition and collaboration, learning and performing. These examples accentuate the distinctions between concepts, positing their potential opposition; either A or B. Yet the social world is pluralistic, and comprises multiple, interwoven tensions, in which the relationship between A and B persists in a dynamic, ever-changing relationship. In the last thirty years, the depth and breadth of paradox studies in organizational theory has grown exponentially, surfacing new insights and applications while challenging foundational ideas, and raising questions around definitions, overlapping lenses, and varied research and managerial approaches. In this book, renowned organizational scholars draw from diverse lenses, theories, and empirics to depict paradox within organizational studies and provide a range of lenses and tools with which to understand and conduct research into such phenomena. In doing so, we hope these chapters re-energize continued insight on organizational paradox, plurality, tensions, and contractions.

Keywords: paradoxpluralitydichotomydialecticsdualitiestensionscontradictionsprocesspracticevirtuous and vicious cycles

Dualities, Dialectics, and Paradoxes in Organizational Life

Front Cover

Moshe Farjoun, Wendy Smith, Ann Langley, Haridimos Tsoukas

Oxford University Press, Jul 26, 2018 – Business & Economics – 240 pages

Contradictions permeate and propel organizational life – including tensions between reaching globally while focusing locally; competing while also cooperating; performing reliably while experimenting, taking risks, and learning; or granting autonomy while constraining freedom. These tensions give organizational members pause, but also spur them to take action; they may be necessary for preserving the social order, but are also required to transform it. Drawing on the Eighth International Symposium on Process Organization Studies, Dualities, Dialectics, and Paradoxes in Organizational Life examines how contradictions fuel emergent, dynamic systems and stimulate novelty, adaption, and transformations. It uses conceptual and empirical studies to offer insight into how process theorizing advances understanding of organizational contradictions; to shed light on how dialectics, paradoxes, and dualities fuel persistence and transformation; and to explore the convergence and divergence of dialectics, paradox, and dualities. Taken together, it offers key insights to inform persistent, contradictory dynamics in organizations and organizational studies.

Elgar Introduction to Organizational Paradox Theory

Elgar Introductions to Management and Organization Theory series

Publication Date: July 2021 ISBN: 978 1 83910 113 7 Extent: 192 pp

Marco Berti, Senior Lecturer in Management, UTS Business, University of Technology Sydney, Australia, Ace Simpson, Reader in Human Resource Management and Organizational Behaviour, Brunel Business School, Brunel University London, UK, Miguel Pina e Cunha, Fundação Amélia de Mello Professor, Nova School of Business and Economics, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal and Stewart R. Clegg, Professor, University of Stavanger Business School, Norway and Nova School of Business and Economics, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal 

This insightful Elgar Introduction comprises the first effort to provide a succinct overview of the field of organizational paradox theory, exploring contradictions and tensions in organizational settings. By conceptually mapping the field, it offers guidance through the literature on paradox, making space for new interpretations and applications of the concept. 

Opening with a critical analysis of research to date, the authors explore ideas related to dialectics and ambidexterity in organizations, as well as pragmatic approaches to organizational paradox. Chapters propose new ways to analyse responses to paradox, bringing together influential contributions that consider the nestedness of paradox, the relation between power and paradox, and paradoxes of positive organizational scholarships.

Providing novel approaches to the discipline, this cutting-edge book is crucial for graduate students and management scholars interested in employing organizational paradox theory as a conceptual framework for their research.

‘In an era in which paradox theory, research, and practice has grown exponentially, this book is a landmark contribution to the work on organizational tensions. As a highly accessible guide to the paradox terrain, it offers a number of unique features: 1) a broad historical picture of the evolution of paradox theory, 2) a succinct and insightful discussion of both the positive and negative sides of paradox, 3) a vivid expose on paradox complexity, 4) an exploration of the role of power in exercising and responding to paradox, and 5) recommendations for extending the vitality of this theory as well as avoiding practices that might reify it. The clarity of its presentation, sophistication of its ideas, and use of rich vignettes make it a “must read” for practitioners as well as academics interested in how contradictions and tensions pervade organizational experiences.’ 
– Linda L. Putnam, University of California, Santa Barbara, US

‘Berti, Simpson, Cunha, and Clegg’s thoughtful map of the paradox terrain offers deep insight to any traveler – whether they are just stepping into this world for the first time looking to understand the landscape or whether they are a seasoned explorer who can see old experiences with a new lens. Their focus on how features of power inform our experiences of paradox offers important ideas that allows us to grapple with tensions in new ways. I found myself delighted with the ideas, eager to read more, and energized to engage with paradox studies in new ways.’
– Wendy Smith, University of Delaware, US

‘This book is a tour de force, covering the field of paradox theory and all of the key concepts whilst also sketching out a compelling vision of how paradox theorising can both provide novel insights and also be taken to the next level in studying the grand societal challenges of our time. I strongly recommend it for new and established paradox scholars and those who are “paradox-curious”.’
– Paula Jarzabkowski, Cass Business School, City University of London, UK

‘With this book, the exciting new wave of paradox studies comes of age. It encourages and enables readers to go beyond managerial “both-anding” rhetoric and approaches. It unashamedly exhorts paradox scholars to look up and look around, at the absurdity and contradictions embedded in our lives and work in a society of organizations and the role of power and politics in framing paradoxes and our responses to them. Its stronger and bolder approach to paradox theory will speak to those who feel trapped in iron cages of contradictions, excite critical scholars who wish to deepen the treatment of paradox, and broaden student’s understanding and appreciation of the tensions, dilemmas and contradictions that bedevil life inside and outside modern institutions.’
– Richard Badham, Macquarie University, Australia

‘This book is a true guide to organizational paradox theory. It offers a multifarious picture of the landscape of organizational paradox with its gently rolling hills but also its sharp cliffs and deep abysses. It does a brilliant job in offering guidance into paradox research without tracing out a path to follow. Every word of this book reflects the deep and long-lasting engagement, dedication, and passion that the authors have devoted to studying paradox. It is a great service to our burgeoning field and to those who want to join the fascinating endeavor of venturing the winding roads of researching and navigating organizational paradox.’
– Tobias Hahn, ESADE Business School, Ramon Llull University, Spain

Contradictions

  • Global and Local
  • Cooperation and Competition
  • Nationalism and Globalism
  • Nativism vs Multiculturalism
  • Short Term Efficiency and Long term Development
  • Organizational Stability and Flexibility
  • Shareholders and Stakeholders
  • Conforming to and Shaping Collective Forces in the Environment
  • Nurture and Discipline
  • Respect vs Suspect
  • Consistency vs Flexibility
  • Solidarity vs Autonomy

Types of Competing Demands

Source: Analyzing competing demands in organizations: a systematic comparison

Source: Analyzing competing demands in organizations: a systematic comparison

Source: 27 years of research on organizational paradox and coping strategies: A review

Source: Dialectic, Contradiction, or Double Bind? Analyzing and Theorizing Employee Reactions to Organizational Tension

coping strategies

  • opposition
  • spatial separation
  • temporal separation
  • synthesis
  • splitting,
  • specializing,
  • suppressing

Source: 27 years of research on organizational paradox and coping strategies: A review

Leadership

Source: From Tension to Transformation
How Wise Decision-makers Transcend Paradoxes and Ambiguity

Source: From Tension to Transformation
How Wise Decision-makers Transcend Paradoxes and Ambiguity

Seven Pillars of Cultivating Paradoxical Wisdom

Source: The seven pillars of paradoxical organizational wisdom: On the use of paradox as a vehicle to synthesize knowledge and ignorance

Source: Grasping the dynamics within paradox – comparing exogenous and endogenous approaches to paradox using social systems theory

My Related Posts:

Dialogs and Dialectics

Reflexivity, Recursion, and Self Reference

Second Order Cybernetics of Heinz Von Foerster

Knot Theory and Recursion: Louis H. Kauffman

Process Physics, Process Philosophy

Boundaries and Networks

Multilevel Approach to Research in Organizations

Networks and Hierarchies

Levels of Human Psychological Development in Integral Spiral Dynamics

Key Sources of Research

Metaphor, recursive systems, and paradox in science and developmental theory

W F Overton 1

Child Dev Behav. 1991;23:59-71.

doi: 10.1016/s0065-2407(08)60022-1.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1767726/

Contradictions, Dialectics, and Paradoxes in Organizations: A Constitutive Approach

  • January 2016
  • The Academy of Management Annals 10(1):65-171

DOI:10.5465/19416520.2016.1162421

Linda L. Putnam

Gail Fairhurst

Scott Banghart

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325002624_Contradictions_Dialectics_and_Paradoxes_in_Organizations_A_Constitutive_Approach

Integrating Dialectical and Paradox Perspectives on Managing Contradictions in Organizations

Timothy J Hargrave, Andrew H Van de Ven

 May 13, 2016 

https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840616640843

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0170840616640843

Contradictions, Dialectics and Paradoxes

  • January 2016
  • In book: SAGE HANDBOOK OF PROCESS ORGANIZATION STUDIES
  • Publisher: Sage
  • Editors: Ann Langley, Haridimos Tsoukas

Moshe Farjoun

  • York University

Dualities, Dialectics, and Paradoxes in Organizational Life

edited by Moshe Farjoun, Wendy Smith, Ann Langley, Haridimos Tsoukas

Oxford Univ Press

2018

Adding Complexity to Theories of
Paradox, Tensions and Dualities of Innovation and Change

Introduction to
Organization Studies Special Issue on
Paradox, Tensions and Dualities of Innovation and Change

Wendy Smith Miriam Erez Marianne Lewis Sirkka Jarvenpaa Paul Tracey

Organizational Paradox

Simone CarmineWendy K. Smith

LAST MODIFIED: 12 JANUARY 2021

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199846740-0201

https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199846740/obo-9780199846740-0201.xml

Paradox Research in Management Science: Looking Back to Move Forward.

Schad, J., Lewis, M. W., Raisch, S. & Smith, W. K. (2016).

Academy of Management Annals, 10(1), pp. 5-64.

doi: 10.1080/19416520.2016.1162422

Logics of Identity, Contradiction, and Attraction in Change

Jeffrey D. Ford and Laurie W. Ford

Published Online: 1 Oct 1994 

https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1994.9412190218

Academy of Management Review VOL. 19, NO. 4 

https://journals.aom.org/doi/full/10.5465/amr.1994.9412190218

Contradictions, Tensions, Paradoxes, and Dialectics

Deborah Ballard-ReischPaaige K. Turner

First published: 08 March 2017 

https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118955567.wbieoc043PDF

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118955567.wbieoc043

Contradiction and Harmony

https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/spirkin/works/dialectical-materialism/ch02-s11.html

Analyzing competing demands in organizations: a systematic comparison

Medhanie Gaim medhanie.gaim@umu.se

1Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

Nils Wåhlin , Miguel Pina e Cunha and Stewart Clegg

Journal of Organization Design (2018) 7:6 https://doi.org/10.1186/s41469-018-0030-9

https://d-nb.info/1166551857/34

A Daoist Critique of Dialectics and Why It Matters

Joseph Pratt

Yingnan Zhao

Peking University Law School

70 Pages Posted: 22 Mar 2018 Last revised: 22 Dec 2020

Date Written: April 12, 2019

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3140946

The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Paradox  

Edited by Wendy K. Smith, Marianne W. Lewis, Paula Jarzabkowski, and Ann Langley

The curse of the Hegelian heritage: “Dialectic,” “contradiction,” and “dialectical logic” in Activity Theory

Michael H.G. Hoffmann, Atlanta, USA

https://spp.gatech.edu/publications/pubFile/358

Institutional Contradictions, Praxis, and Institutional Change: A Dialectical Perspective

Myeong-Gu Seo and W. E. Douglas Creed

The Academy of Management Review 

Vol. 27, No. 2 (Apr., 2002), pp. 222-247 (26 pages) 

Published By: Academy of Management 

https://www.jstor.org/stable/4134353?seq=1

What, exactly, is a paradox? 

William G. Lycan

Analysis, Volume 70, Issue 4, October 2010, Pages 615–622, https://doi.org/10.1093/analys/anq069

Published: 28 July 2010

https://academic.oup.com/analysis/article/70/4/615/106991

Dialectic, Contradiction, or Double Bind? Analyzing and Theorizing Employee Reactions to Organizational Tension

Sarah J. Tracy

Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 32, No. 2, May 2004, pp. 119–146

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0090988042000210025?journalCode=rjac20

https://asu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/dialectic-contradiction-or-double-bind-analyzing-and-theorizing-e

Heraclitus and the Art of Paradox

Mary Margaret McCabe

In Platonic Conversations

Mary Margaret McCabe

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780198732884

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732884.001.0001

https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732884.001.0001/acprof-9780198732884-chapter-2

ORGANIZATIONAL DIALECTICS

Stewart Clegg

s.clegg@uts.edu.au

Chapter prepared for The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Paradox: Approaches to Plurality, Tensions, and Contradictions, edited by M.W. Lewis, W.K. Smith, P. Jarzabkowski & A. Langley.

PARADOX AND LEARNING: IMPLICATIONS FROM PARADOXICAL PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ZEN BUDDHISM FOR MATHEMATICAL INQUIRY WITH PARADOXES

Nadia Stoyanova Kennedy State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook

Systems Intelligence in Leadership and Everyday Life

edited by Raimo P. Hämäläinen

Dialectical Opposition in Schoenberg’s Music and Thought

Michael Cherlin

Music Theory Spectrum, Volume 22, Issue 2, Fall 2000, Pages 157–176, https://doi.org/10.2307/745958

Published: 01 October 2000

https://academic.oup.com/mts/article-abstract/22/2/157/1087855?redirectedFrom=PDF

From Tension to Transformation
How Wise Decision-makers Transcend Paradoxes and Ambiguity

Dr. Peter Verhezen

Amroop

Dialectical Theory

https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/dialectical-theory

The role of paradox theory in decision making and management research

David A. Waldman , Linda L. Putnam , Ella Miron-Spektor , Donald Siegel

Received 2 April 2019; Accepted 19 April 2019

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2019.04.006

27 years of research on organizational paradox and coping strategies: A review

Nathalie Guilmot

Louvain School of Management

nathalie.guilmot@uclouvain.be

Ina Ehnert
Louvain School of Management

ina.ehnert@uclouvain.be

https://www.strategie-aims.com/events/conferences/25-xxiveme-conference-de-l-aims/communications/3387-27-years-of-research-on-organizational-paradox-and-coping-strategies-a-review/download

Chapter 1 Why are uncertainty, ambiguity and paradox important for managers?

Managing in Uncertainty: Complexity and the paradoxes of everyday organizational life. Routledge, 2015.

https://uhra.herts.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/2299/16089/1_Why_write_about_paradox_and_uncertainty.pdf?sequence=1

The Arrow of Time and the Cycle of Time: Concepts of Change, Cognition, and Embodiment

  • July 1994
  • Psychological Inquiry 5(3):215-237

DOI:10.1207/s15327965pli0503_9

Willis F. Overton

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247504074_The_Arrow_of_Time_and_the_Cycle_of_Time_Concepts_of_Change_Cognition_and_Embodiment

Paradox as a Metatheoretical Perspective: Sharpening the Focus and Widening the Scope

DOI:10.1177/0021886314522322

Marianne Lewis

Wendy K. Smith

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275418916_Paradox_as_a_Metatheoretical_Perspective_Sharpening_the_Focus_and_Widening_the_Scope

Paradox theory and the paradox of success

Miguel Pina e Cunha

Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal

Linda L Putnam

University of California, USA

Strategic Organization 2019, Vol. 17(1) 95–106

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1476127017739536

The paradox of co‐operation and competition in strategic alliances: towards a multi‐paradigm approach

Colin  Clarke‐Hill, Huaning  Li, Barry  Davies

Management Research News

ISSN: 0140-9174

Article publication date: 1 February 2003

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/01409170310783376/full/html?skipTracking=true

Twelfth International Symposium on Process Organization Studies

http://www.process-symposium.com

Theme:
Organizing beyond organizations for the common good:

Addressing societal issues through process studies

PROCESS STUDIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT: UNVEILING TEMPORALITY, ACTIVITY, AND FLOW

ANN LANGLEY HEC Montréal

CLIVE SMALLMAN University of Western Sydney

HARIDIMOS TSOUKAS
University of Cyprus and University of Warwick

ANDREW H. VAN DE VEN University of Minnesota

Academy of Management fournal 2013, Vol. 56, No. 1, 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amj.2013.4001

The Practice Approach: For a Praxeology of Organisational and Management Studies

Davide Nicolini and Pedro Monteiro

Click to access nicolini_and_monteiro_-_the_practice_approach.pdf

The SAGE Handbook of Process Organization Studies

Ann Langley and Haridimos Tsoukas

2016

Click to access 866021353.pdf

Dealing with Paradoxes of Law: Derrida, Luhmann, Wiethölter

Translated by Iain L. Fraser

GUNTHER TEUBNER

Oren Perez and Gunther Teubner (eds.), On Paradoxes and Inconsistencies in Law, Hart, Oxford 2006, 41-64

On The Marxist Dialectic

Sean Sayers

The Influence of Biculturalism on the Development of a Dialectical Thinking

LUISS Guido Carli / Premio tesi d’eccellenza

Working paper n. 7/2016-2017

Publication date: February 2019

Dialectical Thinking and Humanistic Psychology

John Rowan

http://www.practical-philosophy.org.uk

Click to access 3-2%2020%20Rowan%20-%20Humanistic%20Psychology.pdf

PARADOXES. Their Roots, Range and Resolution.

Nicholas RESCHER

Chicago and La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 2001

Review by Mirela Saim

Click to access ReviewRescher.pdf

Culture, Dialectics, and Reasoning About Contradiction

Kaiping Peng

Richard E. Nisbett

September 1999 • American Psychologist

Vol. 54, No. 9, 741-754

Elgar Introduction to Organizational Paradox Theory

Marco Berti, Senior Lecturer in Management, UTS Business, University of Technology Sydney, Australia,

Ace Simpson, Reader in Human Resource Management and Organizational Behaviour, Brunel Business School, Brunel University London, UK,

Miguel Pina e Cunha, Fundação Amélia de Mello Professor, Nova School of Business and Economics, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal

Stewart R. Clegg, Professor, University of Stavanger Business School, Norway and Nova School of Business and Economics, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal 

Elgar Introductions to Management and Organization Theory series

Publication Date: July 2021 ISBN: 978 1 83910 113 7 Extent: 192 pp

https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/usd/elgar-introduction-to-organizational-paradox-theory-9781839101137.html

Transcending Paradox: The Chinese “Middle Way” Perspective

MING-JER CHEN† chenm@darden.virginia.edu 

Darden Graduate School of Business, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22906-6550, USA

Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19, 179–199, 2002

SOLUTIONS TO ORGANIZATIONAL PARADOX: A PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE

XIN LI Copenhagen Business School xl.int@cbs.dk

VERNER WORM Copenhagen Business School

Submitted to Academy of Management 2015 annual conference On 8 December 2014
Submission number: 10466

Click to access Solutions%20to%20Organizational%20Paradox%20(1).pdf

Exploring Paradox: Toward a More Comprehensive Guide

M Lewis

Article in The Academy of Management Review · October 2000 

DOI: 10.2307/259204

LOGIC(S) AND PARADOX

Marco Berti

The Lived Experience of Paradox: How Individuals Navigate Tensions during the Pandemic Crisis

https://dial.uclouvain.be/pr/boreal/object/boreal%3A242317/datastream/PDF_01/view

HOW DO FIRMS MANAGE STRATEGIC DUALITIES? A PROCESS PERSPECTIVE

JULIAN BIRKINSHAW DONAL CRILLY London Business School

CYRIL BOUQUET

IMD Business School

SUN YOUNG LEE

UCL School of Management, London

Academy of Management Discoveries 2016, Vol. 2, No. 1, 51–78.
Online only http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amd.2014.0123

System of Systems Management

Brian Sauser, John Boardman, and Alex Gorod

Stevens Institute of Technology, USA

System of Systems – Innovations for the 21st Century, 

Edited by [Mo Jamshidi]. ISBN 0-471-XXXXX-X Copyright © 2008 Wiley[Imprint], Inc.

PARADIGMS, PRAXIS AND PARADOX IN THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATION CHANGE: THE GENERATIVE NATURE OF CONTROL

M. Ann Welsh

Department of Management College of Business Administration University of Cincinnati
P.O. Box 210165 Cincinnati, OH 45221-0165 513-556-7136 Ann.Welsh@uc.edu

Gordon E. Dehler

Organizational Sciences Program The George Washington University 2147 F Street NW Washington, DC 20052 202-994-1880 dehlerwelsh@mindspring.com

A Paradox Approach to Societal Tensions during the Pandemic Crisis

Garima Sharma1, Jean Bartunek2, Patrice M. Buzzanell3,
Simone Carmine4, Carsyn Endres5, Michael Etter6,7, Gail Fairhurst5, Tobias Hahn8, Patrick Lê9, Xin Li7,10, Vontrese Pamphile11,
Camille Pradies12, Linda L. Putnam13, Kimberly Rocheville2, Jonathan Schad6, Mathew Sheep14, and Joshua Keller15

Journal of Management Inquiry
2021, Vol. 30(2) 121–137

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1056492620986604

Communicative dynamic to reconstruct paradoxes in organizations

Harald Tuckermann
University of St. Gallen, harald.tuckermann@unisg.ch

Thomas Schumacher
University of St. Gallen, thomas.schumacher@unisg.ch

Johannes Rüegg-Stürm
University of St. Gallen, johannes.rueegg@unisg.ch

Chapter 4

The seven pillars of paradoxical organizational wisdom: On the use of paradox as a vehicle to synthesize knowledge and ignorance

By FILIPA ROCHA RODRIGUES, MIGUEL PINA E CUNHA, ARMÉNIO REGO
in Book Wisdom Learning Edition 1st Edition First Published 2016
Imprint Gower
eBook ISBN 9781315547039

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316668071_The_seven_pillars_of_paradoxical_organizational_wisdom_On_the_use_of_paradox_as_a_vehicle_to_synthesize_knowledge_and_ignorance

From Vicious to Virtuous Paradox Dynamics: The Social-symbolic Work of Supporting Actors

Camille PradiesAndrea TunarosaMarianne W. Lewis,

 …First Published March 18, 2020 

https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840620907200

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0170840620907200

Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Paradox: a case study

Patrick bohl

Click to access VT_2015n11p25.pdf

Here Be Paradox: How Global Business Leaders Navigate Change

Janet Ann  Nelson

Advances in Global Leadership

ISBN: 978-1-78754-298-3, eISBN: 978-1-78754-297-6

ISSN: 1535-1203

Publication date: 26 November 2018

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/S1535-120320180000011001/full/html?skipTracking=true

Grasping the dynamics within paradox – comparing exogenous and endogenous approaches to paradox using social systems theory

PROS 2019 – draft version 12.05.19

Harald Tuckermann, Simone Gutzan, Camille Leutenegger, Johannes Rüegg-Stürm,

Institute of Systemic Management and Public Governance, University of St. Gallen, Dufourstrasse 40a, 9008 St. Gallen, Switzerland,

Email: harald.tuckermann@unisg.ch

Paradoxes in supply chains: a conceptual framework for packed products

Henrik Palsson
Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, and

Erik Sandberg

Department of Logistics and Quality Management, Link€oping University, Link€oping, Sweden

The International Journal of Logistics Management

Vol. 31 No. 3, 2020 pp. 423-442

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJLM-12-2019-0338/full/pdf?title=paradoxes-in-supply-chains-a-conceptual-framework-for-packed-products

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJLM-12-2019-0338/full/html

Top managers’ improvisational decision-making in crisis: a paradox perspective

DOI:10.1108/MD-08-2020-1060Authors:

Pooya Tabesh

Dusya Vera

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/346361487_Top_managers%27_improvisational_decision-making_in_crisis_a_paradox_perspective

Navigate Paradox in Organizations: The Implications of Combining Theory of Paradox with Practice

Mourad Mechiche
Independent Scholar, Vihastenkarinkatu 21-23 G, Raahe, Finland

European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)
Vol.12, No.29, 2020

We Have To Do This and That? You Must be Joking: Constructing and Responding to Paradox Through Humor

Paula A. Jarzabkowski

City University London, UK

Jane K. Lê

The University of Sydney, Australia

Organization Studies 2017, Vol. 38(3-4) 433–462

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0170840616640846

Paradox beyond East/West orthodoxy: The case of Ubuntu

Medhanie Gaim

Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics, Sweden medhanie.gaim@umu.se

Stewart Clegg
University Technology Sydney, Australia & Nova School of Business and Economics, Carcavelos, Portugal

Stewart.Clegg@uts.edu.au

Responding to competing strategic demands: How organizing, belonging, and performing paradoxes coevolve

Paula Jarzabkowski

City University, UK; Cornell University, USA

Strategic Organization 11(3) 245–280.

2013

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1476127013481016

A Paradox Approach to Organizational Tensions During the Pandemic Crisis

Simone Carmine1, Constantine Andriopoulos2, Manto Gotsi3 ,
Charmine E. J. Härtel4, Anna Krzeminska5, Nkosana Mafico4,
Camille Pradies6, Hassan Raza7, Tatbeeq Raza-Ullah8,
Stephanie Schrage9 , Garima Sharma10, Natalie Slawinski11, Lea Stadtler12, Andrea Tunarosa13, Casper Winther-Hansen14 , and Joshua Keller15

Journal of Management Inquiry
2021, Vol. 30(2) 138–153

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1056492620986863

MICROFOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL PARADOX: THE PROBLEM IS HOW WE THINK ABOUT THE PROBLEM

Ella Miron-Spektor

Technion-Israel Institute of Technology Haifa 32000, Israel
Tel: 972-4-829-4439
Fax: 972-4-829-5688
e-mail: ellams@technion.ac.il

Amy Ingram Clemson University amyi@clemson.edu

Josh Keller
Nanyang Technological University JWKeller@ntu.edu.sg

Wendy K. Smith University of Delaware smithw@udel.edu

Marianne W. Lewis University of London Marianne.Lewis@city.ac.uk

Color Science and Technology in LCD and LED Displays

Color Science and Technology in LCD and LED Displays

Key Terms

  • Liquid Crystals Display (LCD)
  • Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
  • Organic LED (OLED)
  • Active Matrix (AM)
  • Active Matrix OLED (AMOLED)
  • Quantum light-emitting diode (QLED)
  • Quantum Dot LED
  • Quantum dots nanorod LED (QNED)
  • Mini LED
  • Micro LED
  • Color Filters (CFA)
  • Backlighting
  • Liquid Crystals
  • Light Polarization
  • Pixels
  • Sub-Pixels
  • RGB (Red Green Blue)
  • White Light
  • Blue LEDs
  • Flat Panel Display
  • CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)
  • Phosphores
  • Pigments
  • Thin Film Transistors (TFT)
  • Active Matrix TFT
  • Twisted Nematic (TN)
  • In Panel Switching displays (IPS Panels)
  • Vertical Alignment Panels (VA Panels)
  • Advanced Fringe Field Switching (AFFS)
  • AM-LCD
  • Plasma based Displays
  • CCFL Fluorescent Lamps
  • Flexible Displays
  • FPD Flat Panel Display
  • QD-OLED
  • QD-LCD
  • White LEDs
  • RGB LED Lighting
  • White LED Lighting
  • QDEF Quantum Dot Enhanced Film
  • LCM LC Module
  • QD-CF QD Color Filter
  • QD-LED based on Electroluminescence
  • miniLED Backlit LCD
  • Mini/Micro LED Emissive Displays
  • Linear Polarizer in LCD
  • Circular Polarizer in OLED
  • Perovskite LEDs
  • GB-R LED Green Blue LED + Red Phosphor
  • RB – G LED Red Blue LED + Green Phosphor
  • WCG-CCFL
  • Color Resist
  • Photo Mask
  • Optical Film
  • Neo QLED (mini LED)
  • HDR and Rec.2020 compliant displays
  • Adobe RGB Color Space
  • Rec 709 Color Space
  • DCI P3 Color Space
  • Rec 2020 Color Space
  • Color Gamut
  • Contrast Ratio
  • Brightness
  • Luminescence
  • High Dynamic Range HDR
  • Color Volume
  • Chromaticity
  • 1pc-WLED Phosphor Converted White LED
  • 2pc-WLED Phosphor Converted White LED
  • Color Crosstalk
  • Blue LED-pumped red and green QDs backlight
  • Color Converted Film CCF
  • Luminance
  • GaN – Gallium Nitride
  • lnGaN
  • Colloidal Semiconductor QDs
  • Semiconductor nanocrystal quantum-dot-integrated white- light-emitting diodes (QD-WLEDs)
  • (Low Temperature PolySilicon LCD) LTPS LCD
  • Poly-silicon (poly-Si)
  • Amorphous silicon (a-Si)
  • Organic–inorganic perovskite (OIP)
  • Photo Resist

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

Definition

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is a type of flat panel display which uses liquid crystals in its primary form of operation. LEDs have a large and varying set of use cases for consumers and businesses, as they can be commonly found in smartphones, televisions, computer monitors and instrument panels.

LCDs were a big leap in terms of the technology they replaced, which include light-emitting diode (LED) and gas-plasma displays. LCDs allowed displays to be much thinner than cathode ray tube (CRT) technology. LCDs consume much less power than LED and gas-display displays because they work on the principle of blocking light rather than emitting it. Where an LED emits light, the liquid crystals in an LCD produces an image using a backlight.

As LCDs have replaced older display technologies, LCDs have begun being replaced by new display technologies such as OLEDs.

How LCDs work

A display is made up of millions of pixels. The quality of a display commonly refers to the number of pixels; for example, a 4K display is made up of 3840 x2160 or 4096×2160 pixels. A pixel is made up of three subpixels; a red, blue and green—commonly called RGB. When the subpixels in a pixel change color combinations, a different color can be produced. With all the pixels on a display working together, the display can make millions of different colors. When the pixels are rapidly switched on and off, a picture is created.

The way a pixel is controlled is different in each type of display; CRT, LED, LCD and newer types of displays all control pixels differently. In short, LCDs are lit by a backlight, and pixels are switched on and off electronically while using liquid crystals to rotate polarized light. A polarizing glass filter is placed in front and behind all the pixels, the front filter is placed at 90 degrees. In between both filters are the liquid crystals, which can be electronically switched on and off.

 LCDs are made with either a passive matrix or an active matrix display grid. The active matrix LCD is also known as a thin film transistor (TFT) display. The passive matrix LCD has a grid of conductors with pixels located at each intersection in the grid. A current is sent across two conductors on the grid to control the light for any pixel. An active matrix has a transistor located at each pixel intersection, requiring less current to control the luminance of a pixel. For this reason, the current in an active matrix display can be switched on and off more frequently, improving the screen refresh time.

Some passive matrix LCD’s have dual scanning, meaning that they scan the grid twice with current in the same time that it took for one scan in the original technology. However, active matrix is still a superior technology out of the two.

Types of LCDs

Types of LCDs include:

  • Twisted Nematic (TN)- which are inexpensive while having high response times. However, TN displays have low contrast ratios, viewing angles and color contrasts.
  • In Panel Switching displays (IPS Panels)- which boast much better contrast ratios, viewing angles and color contrast when compared to TN LCDs.
  • Vertical Alignment Panels (VA Panels)- which are seen as a medium quality between TN and IPS displays.
  • Advanced Fringe Field Switching (AFFS)- which is a top performer compared IPS displays in color reproduction range.

LCD vs OLED vs QLED

LCDs are now being outpaced by other display technologies, but are not completely left in the past. Steadily, LCDs have been being replaced by OLEDs, or organic light-emitting diodes.

 OLEDs use a single glass or plastic panels, compared to LCDs which use two. Because an OLED does not need a backlight like an LCD, OLED devices such as televisions are typically much thinner, and have much deeper blacks, as each pixel in an OLED display is individually lit. If the display is mostly black in an LCD screen, but only a small portion needs to be lit, the whole back panel is still lit, leading to light leakage on the front of the display. An OLED screen avoids this, along with having better contrast and viewing angles and less power consumption. With a plastic panel, an OLED display can be bent and folded over itself and still operate. This can be seen in smartphones, such as the controversial Galaxy Fold; or in the iPhone X, which will bend the bottom of the display over itself so the display’s ribbon cable can reach in towards the phone, eliminating the need for a bottom bezel.

However, OLED displays tend to be more expensive and can suffer from burn-in, as plasma-based displays do.

QLED stands for quantum light-emitting diode and quantum dot LED. QLED displays were developed by Samsung and can be found in newer televisions. QLEDs work most similarly to LCDs, and can still be considered as a type of LCD. QLEDs add a layer of quantum dot film to an LCD, which increases the color and brightness dramatically compared to other LCDs. The quantum dot film is made up of small crystal semi-conductor particles. The crystal semi-conductor particles can be controlled for their color output. 

When deciding between a QLED and an OLED display, QLEDs have much more brightness and aren’t affected by burn-in. However, OLED displays still have a better contrast ratio and deeper blacks than QLEDs.

This was last updated in September 2019

Source: https://www.thoughtco.com/liquid-crystal-display-history-lcd-1992078

The History of Liquid Crystal Display

By Mary Bellis Updated March 02, 2019

hudiemm/Getty Images

An LCD or liquid crystal display is a type of flat panel display commonly used in digital devices, for example, digital clocks, appliance displays, and portable computers.

How an LCD Works 

Liquid crystals are liquid chemicals whose molecules can be aligned precisely when subjected to electrical fields, much in the way metal shavings line up in the field of a magnet. When properly aligned, the liquid crystals allow light to pass through.

A simple monochrome LCD display has two sheets of polarizing material with a liquid crystal solution sandwiched between them. Electricity is applied to the solution and causes the crystals to align in patterns. Each crystal, therefore, is either opaque or transparent, forming the numbers or text that we can read. 

History of Liquid Crystal Displays 

In 1888, liquid crystals were first discovered in cholesterol extracted from carrots by Austrian botanist and chemist, Friedrich Reinitzer.

In 1962, RCA researcher Richard Williams generated stripe patterns in a thin layer of liquid crystal material by the application of a voltage. This effect is based on an electrohydrodynamic instability forming what is now called “Williams domains” inside the liquid crystal.

According to the IEEE, “Between 1964 and 1968, at the RCA David Sarnoff Research Center in Princeton, New Jersey, a team of engineers and scientists led by George Heilmeier with Louis Zanoni and Lucian Barton, devised a method for electronic control of light reflected from liquid crystals and demonstrated the first liquid crystal display. Their work launched a global industry that now produces millions of LCDs.”

Heilmeier’s liquid crystal displays used what he called DSM or dynamic scattering method, wherein an electrical charge is applied which rearranges the molecules so that they scatter light.

The DSM design worked poorly and proved to be too power hungry and was replaced by an improved version, which used the twisted nematic field effect of liquid crystals invented by James Fergason in 1969.

James Fergason 

Inventor James Fergason holds some of the fundamental patents in liquid crystal displays filed in the early 1970s, including key US patent number 3,731,986 for “Display Devices Utilizing Liquid Crystal Light Modulation”

In 1972, the International Liquid Crystal Company (ILIXCO) owned by James Fergason produced the first modern LCD watch based on James Fergason’s patent.

Liquid Crystals in a Display

Source: Japan Display Inc.

LCD Basics

Liquid crystal

Liquid crystal refers to the intermediate status of a substance between solid (crystal) and liquid. When crystals with a high level of order in molecular sequence are melted, they generally turn liquid, which has fluidity but no such order at all. However, thin bar-shaped organic molecules, when they are melted, keep their order in a molecular direction although they lose it in molecular positions. In the state in which molecules are in a uniform direction, they also have refractive indices, dielectric constants and other physical characteristics similar to those of crystals, depending on their direction, even though they are liquid. This is why they are called liquid crystal. The diagram below shows the structure of 5CB (4-pentyl-4’-Cyanobiphenyl) as an example of liquid crystal molecules. 

An example of a liquid crystal molecule

Principle of liquid crystal display

A liquid crystal display (LCD) has liquid crystal material sandwiched between two sheets of glass. Without any voltage applied between transparent electrodes, liquid crystal molecules are aligned in parallel with the glass surface. When voltage is applied, they change their direction and they turn vertical to the glass surface. They vary in optical characteristics, depending on their orientation. Therefore, the quantity of light transmission can be controlled by combining the motion of liquid crystal molecules and the direction of polarization of two polarizing plates attached to the both outer sides of the glass sheets. LCDs utilize these characteristics to display images.

Working principle of an LCD

TFT LCD

An LCD consists of many pixels. A pixel consists of three sub-pixels (Red/Green/Blue, RGB). In the case of Full-HD resolution, which is widely used for smartphones, there are more than six million (1,080 x 1,920 x 3 = 6,220,800) sub-pixels. To activate these millions of sub-pixels a TFT is required in each sub-pixel. TFT is an abbreviation for “Thin Film Transistor”. A TFT is a kind of semiconductor device. It serves as a control valve to provide an appropriate voltage onto liquid crystals for individual sub-pixels. A TFT LCD has a liquid crystal layer between a glass substrate formed with TFTs and transparent pixel electrodes and another glass substrate with a color filter (RGB) and transparent counter electrodes. In addition, polarizers are placed on the outer side of each glass substrate and a backlight source on the back side. A change in voltage applied to liquid crystals changes the transmittance of the panel including the two polarizing plates, and thus changes the quantity of light that passes from the backlight to the front surface of the display. This principle allows the TFT LCD to produce full-color images.

Structure of a TFT LCD

Source: https://madhavuniversity.edu.in/liquid-crystalline-materials.html

Source: Merck KGaA

Source: Merck KGaA

After over 120 years of research in liquid crystals, a large number of liquid crystal phases have been discovered. Liquid crystal phases have a range of different structures, but all have one thing in common: they flow in a similar way to viscous liquids, but show the physical behavior of crystals. Their appearance depends on various criteria, including molecular structure and temperature, as well as their concentration and the solvent.

A crystal can be described using a coordinate system. Each atom of a molecule has its specific position. The structure of a crystal can be reduced to a tiny unit, the primitive cell, which is repeated periodically in all three dimensions. This periodicity describes the long-range order of a crystal. A crystal is a highly ordered system in which the physical properties have different characteristics according to the viewing angle. This is called anisotropy. The properties of a liquid crystal phase are also anisotropic, although the structure can no longer be described in a coordinate system. The periodicity and thus the long-range order are lost. Molecules orient themselves by their neighboring molecules, so that only short-range order can be observed. In contrast, a liquid is a completely disordered system, in which the physical properties are isotropic, i.e. directionally independent. What a liquid crystal phase and a liquid have in common is fluidity.

THERMOTROPIC NEMATIC PHASE

In LCD technology, the thermotropic nematic phase is by far the most significant phase. It is formed from rod-shaped (calamitic) molecules that arrange themselves approximately parallel to each other. These molecules can also form smectic phases, which exist in multiple manifestations. Smectic phases are more ordered than nematic phases: as well as the parallel alignment of the molecules, they also form layers.

As the temperature rises, the order of a system decreases. The temperature at which a liquid crystal phase is converted to the isotropic liquid is called the clearing point. A substance may form one or more liquid crystal phases if the structural conditions allow this. However, the appearance of liquid crystal phases is not necessarily a consequence of the molecular structure.

Source: Liquid Crystalline materials used in LCD display

Source: https://madhavuniversity.edu.in/liquid-crystalline-materials.html

Types of LCD Technologies

Source: Merck KGaA

  • Twisted nematic (TN)
  • Vertical alignment (VA)
  • Polymer stabilized VA variant (PS-VA)
  • Self alignment vertical alignment (SA-VA)
  • In-plane switching (IPS)
  • Fringe field switching (FFS)
  • Ultra-brightness fringe field switching (UB-FFS)
  • Blue Phase

Source: Merck KGaA

Components of a LCD Panel

In Plane Switching IPS Technology

  • Unpolarized Light
  • Polarizer
  • Glass Substrate
  • Thin Film Transistor
  • TFT Electrode
  • Orientation Layer
  • Liquid Crystals
  • Polarized Light
  • Orientation Layer
  • Color Filter
  • Glass Substrate
  • Analyzer
  • Emitted Light

Vertical Alignment VA Technology

  • Back Lighting Unit (BLU) – Source of Unpolarized Light
  • 1 st Polarizing Filter – Input Polarizer
  • Glass Substrate – backbone
  • Thin Film Transistor (TFT)
  • TFT Electrode
  • Orientation Layer – Thin Film Transistors
  • RM/additive Polymer layer – orientation of liquid crystal molecules and for fixing “pretilt angle”
  • RM Polymer Layer
  • Liquid Crystals
  • Polarized Light
  • RM/additive polymer layer
  • RM Polymer layer
  • Orientation layer
  • Electrode
  • Color filter
  • Glass Substrate
  • 2 nd Polarizing filter

Materials used in making Displays

Source: Merck KGaA Germany

  • Liquid Crystals
  • OLED Materials
  • Photoresists
  • Siloxanes
  • Silozanes
  • LED Phosphores
  • Quantum Materials
  • Reactive Mesogens

Three main components of a LCD Panel are discussed below in some detail.

  • Backplane Technology
  • Color Filter
  • Backlighting

Backplane Technology

What Is An LTPS LCD?

August 10, 2019

Low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (or LTPS) LCD—also called LTPS TFT LCD—is a new-generation technology product derived from polycrystalline silicon materials. Polycrystalline silicon is synthesised at relatively low temperatures (~650°C and lower) as compared to traditional methods (above 900°C).

Standard LCDs found in many consumer electronics, including cellphones, use amorphous silicon as the liquid for the display unit. Recent technology has replaced this with polycrystalline silicon, which has boosted the screen resolution and response time of devices.

Row/column driver electronics are integrated onto the glass substrate. The number of components in an LTPS LCD module can be reduced by 40 per cent, while the connection part can be reduced by 95 per cent. The LTPS display screen is better in terms of energy consumption and durability, too.

LTPS LCDs are increasingly becoming popular these days. These have a high potential for large-scale production of electronic devices such as flat-panel LCD displays or image sensors.

Amorphous silicon lacks crystal structure, whereas polycrystalline silicon consists of various crystallites or grains, each having an organised lattice (Fig. 1).

Amorphous silicon versus polycrystalline silicon (Credit: Wikipedia)
Fig. 1: Amorphous silicon versus polycrystalline
silicon (Credit: Wikipedia)

Advantages of an LTPS LCD display are:

  • Dynamic and rich colours
  • Fast response and less reflective
  • High picture resolution

Some of its disadvantages are:

  • Deteriorates faster than other LCDs
  • High cost

Display technology explained: A-Si, LTPS, amorphous IGZO, and beyond

ultra slim bezel tablet

LCD or AMOLED1080p vs 2K? There are plenty of contentious topics when it comes to smartphone displays, which all have an impact on the day to day usage of our smartphones. However, one important topic which is often overlooked during analysis and discussion is the type of backplane technology used in the display.

Display makers often throw around terms like A-Si, IGZO, or LTPS. But what do these acronyms actually mean and what’s the impact of backplane technology on user experience? What about future developments?

For clarification, backplane technology describes the materials and assembly designs used for the thin film transistors which drive the main display. In other words, it is the backplane that contains an array of transistors which are responsible for turning the individual pixels on and off, acting therefore as a determining factor when it comes to display resolution, refresh rate, and power consumption.Display Panel TransistorsNote the transistors at the top of each colored pixel.

Examples of backplane technology include amorphous silicon (aSi), low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) and indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO), whilst LCD and OLED are examples of light emitting material types. Some of the different backplane technologies can be used with different display types, so IGZO can be used with either LCD or OLED displays, albeit that some backplanes are more suitable than others.

a-Si

Amorphous silicon has been the go-to material for backplane technology for many years, and comes in a variety of different manufacturing methods, to improve its energy efficiency, refresh speeds, and the display’s viewing angle. Today, a-Si displays make up somewhere between 20 and 25 percent of the smartphone display market.Poly-Si-TFT-vs-a-SiH-TFT-vs-Oxide-TFTA spec comparison of common TFT types.

For mobile phone displays with a pixel density lower than 300 pixels per inch, this technology remains the preferable backplane of choice, mainly due to its low costs and relatively simple manufacturing process. However, when it comes to higher resolution displays and new technologies such as AMOLED, a-Si is beginning to struggle.

AMOLED puts more electrical stress on the transistors compared with LCD, and therefore favours technologies that can offer more current to each pixel. Also, AMOLED pixel transistors take up more space compared with LCDs, blocking more light emissions for AMOLED displays, making a-Si rather unsuitable. As a result, new technologies and manufacturing processes have been developed to meet the increasing demands made of display panels over recent years.

LTPS

LTPS currently sits as the high-bar of backplane manufacturing, and can be spotted behind most of the high end LCD and AMOLED displays found in today’s smartphones.  It is based on a similar technology to a-Si, but a higher process temperature is used to manufacture LTPS, resulting in a material with improved electrical properties.Backplane currentsHigher currents are required for stable OLED panels, which a-Si falls short of.

LTPS is in fact the only technology that really works for AMOLED right now, due to the higher amount of current required by this type of display technology. LTPS also has higher electron mobility, which, as the name suggests, is an indication of how quickly/easily an electron can move through the transistor, with up to 100 times greater mobility than a-Si.

For starters, this allows for much faster switching display panels. The other big benefit of this high mobility is that the transistor size can be shrunk down, whilst still providing the necessary power for most displays. This reduced size can either be put towards energy efficiencies and reduced power consumption, or can be used to squeeze more transistors in side by side, allow for much greater resolution displays. Both of these aspects are becoming increasingly important as smartphones begin to move beyond 1080p, meaning that LTPS is likely to remain a key technology for the foreseeable future.display technology revenue sharesLTPS is by far the most commonly used backplane technology, when you combine its use in LCD and AMOLED panels.

The drawback of LTPS TFT comes from its increasingly complicated manufacturing process and material costs, which makes the technology more expensive to produce, especially as resolutions continue to increase. As an example, a 1080p LCD based on this technology panel costs roughly 14 percent more than a-Si TFT LCD. However, LTPS’s enhanced qualities still mean that it remains the preferred technology for higher resolution displays.

IGZO

Currently, a-Si and LTPS LCD displays make up the largest combined percentage of the smartphone display market. However, IGZO is anticipated as the next technology of choice for mobile displays. Sharp originally began production of its IGZO-TFT LCD panels back in 2012, and has been employing its design in smartphones, tablets and TVs since then. The company has also recent shown off examples of non-rectangular shaped displays based on IGZO. Sharp isn’t the only player in this field — LG and Samsung are both interested in the technology as well.IGZO vs aSi 1Smaller transistors allow for higher pixel densities

The area where IGZO, and other technologies, have often struggled is when it comes to implementations with OLED. ASi has proven rather unsuitable to drive OLED displays, with LTPS providing good performance, but at increasing expense as display size and pixel densities increase. The OLED industry is on the hunt for a technology which combines the low cost and scalability of a-Si with the high performance and stability of LTPS, which is where IGZO comes in.

Why should the industry make the switch over to IGZO? Well, the technology has quite a lot of potential, especially for mobile devices. IGZO’s build materials allow for a decent level of electron mobility, offering 20 to 50 times the electron mobility of amorphous silicon (a-Si), although this isn’t quite as high as LTPS, which leaves you with quite a few design possibilities. IGZO displays can therefore by shrunk down to smaller transistor sizes, resulting in lower power consumption, which provides the added benefit of making the IGZO layer less visible than other types. That means you can run the display at a lower brightness to achieve the same output, reducing power consumption in the process.

IGZO vs aSi 2

One of IGZO’s other benefits is that it is highly scalable, allowing for much higher resolution displays with greatly increased pixel densities. Sharp has already announced plans for panels with 600 pixels per inch. This can be accomplished more easily than with a-Si TFT types due to the smaller transistor size.

Higher electron mobility also lends itself to improved performance when it comes to refresh rate and switching pixels on and off. Sharp has developed a method of pausing pixels, allowing them to maintain their charge for longer periods of time, which again will improve battery life, as well as help create a constantly high quality image.

IGZO vs aSi 3

Smaller IGZO transistors are also touting superior noise isolation compared to a-Si, which should result in a smoother and more sensitive user experience when used with touchscreens. When it comes to IGZO OLED, the technology is well on the way, as Sharp has just unveiled its new 13.3-inch 8K OLED display at SID-2014.

Essentially, IGZO strives to reach the performance benefits of LTPS, whilst keeping fabrications costs as low as possible. LG and Sharp are both working on improving their manufacturing yields this year, with LG aiming for 70% with its new Gen 8 M2 fab. Combined with energy efficient display technologies like OLED, IGZO should be able to offer an excellent balance of cost, energy efficiency, and display quality for mobile devices.

What’s next?

Innovations in display backplanes aren’t stopping with IGZO, as companies are already investing in the next wave, aiming to further improve energy efficiency and display performance. Two examples worth keeping an eye are on are Amorphyx’ amorphous metal nonlinear resistor (AMNR) and CBRITE.lg g3 aa (7 of 22)Higher resolution smartphones, such as the LG G3, are putting increasing demands on the transistor technology behind the scenes.

Starting with AMNR, a spin-off project which came out of Oregon State University, this technology aims to replace the common thin-film transistors with a simplified two-terminal current tunnelling device, which essentially acts as a “dimmer switch”.

This developing technology can be manufacturing on a process that leverages a-Si TFT production equipment, which should keep costs down when it comes to switching production, whilst also offering a 40 percent lower cost of production compared with a-Si. AMNR is also touting better optical performance than a-Si and a complete lack of sensitivity to light, unlike IGZO. AMNR could end up offering a new cost effective option for mobile displays, while making improvements in power consumption too.

CBRITE, on the other hand, is working on its own metal oxide TFT, which has a material and process that delivers greater carrier mobility than IGZO. Electron mobility can happily reach 30cm²/V·sec, around the speed of IGZO, and has been demonstrated reaching 80cm²/V·sec, which is almost as high as LTPS. CBRITE also appears to lend itself nicely to the higher resolution and lower power consumption requirements of future mobile display technologies.LTPS vs CBRITE performance with OLEDLTPS vs CBRITE spec comparison for use with OLED displays

Furthermore, this technology is manufactured from a five-mask process, which reduces costs even compared to a-Si and will certainly make it much cheaper to manufacture than the 9 to 12 mask LTSP process. CBITE is expected to start shipping products sometime in 2015 or 2016, although whether this will end up in mobile devices so soon is currently unknown.

Smartphones are already benefiting from improvements in screen technology, and some would argue that things are already as good as they need to be, but the display industry still has plenty to show us over the next few years.

Color Filter Array (CFA)

Source: BASF

Source: BASF

Cathode ray tube television sets have long had their day. Flat screen TVs now provide energy-efficient, low-emission entertainment in three out of four German households, according to the Federal Statistical Office. And this figure is rising, Germans are estimated to have purchased eight million flat screen television sets in 2015, most of which are LCDs. LCD technology is also the basis for many other contemporary communication devices, including smartphones, laptops and tablets. After all, with experts forecasting six percent global annual sales growth for flat-panel displays until 2020.

LCD stands for liquid crystal display. Liquid crystals form the basis for billions of flat-panel displays. The American, George H. Heilmeier, unveiled the first monochrome LCD monitor to the expert community in 1968. Commercialization of the first color monitors took another 20 years. Flat screen TVs started sweeping the world in the 1990s, mainly because of the availability of high-performance color filter materials.

The images on a liquid crystal display with the standard resolution are made up of about two million picture elements, better known as pixels. The color filter pigments attached to the liquid crystal cells are what give each pixel its color. Screen contrast and color purity remain a challenge, however. 

Pigment properties make all the difference

Red, green, and blue: Every pixel contains these three primary colors. The colors are composed of tiny crystals about a thousand times smaller in diameter than a human hair. The crystals act as a filter for the white backlight and only allow light waves from a selected range of the visible spectrum to pass through. These light waves show one of the three colors in its purest possible form. The filters block all the other wavelengths. “A good pigment has a significant impact on the brilliance of the colors the viewer sees,” said Dr. Hans Reichert, head of colorants research at BASF.

“Although perfect color selection is not feasible with absorbing materials, we come fairly close to perfection with our red filters.” Color purity also has an impact on the range of colors available. The greater the purity of the three primary colors, the more permutations that can be achieved by mixing them – and the more colorful the image.

The picture shows a chemical reaction in the lab yielding diketopyrrolopyrroles, the substances BASF’s red filter pigments are made of. Diketopyrrolopyrroles are aromatic organic ring compounds mainly consisting of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen.

The basic principle is simple. When the color red appears on the screen, the corresponding subpixel lets the red portion of light pass through and absorbs the rest. The other two subpixels – for blue and green – are deactivated when this happens. If, on the other hand, light penetrates through the red and green subpixel while the blue is deactivated, the colors combine to give a rich yellow. Fine-tuning the portions of the three primary colors in this manner produces millions of hues.

The liquid crystals fine-tune the blend of colors by twisting the plane of oscillation of the light waves. “This determines the brightness and color of the subpixels,” said Ger de Keyzer, in charge of applications engineering for color filter materials at BASF. “The liquid crystals change direction, and in that way alter their optical properties depending on the voltage applied.” They rotate the plane of oscillation of light waves to allow the light to pass through the second polarization filter. When an electrical field is applied, however, the crystals prevent some or all of the light from getting through.

To ensure that subpixels switch on and off the way they are supposed to, it is essential to prevent interferences from the color filter pigments. Any interferences resulting in scattering and depolarization of light will allow the light to pass uncontrolled through the filter. This contaminates the colors and compromises the contrast.

Smaller the better

“A good rule of thumb is: The smaller and more regular the crystals, the lower the scattering and the better the LCD image quality,” de Keyzer said. Researchers control the process mainly by managing the conditions in which pigment crystallization takes place. The underlying molecular structure is what determines which parts of the color spectrum are filtered out.

The organic red pigments that BASF manufactures consist mainly of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, and belong to the class of diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPPs). Blue and green pigments are phthalocyanine metal complex compounds. The raw product produced through chemical synthesis is mainly composed of irregular particles. They must then be brought into the ideal size and shape. This is done by a process called pigment finishing. Crystals that are too small are dissolved and precipitated onto the larger crystals. Crystals that are too large are broken into smaller pieces by a mechanical process until the balance is right. Dr. Roman Lenz, BASF lab team leader in charge of new color filter material synthesis, explained: “Our technology gives us color particles of 20 to 40 nanometers – small enough to reduce light scattering to an absolute minimum but large enough to provide a high degree of stability.” BASF has honed the technology almost to perfection with its products. The color particles in the latest generation of the Irgaphor® Red product suite are smaller than 0.00004 millimeters, and have double the contrast performance of their predecessors.

Tomorrow’s television screens will have to meet even higher expectations in terms of resolution and color purity. In anticipation of the new demands, Lenz and his colleagues are taking their lab experiments one step further. Their aim is to find new materials that will show colors in an even more natural light.

Source: STRUCTURE OF COLOR FILTERS/Toppan

Market Demands for Color Filters

Source: Toppan Japan

Source: STRUCTURE OF COLOR FILTERS/Toppan

Manufacturing Process of Color Filters

Source: Toppan Japan

Dyes and Pigments Used in Color Filters

  • Red Pigment/Dye
  • Green Pigment/Dye
  • Blue Pigment/Dye

High Transmittance, Low Scattering

Source: Past, present, and future of WCG technology in display

Dyes/Pigment Suppliers

  • DIC/Sun Chemicals. – Green and Blue
  • BASF – Red
  • Merck KGaA
  • Solvay
  • Clariant
  • Sumitomo Chemicals

Source: DIC Japan

Pigments for Color Filters Used in LCDs and OLED Displays(Functional Pigments)

Pigments for Color Filters Used in LCDs and OLED Displays(Functional Pigments)

Value Creation Global market-leading pigments that deliver outstanding brightness and picture quality

Color images on liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used in LCD televisions, computers and smartphones are produced using the three primary colors of light—red (R), green (G) and blue (B). These colors are created using pigments. LCDs produce images by transmitting light emitted from a backlight lamp through a color filter to which an RGB pattern has been applied. As a consequence, the pigments used in the color filter are crucial to picture quality.
With Japan’s shift to digital terrestrial television driving up demand for flatpanel LCD televisions and the popularity of smartphones increasing, in 2007 DIC launched the G58 series of green pigments, which achieved a remarkable increase in brightness. The series includes FASTOGEN GREEN A350, a green pigment characterized by outstanding brightness and contrast that ensures excellent picture quality even with little light from the backlight. In fiscal year 2014, DIC developed the G59 series of green pigments for wide color gamut color filters, which deliver superior brightness and color reproduction, making them suitable for use in filters for next-generation high-definition displays, including those for ultra-high-definition (UHD) televisions. DIC currently enjoys an 85%- plus share of the global market for green pigments for color filters, making its products the de facto standard. DIC also manufactures blue pigments for color filters. In 2012, the Company developed the A series, which boasts a superb balance between brightness and contrast. The optical properties of pigments in this series have earned high marks from smartphone manufacturers and boosted DIC’s share of the global market for blue pigments to approximately 50%.
DIC’s pigments for color filters, which satisfy the diverse performance requirements of displays used in LCD televisions, smartphones, tablets and notebook computers while at the same time adding value, have been adopted for use by many color filter manufacturers. In addition to improving picture quality, these pigments reduce energy consumption and, by extension, lower emissions of CO2. Having positioned pigments for color filters as a business that it expects to drive growth, DIC continues working to reinforce its development and product supply capabilities.

Applying technologies amassed through the production of printing inks to the development and expansion of functional pigments that have become the de facto standard worldwide

DIC first succeeded in developing offset printing inks in-house in 1915 and 10 years later began production of organic pigments for its own use. Over subsequent years, the Company amassed development and design capabilities, as well as production technologies, crucial to the manufacture of fine chemicals and in 1973 commercialized revolutionary high-performance, long-lasting nematic LCs, which were adopted by Sharp Corporation for use in the world’s first pocket calculator incorporating an LCD. DIC’s passion and development prowess are also evident in its pigments for color filters.
Large-screen LCD televisions are expected to deliver superbly realistic and accurate color reproduction. The small LCDs used in smartphones and other devices must be clear, easy to read and bright enough to ensure legibility even with less light. This is because reduced light requirements results in longer battery life. Increasing brightness requires making color filters thinner and more transparent, but this alone will not deliver vivid colors and resolution. With the question of how best to realize both high brightness and vivid colors on ongoing challenge for display manufacturers, DIC has responded by developing innovative pigments for this application.
Copper has traditionally been the central material used in green pigments. In developing its green pigments for color filters, DIC defied conventional wisdom by exploring the use of a different central material with the goal of further enhancing performance characteristics. Through a process of trial and error, the Company narrowed down the list of suitable materials from a wide range of candidates, eventually choosing zinc. DIC also significantly improved transparency by reducing the size of pigment particles, thereby achieving a dramatic increase in contrast, which ensures a bright, clear picture quality even with less light. The outcome of these efforts was the groundbreaking G58 series.

Picture quality is influenced significantly by the brightness and contrast of the pigment used in the color filter. (Left: High brightness and high contrast; Right: Low brightness and low contrast)

In the area of blue pigments for color filters, DIC also leveraged its superior molecular design capabilities to achieve outstanding tinting strength and precise particle size control. To develop the A series of blue pigments for color filters, the Company also employed specialty particle surface processing to ensure highly stable dispersion, realizing an excellent balance between brightness and contrast. Products in the A series currently dominate the market for blue pigments for color filters, delivering excellent optical properties that continue to earn solid marks from smartphone manufacturers.
DIC’s success in developing a steady stream of pioneering functional pigments is supported by the seamless integration of basic technologies amassed in various fields as a manufacturer of color materials, the crossbusiness R&D configuration of its Central Research Laboratories and production technologies that facilitate the mass production of products with performance characteristics realized in the laboratory.

KEY PERSON of DIC

We are making full use of the DIC Group’s global network at all stages, from the promotion of product strategies through to the expansion of sales channels.

Manager, Pigments Sales Department 2, Pigments Product Division Naoto Akiyama

The value chain extending from functional pigments through to color filters for LCDs encompasses manufacturers of pigments, pigment dispersions, resist inks, color filters and LCDs. In developing pigments for color filters, we gather information on the latest trends from LCD manufacturers, which we apply to the formulation of nextgeneration product strategies.
Production of pigment dispersions, color filters and LCDs is concentrated primarily in East Asia. Recent years have seen a particularly sharp increase in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), which is on the verge of overtaking the Republic of Korea (ROK) as No. 1 in terms of volume produced. We are making full use of the DIC Group’s global network by working closely with local Group companies to bolster the adoption of DIC pigments for color filters for use in LCDs.

Manager, Pigments Sales Department 2, Pigments Product Division Naoto Akiyama

Source: Emperor Chemicals China

Color filter (CF, COLOR FILTER) is one of the most important components of a color liquid crystal display, which directly determines the quality of the color image of the display. The rapid growth of LCD displays is supported by the strong demand for flat-panel color displays from notebooks (PCs, Personal Computers). The portable characteristics of the LCD, such as small outline size, thinness, lightness, high definition, and low power consumption, greatly meet the needs of notebook PCs. It is believed that in the multimedia age, TFT-LCD will have a huge advantage. Color filters are the key elements that make up a color image.

The color of the color filter may be dyed with a water-soluble dye, or a pigment dispersion method in which a pigment is colored. The pigment dispersion method includes the use of UV-curable phtoresists: colored pigments, UV-curable carrier resins, photo initiators, organic solvents, dispersants and other ingredients, among which organic pigments are colored The requirements for coloring properties of the agent, such as high vividness, specific primary color (RGB), three spectral hue, durability, chemical resistance and high transparency, etc., are mainly the selection of high-grade organic pigments through efficient dispersion Treatment process to obtain a pigment dispersion with a fine and stable particle size, and to prepare photoresist inks for color filters. Compared with the dyeing method, it has excellent moisture resistance, light fastness, and heat stability, but the pigment dispersion must be further improved Technology to prepare color filters with high transparency and pigment purity.

The color filter in the liquid crystal display adopts the principle of additive method, and uses blue, green and red organic pigments. Based on the spectral color and durability requirements of colorants, pigments for blue and green color photoresist inks are usually selected: phthalocyanine CI pigment blue 15: 1, pigment blue 15 :0, pigment blue 15: 3, Pigment Blue 15: 4, Pigment Blue 15: 6, and anthraquinone-based pigments such as CI Pigment Blue 60 and the like. Green tone C.I. Pigment Green 36.

In particular, the spectral absorption characteristics of CI Pigment Blue 15: 6 and CI Pigment Green 36 are well matched with the wavelengths and emission intensities of the blue, green, and red fluorescence emission spectra (fluorescence lamp for LCD backlight) in liquid crystal displays. In order to further improve the spectral characteristics, it is possible to adjust by adding a small amount of pigments of other colors, such as adding CI Pigment Violet 23 to obtain a stronger red light blue, and adding CI Pigment Yellow 150 to obtain a stronger yellow light green.

The selection of pigments should be based on obtaining a high-definition spectrum, eliminating unnecessary wavelength spectra, and retaining only the necessary color light. Selecting the organic pigment varieties required by the appendix, the color light purity and transmittance of the color filter can also be improved.

In order to adjust the spectral characteristics of the color filter, such as hue, tinting strength and contrast, for red, green and blue spectrum pigments, a second pigment component is often added to fight the color. For example, select some yellow with excellent durability, Purple organic pigment varieties, CI Pigment Yellow 138, CI Pigment Yellow 139, CI Pigment Yellow 150, CI Pigment Yellow 180, CI Pigment Purple 23 and other varieties.

Recommended organic pigments of three primary colors of red, blue and green are as follows:

Red organic pigments: The main varieties are high-grade organic pigments such as: C.I. Pigment Red 122, C.I. Pigment Red 177, C.I. Pigment Red 242, C.I. Pigment Red 254, and specific yellow organic pigment varieties are added if necessary.

Green organic pigments: C.I. Pigment Green 7, C.I. Pigment Green 36 is mainly selected, and specific yellow organic pigment varieties are matched, and specific yellow organic pigment varieties are added if necessary.

Blue organic pigments: C.I.Pigment Blue 5, C.I.Pigment Blue 15: 3, C.I.Pigment Blue 15: 6, C.I.Pigment Blue 60, etc., if necessary, specific yellow pigments and pigment violet 23.

Color Filter Less Technology

The liquid crystal display (LCD)is a thin, flat display device, which is made up of many number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is prized for its superb image quality, such as low-voltage power source, low manufacturing cost, compared with other display device including CRT, plasma, projection, etc. Today the LCD device has been widely used in portable electronics such as cell phones, personal computers, medium and also in large size television display.

The LCD device consists of two major components, TFT-LCD panel and Back Light Unit (BLU). As LCD device can not light actively itself, thus a form of illumination, back light unit is needed for its display. While one of the key parts in LCD panel is color filter. The color filter is a film frame consists of RGB primary colors, and its function is to generate three basic colors from the back light source for LCD display. As a whole, back light and color filter are the two vital components of the perfect color display for LCD device.

Traditionally people use the cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL)as the back light source for medium and large size LCD device. However CCFL has several disadvantages. For example, narrow color representation, low efficiency, complex structure, limited life, and the CCFL needs to be driven by a high-voltage inverter, consequently requires more space. Another disadvantage is the environmental problem for the mercury inside it. So people try to find an ideal back light module for LCD display.

Nowadays, the back light technology for LCD device towards the trend of using light emitting devices (LED). For its excellent advantages, the LCD device based on LED back light owns promoted display performance. As a new generation of solid-state light source, LED can produce very narrow spectrum, thus can generate a high color saturation, as a result it provides LCD device delivering a wider color gamut of above 100% of NTSC specification than the only 70% of CCFL back light. Moreover the LED only need DC power drive instead of a DC-AC inverter, so simplifies the back light structure. In a word, LED back light makes LCD obtain quite a higher display quality than the conventional CCFL back light. Despite of these advantages, there are also several challenges for LED back light technology currently, such as efficiency, stable ability, heat dissipation and cost etc. so people are trying to get some substantial breakthrough at the technical problems above to make LED back light as the key technology part for LCD device.

Color filter is another key component of the LCD device. As a sophisticated part, its fabrication takes an extremely complicated process, consequently the color filter occupies quite a large proportion of the production cost of the LCD devices. While a serious deficiency is its greatly influence on the light utilization rate. Generally speaking, only about 30% the amount of the light emitted from the back light can be delivered, while the rest of the light is wasted while passing the color filter.

For this, people prefer to designing a new form of LCD module which can get rid of the color filter, to promote the efficiency of light utilization. So an idea of Color Filter-Less (CFL) technology was put forward. The Field Sequential color LCD designed by Sumsang company is the first form of Color Filter-Less technology which is an idea of changing the space color mixing into the time color mixing.

Especially, we design a film frame which is patterned of red and green emitting phosphors, then make it be excited by blue light from a blue LED panel we fabricated. For its special emitting mechanism, this phosphor film can generate red and green emissions respectively. Meanwhile not all the blue light is absorbed by the phosphors, the remnant blue light can pass the film frame, therefore we can achieve a panel frame on which the RGB colors mixed together, thus to replace of the color filter in LCD device.

Backlighting

  • CCFL Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp
  • LED
    • RGB LED Backlighting
    • An Edge backlight with white LEDs
    • A flat backlight based on white LEDs

Source: TFTCentral.co.UK

Recent Technological Innovations

  • LCD with LED Backlighting
  • Mini LED
  • Micro LED
  • LCD with Quantum Dot QDEF
  • Wide Color Gamut WCG
  • Color Filter Less LCD
  • Vertically Stacked OLED Layers (SOLED)
  • Quantum Dot Color Filter QDCF
  • RGBW LED 4 colors
  • Bright Dyes and Pigments
  • Color Filters using Structural Colors
  • Transreflective Displays
  • Reflective Displays
  • Blue LED plus Red Green Color Filter
  • Flexible displays -bendable, rollable, fixed, curved, foldable
  • Touch Screens
  • Transparent Displays

Vertically Stacked RGB OLED layers (SOLED)

Source: Three-terminal RGB full-color OLED pixels for ultrahigh density displays

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-27976-z

TFT based Vertically stacked OLEDs

Source: Thin-film transistor-driven vertically stacked full-color organic light-emitting diodes for high-resolution active-matrix displays

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264127/

Supply Chain for TFT-LCD Manufacturing

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

Source: https://www.lighting.philips.com/main/support/support/faqs/white-light-and-colour/what-are-the-different-types-of-rgb-leds

What are the different types of RGB LEDs?

The following are the different types of RGB LEDs:

  • R/G/B/W – Has an additional white LED. This is often used where you need a pure white as well other combined colors.
  • RGB / 3 in 1 LED – Uses a red, a blue and a green LED chip are mounted within a common light engine and focused through a lens to produce a more uniform hue across the beam of light.
  • RGBW / 4 in 1 LED – similar to the RGB LED but with a warm white LED integrated in the light engine to offer more color tones.
  • RGBA – Has an additional amber LED chip.

White vs RGB LEDs

White LED’s are actually blue leds with a yellow phosphor, and thus creating an white impression. This technique allows a colour gamut slightly wider than sRGB, but not very “colourfull”. RGB leds consist of 3 individual colour leds, red, green and blue. These allow an enourmous colour gamut that covers most standards like AdobeRGB and NTSC. Panels with RGB LED’s are much more expensive, as they need much more calibration logic. It is very hard to tame extreme gamut for say sRGB use, and the ballance of the colours is constantly monitored. RGB LED displays are doing twice the price of WLED’s with ease.

Composition of OLED Display

  • RGB OLED
  • White OLED

Source: Past, present, and future of WCG technology in display

OLED Technologies

  • Shadow Mask Patterning Method
  • Color Filter Method

Source: https://global.pioneer/en/corp/group/tohokupioneer/mainbusinesses/oled/introduction/

Color Patterning Technologies

Ink Jet and Photolithography are methods of making color filters.

Source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781119187493.ch5

This chapter discusses the color patterning technologies, which gives major contribution to cost and productivity. The technologies discussed include shadow mask patterning, white‐color filter method, laser‐induced thermal imaging method, radiation‐induced sublimation transfer method, and dual‐plate OLED display method. Low material utilization can bring high cost, so it is very critical to suppress material consumption during OLED display manufacturing. To address this, various high‐material‐utilization next‐generation OLED manufacturing processes, such as the vapor injection source technology (VIST) method, hot‐wall method, and organic vapor‐phase deposition (OVPD) have been proposed and are discussed in the chapter.

Source: https://www.findlight.net/blog/2020/01/22/oled-production-composition-and-color-patterning-techniques/

OLED Production: Composition and Color Patterning Techniques

Last updated on January 22, 2020

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are most famously known for their use in foldable smart phone displays. From the Samsung Galaxy Fold to the Huawei Mate X (2019), these devices offer huge screens that can fold down to the size of a more traditional smartphone screen. This revolutionary new technology is made possible by the properties and composition of OLED screens. In traditional Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, a glass pane covers the actual liquid crystal display that emits the light. On the other hand, OLED screens have the light emitting technology already built into them. Thus, when you touch interact with an OLED device, you are touching the actual display too. OLED screens are often made of a type of plastic, which allows for flexibility and folding screens. These devices also require OLED color patterning techniques in order to integrate color into the display devices, which we will describe further in the upcoming sections.

Intro to OLED Composition

Now, we will brief on the composition and integration of OLED technology in this plastic screen. OLEDs are made of two or three organic layers sandwiched between two electrodes (cathode and anode) on top of a substrate layer. The organic layers and electrodes emit light in response to an electric current. One of the most difficult processes in manufacturing these OLEDs is attaching the organic layers to the substrate. For example, organic vapor phase deposition and inkjet printing are both efficient methods that can reduce the cost of producing OLED displays.OLED cell structure diagram

OLED components include organic layers that are made of organic molecules or polymers. This diagram is a two (organic) layer model.
Courtesy of HowStuffWorks.

Another big part of OLED manufacturing is the color patterning step, which allows the OLED device to display color. There are various methods in use for OLED color patterning, including photolithography. Lithography is commonly used for semiconductors and TFTs, but presents challenges for OLEDs. This is due to the high temperature and humid conditions required for attaching OLED layers together. In this article we will explore three different color patterning technologies that have arisen for more efficient and accurate OLED optical manufacturing.

OLED Color Patterning and Masking Techniques

First, we have the “Shadow Mask Patterning Method” consists of placing red, green, and blue light emitting layers in a pattern in each pixel of the OLED device. Further, this has the advantage that each subpixel gets appointed a single, distinct color which produces great clarity of images. Unlike the other methods, there are no outer color filters required to produce the images. Thus, this method saves energy and is one of the most efficient. However, utilizing shadow masks can be an error filled process because the RBG subpixel pattern is outlined with a physical mask a.k.a stencil. We show an example of an accuracy error and its effects in the images below.Shadow RBG mask error

Error produced in processing an OLED with a red pixel mask. We can see that the spacing in the pattern is off around the red arrow. Courtesy of Tsujimura.OLED screen color variation

The resulting color variation in OLED screen due to shadow mask deformation. shown above. Courtesy of Tsujimura.

Second, we have the “Color Filter Method” a.k.a. “White+Color Filter Patterning” method. In this method, the OLED itself is also designed and manufactured with all three color elements in each pixel. However, different from the “Shadow Mask Patterning” method, these OLEDs only produce white light. Next, additional red, green, and blue color filters are utilized to match the desired color output. Accordingly, this process allows for a dynamic range of colors to be emitted with different levels of filtering. However, a big consequence of using color filters is that the purity of the image may be compromised due to interactions of the OLED light and physical color filters. Equally important is the high power consumption this method eats up. Because the color filters absorb most of the light intensity, the process requires a constant, powerful back light.OLED white + color filter method

Schematic diagram of White+Color filter patterning method for OLEDs. Courtesy of Tsujimura.

Rising OLED Color Patterning Techniques: Electron Beams

In 2016, a new approach for OLED color patterning was developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics. Researchers utilized electron beam technology to color pattern the organic layers in the OLED. Because this process acted on the micro-scale, it produced extremely accurate, high-resolution results, even with the help of color filters. Further, it also allowed for complex patterns and high-definition (HD) grayscale images. Since then, this technology has been developed and advanced to that of full-color working OLED displays, without the use of external filters.

Now, we will discuss an overview about how the electron beam process works. First, an OLED is produced containing all three RGB organic emitting layers. Akin to the previously mentioned processes, this OLED is designed to produce only white light. Next, a thermal electron beam is directed on the white emitting OLED. The electron beam excites certain molecules in the organic layer of the OLED, which causes the molecules or atoms to separate and become structured. Consequently, the thickness of different areas in the OLED organic layer changes and pixels with distinct colors (RGB) are formed. Moreover, the electron beam patterning process allows for microstructuring into color pixels without perturbing the other substrate and electrode layers.OLED color patterning probe station

Probe station with patterned OLEDs in the clean room.
Courtesy of Fraunhofer FEP.

Conclusion

As more AMOLED, and flexible displays enter the market, OLED technology will continue to become more popular and widespread. One of the most important considerations for OLED availability in mass market, is in screen color production. Rising techniques such as the Electron Beam Patterning method can produce high quality, low cost, and energy efficiency. Another key consideration in OLED screen production is low material consumption. Further rising techniques in research that allow for low material costs include the vapor injection source technology (VIST) method, hot‐wall method, and organic vapor‐phase deposition (OVPD) [1].

This article is made possible by Gentec-EO, the market leader in the manufacture of light detection devices.

Further Reading

[1] https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781119187493.ch5

Supply Chains of OLED Displays

Cover Glass

  • Corning Glass
  • Samsung Corning Advanced Glass

TFT Backplane

  • Samsung UBE Materials
  • Sumitomo Chemicals

Frontplane

  • Universal Display Corporation UDC USA

Encapsulation

  • Samsung SDI for Flex OLED
  • KYORITSU CHEMICAL Japan

IC Driver

  • Samsung Semiconductors
  • Synaptics USA

Global Supply Chains for OLED Displays

Silica Sand

  1. Sibelico (Belgium)
  2. US Silica (US)
  3. Emerge Energy (US)
  4. Badger Mining (US)
  5. Wuxi Quechen Silicon Chemical Co. (China)

Display Glass

  1. Corning (US)
  2. Asahi Glass (Japan)
  3. Nippon Electric Glass (Japan)

IC Driver

  1. Samsung (South Korea)
  2. Novatek (Taiwan)
  3. Himax (Taiwan)
  4. Silicon Works (South Korea)
  5. Synaptics (US)

OLED Materials

  1. UDC (US)
  2. Dow DuPont (US)
  3. Merck (US)
  4. Idemitsu Kosan (Japan)
  5. LG Chem (South Korea)

QLED, QDLED, QDOLED, Mini-LED, Micro-LED: What is in the name?

Source: https://www.displayninja.com/mini-led-vs-microled/

Micro LED and Mini LED

MicroLED is the next generation of display technology. Just like OLED, it produces its own light and therefore is capable of infinite contrast ratio. However, since it doesn’t use organic materials, it won’t deteriorate or burn-in over time.

What’s more, MicroLED displays will be brighter than OLED displays, and you will be able to customize their size, aspect ratio, and resolution (modular displays).

Mini-LED, on the other hand, improves on the existing LCDs by replacing their LED backlights with mini-LED backlights, which consist of more efficient and numerous light-emitting diodes that will increase contrast ratio, uniformity, response time, etc.

Although similar in name, microLED and mini-LED technologies are fundamentally diverse.

What is MicroLED?

MicroLED is the leading-edge display technology that is yet to be adjusted to the consumer market; in simpler terms, it’s the display technology of the not-so-distant future.

Similarly to OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology, MicroLED doesn’t rely on a backlight to produce light. Instead, it uses self-emissive microscopic LEDs, which allow for infinite contrast ratio, just like on OLED displays.

However, unlike OLED, MicroLED technology has no organic materials, so it won’t degrade over time, and you won’t have to worry about image burn-in.

Further, MicroLED displays are capable of higher luminance emission in comparison to OLEDs, which will allow for better details in highlights of the picture for a superior HDR (High Dynamic Range) viewing experience.

Lastly, they can have a unique modular characteristic that would allow you to customize the display’s screen size, resolution, and aspect ratio to your liking by arranging and connecting more panels together.Shop Related Products

What is Mini-LED?

Mini-LED technology improves on the existing LCDs.

It replaces their LED backlights with Mini-LED backlights, which consist of more LEDs that can offer a higher contrast ratio, better uniformity, faster response times, etc.

Mini-LED displays will be cheaper than OLEDs, but not better than them. So, Mini-LED is sort of a display technology in-between the standard LED-backlight LCDs and OLED displays.

The ASUS PG27UQX will feature 2,304 mini LEDs divided into 576 zones (4 LEDs per zone), whereas the original model has 384 zones for local dimming in comparison.

This will significantly alleviate one of the main issues of the PG27UQ, which is image bloom/halo.

When one zone is fully illuminated, but the zones surrounding it are dim, a certain amount of light will bleed from the lit zone to the dim zones, which generates the halo/bloom effect.

Since the PG27UQX has more zones, this issue will be decreased by ~33%. At the same time, the monitor will consume 7% less power and be (relatively) only slightly pricier than the PG27UQ model.

Source: https://www.radiantvisionsystems.com/blog/display-landscape-mini-and-microleds?gclid=EAIaIQobChMItvP3pdvR7gIVqf_ICh1jxwFJEAMYASAAEgL5PPD_BwE

The Display Landscape of Mini- and Micro-LEDs

First there was LED (light emitting diode) display technology, commercialized in 1994. OLED (organic LED) products came on the market in 1997. Then microLEDs began to emerge in 2010. And now we’ve been hearing about a new display technology category: miniLEDs, poised to enter the market in 2019.1

As the name would imply, a miniLED is small—but not as small as a microLED (µLED). While there are no official definitions, microLEDs are typically less than 50 micrometers (µm) square, with most falling in the 3–15 µm size range. Generally, the term miniLED (sometimes also called “sub-millimeter light emitting diodes”) refers to LEDs that are roughly 100 µm square (0.1 mm square), although “mini” can also simply describe any LED between micro and traditional size.

LED landscape as of 2018. Image Source: “MiniLED for Display Applications: LCD and Digital Signage” report by Yole Développement, October 2018.

Though they share many similarities, miniLEDs and microLEDs are also different in some key ways. MicroLEDs are not just shrunken versions of their miniLED sisters. The two LED types have different performance and structures. LEDinside characterized the difference as follows: “Micro LED is a new-generation display technology, a miniaturized LED with matrix. In simple terms, the LED backlight is thinner, miniaturized, and arrayed, with the LED unit smaller than 100 micrometers. Each pixel is individually addressed and driven to emit light (self-emitting), just like OLED…Mini LED is a transitional technology between traditional LED and Micro LED, and is an improved version of traditional LED backlight.”2

Additionally, a driving factor in the recent emergence of miniLEDs is that they are less expensive to produce, largely because current fabrication facilities can more quickly be switched over to miniLED production. MiniLEDs are essentially a variation of already mature LED technology.

MicroLED Fabrication Challenges

MicroLEDs are typically made from Gallium-nitride-based LED materials, which create brighter displays (many times brighter than OLED) with much greater efficiency than traditional LEDs. This makes them attractive for applications that need both brightness and efficiency such as smart watches, and particularly for head-up displays (HUDs) and augmented reality systems that are likely to be viewed against ambient light backgrounds

OLED screen manufacturing has been somewhat costly to date, limiting its adoption primarily to smaller screen sizes like smart phones. Likewise, producing an entire television screen out of microLED chips has so far proven to be challenging. MicroLEDs require new assembly technologies, die structure, and manufacturing infrastructure. For commercialization, fabricators must find methods that yield high quality with microscopic accuracy while also achieving mass-production speeds. For starters, a miniLED backlight screen may be made up of thousands of individual miniLED units; a microLED screen is composed of millions of tiny LEDs.

To fabricate a display, each individual microLED must be transferred to a backplane that holds the array of units in place. The transfer equipment used to place microLED units is required to have a high degree of precision, with placement accurate to within +/- 1.5 µm. Existing pick & place LED assembly equipment can only achieve +/- 34 µm accuracy (multi-chip per transfer). Flip chip bonders typically feature accuracy of +/-1.5 µm—but only for a single unit at a time. Both of these traditional LED transfer methods are not accurate enough for mass production of microLEDs. 

New transfer solutions are under development, including fluid assembly, laser transfer, and roller transfer. Researchers are also working to resolve the challenges associated with integrating compound semiconductor microLEDs with silicon-based integrated circuit devices that have very different material properties and fabrication processes. Traditional chip bonding and wafer bonding processes don’t provide efficient mass transfer for microLED, so various thin-film-transfer technologies are being explored.

Despite Samsung’s introduction of a prototype 75-inch microLED television at the recent CES show (below), microLED products are not expected to reach the general market until 2021.3

Han Jong-hee, president of Samsung Electronics’s video display business, introduces a new 75-inch microLED TV in Las Vegas on January 6, 2019. Photo Source: Business Korea

MiniLED Advantages

By contrast, miniLED chips do not present similar production complications. Because they are just smaller versions of traditional LEDs, they can be manufactured in existing fabrication facilities with minimal reconfiguration. This ease means miniLED production is already underway and devices will reach the market this year for applications in gaming displays and signage, followed by backlight products such as smartphones, TVs, virtual reality devices, and automotive displays.

For example, miniLEDs can be used to upgrade existing LCD displays with “ultra-thin, multi-zone local dimming backlight units (BLU) that enable form factors and contrast performance”4 that rival the quality of OLED displays. MiniLEDs also have an advantage as a cost-effective solution for narrow-pixel-pitch LED direct-view displays such as indoor and outdoor digital signage applications.

MiniLED backlight television from Chinese manufacturer TLC displayed at CES 2019. Photo Source: FlatpanelsHD.

 MicroLEDs do offer high luminous efficiency, brightness, contrast, reliability and a short response time, but they are likely to be priced at more than three times traditional LED screens during initial the initial stages of mass production. MiniLEDs, while they perform more like traditional LEDs, do have advantages when it comes to HDR and notched or curved display designs, and could launch at just 20% above standard LCD panel prices.5 According to PCWorld, “at this stage, the biggest difference between microLED and miniLED for consumers is that microLED is likely to make it to market as a fully-fledged next-generation display technology of its own while miniLED is likely to mostly be used by manufacturers to enhance existing display technologies.”6

Together, microLEDs and miniLEDs are expected to have roughly equal shares of a $1.3 billion market by 2022.7

Quality Assurance for All LED Types

Whether LED or OLED, micro- or mini-, LED display products of all types are jostling for room in a highly competitive marketplace, where customers expect a perfect viewing experience right out of the box. Defects, variations in color or brightness, and other irregularities can quickly deflate buyer satisfaction,  hurt brand reputation, and erode market share.

To ensure the absolute quality of OLED- and LED-based devices, Radiant’s ProMetric® Imaging Photometers and Colorimeters measure display performance and uniformity down to the pixel and subpixel level, matching the acuity and discernment of human visual perception.

CITATIONS:

  1. YiningChen, “Mini LED Applications to be Launched in 2019 and Micro LED Displays in 2021.” LEDinside, October 19, 2018.  LINK
  2. Evangeline H, “Difference between Micro LED and Mini LED.” LEDinside,May 8, 2018. LINK
  3. YiningChen, “Mini LED Applications to be Launched in 2019 and Micro LED Displays in 2021.” LEDinside, October 19, 2018.  LINK
  4. “MiniLED for Display Applications: LCD and Digital Signage” report by Yole Développement, October 2018, as reported in “Mini-LED adoption driven by high-end LCD displays and narrow-pixel-pitch LED direct-view digital signage”. Semiconductor Today, November 28, 2018. LINK
  5. Evangeline H, “Difference between Micro LED and Mini LED.” LEDinside,May 8, 2018. LINK
  6. Halliday, F. “MicroLED vs Mini-LED: What’s the difference?” PCWorld, September 11, 2018. LINK
  7. YiningChen, “Micro LED & Mini LED Market Expects Explosive Business Opportunities, with an Estimated market Value of $1.38 Billion by 2022”. LEDinside (a division of market research company TrendForce), June 20, 2018. LINK

LED TV, QLED TV with QDEF-CF, and QLED TV with QD-CF

Source: Environmentally friendly quantum-dot color filters for ultra-high-definition liquid crystal displays

Source: Samsung Displays – Public Information Display

QLED – Quantum Dot LED

QLED stands for Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode, also referred to as quantum dot-enhanced LCD screen. While similar in working principle to conventional LCDs, QLEDs are using the properties of quantum dot particles to advance color purity and improve display efficiency. Quantum dots are integrated with the backlight system of the LCD screen, most commonly with the help of Quantum Dot Enhancement Film (QDEF) that takes place of the diffuser film. Blue LEDs illuminate the film, and quantum dots output the appropriate color, based on their size.

OLED – Organic LED

OLED stands for Organic Light-Emitting Diode, which is self-emitting. Not all OLEDs are using the same tech though. The OLED technology used in phone screens is RGB-OLED, which is completely different from the White OLED (also referred to as W-OLED) used in TVs and large format displays.

RGB-OLED vs. White OLED

RGB-OLEDs use individual sub-pixels emitting red, green, and blue light. RGB-OLEDs yield excellent color reproduction but are unfit for performance requirements of large format displays. With the evolution of materials and a difference in use cases comparing to TVs, RGB-OLED is a preferred technology for the smartphone use.

White OLEDs, in turn, emit white light, which then is passed through a color filter to generate red, green, and blue—similar to how LCDs function. Modern W-OLED color filters use RGBW (red, green, blue, white) structure, adding an additional white sub-pixel to the standard RGB to improve on the power efficiency, enhance brightness, and to mitigate issues with the OLED burn-in. Although having more complex circuit requirements than LCDs (emission is current-driven rather than voltage-driven), W-OLEDs can be utilized for large-scale displays.

QD-OLED vs OLED vs QLED vs Mini LED TVs: What’s the difference?

Deepak SinghFebruary 2, 2021

Quantum Dot OLED TVs are expected to finally go real in 2021. As the name suggests, these TV displays will use Quantum Dot technology to enhance and improve the existing OLED panels. 

How exactly are QD-OLED displays different from current OLED display panels manufactured by LG Displays and from Samsungs existing QLED TVs? The next year will also see a surge in mini LED TVs which will be priced a little below OLED TVs. So let’s compare these different TV technologies to better understand which one is better and why. 

OLED on TVs and OLED on Phones are not the same 

To understand the difference between these display technologies and why they exist, it must first be cleared that the OLED displays on TVs are not the same as OLED displays on phones. 

On your phones, the OLED panels have red, green, and blue subpixels that are self-emissive or emit their own red, green, and blue colors – and can be individually powered on or powered off. 

Making similar OLED panels for large TVs with individual Red, Green and Blue subpixels, however, poses several manufacturing and longevity challenges. In fact, only one such TV was ever launched – the Samsung KE55S9C 55-inch UHD OLED- which was introduced in 2013. 

Samsung KE55S9C 55-inch UHD OLED TV with true RGB colors

The technology wasn’t scalable for larger resolution or bigger displays and thus Samsung shifted to Quantum Dots based QLED technology for its premium TVs. 

Meanwhile, LG Displays developed OLED for TVs where all subpixels are white and not RGB.

The white OLED light is achieved by using Blue and Yellow substrate. Different colors for four sub-pixels (R, G, B, W) are achieved by using a RGBW color filter layer over the essentially white OLED subpixels.  This works because a single color OLED panel is easier to manufacture and decays uniformly – which is to say that your TV will age to be less bright but the backplane light shall still remain uniformly blue or uniformly yellow. 

The color filter film used in front of OLED subpixels, however, is not an ideal solution. The filters work by blocking particular colors of light thus reducing brightness, and as the Blue OLED material decays over time, Red, Green, and Blue colors are affected differentially (the decay is not the same for all three colors resulting in color shifts, burn-in and other issues). 

QD OLED or Quantum Dot OLED TVs aim to fix these issues by using a quantum dots layer for color conversion instead of a color filter.

Also Read: Best 4K TVs to buy in India 

What are Quantum Dots and why they are better than color filters?

Quantum dots are small nanocrystals. When a high-energy light photon strikes quantum dots, they absorb it and emit a new photon. The color of this emitted photon depends on the size of the quantum dot – so manufacturers have to use the same material (just different sizes) for all colors, which makes manufacturing simpler and helps with uniform aging. 

Source: Nanosys

In TVs, Quantum Dots are excited by higher energy or lower wavelength light than the emission color of the dot. To excite green and red color quantum dots, TV manufacturers thus use blue light and for blue subpixels, they let the blue light pass through as-is.

The same result can perhaps be obtained by using blue, red and green quantum dots and exciting them using ultraviolet light.  However, Blue quantum dots are not as easy to develop as green and red (Samsung does have blue Quantum dot technology, but it is not yet being used commercially). 

Quantum dots act as an excellent color converter and have almost 100 percent quantum efficiency. Thus unlike color filters, the Quantum dots layer doesn’t block lights of particular wavelengths or colors and let the entire luminance pass through.

QD-OLED vs OLED: Why QD-OLED displays are better

QD-OLED TV Layers (source: Nanosys)
OLED TV layers

As mentioned above, color conversion in QD-OLED displays is done by quantum dots that are placed or patterned at a sub-pixel level over Blue OLEDs. 

So, we have a blue emissive layer in the backplane where all pixels are blue. And then green and red quantum dot materials are printed on pixels that are needed to be green or red. 

White OLED vs QD -OLED (Source: Nanosys)

Colors are converted on red sub-pixels by red quantum dots and green sub-pixel by green quantum dots. Using this technology, the end result is similar to what you’d get with individual Red, Green, and Blue sub-pixels as with AMOLED displays on phones. 

QD-OLED vs OLED color gamut

Quantum Dots as color converters are highly efficient and way better than color filters that can block up to 60% light. 

Another benefit of this implementation over color filter is that as the Blue OLED lights get dimmer with time, the red and green light getting out of the quantum dots will dim proportionally. 

So, over the lifetime of your TV, its display may get less bright but colors shall remain mostly unaffected. The use of Quantum dot also helps with wider color gamuts with fewer image artifacts, better brightness, and better HDR. 

OLED TVs today use LG Display panels that have a white pixel along with red, green, and blue sub-pixels (and are also referred to as White OLED). This is used for enhancing brightness but reduces color vibrance. Upcoming QD-OLED panels will, in a way, re-instate RGB OLED with deeper, brighter, and more vibrant colors. 

OLED technology is known to have problems with aging, but the current crop of OLED TVs handle this remarkably well. There are negligent chances that users will face issues like OLED burn-ins over a life span of 5 to 8 years. 

Disadvantages of QD-OLED Displays

We discussed a few theoretical advantages of QD OLED above and let’s now talk about some disadvantages of the technology. 

Samsung is currently developing QD OLED panels that we will see in the first wave of QD OLED televisions and they won’t be perfect.

One problem is that Quantum dots on the QD OLED TVs get excited by UV light falling on the TV from the outside. Secondly, Quantum Dot color conversion materials don’t always capture the entire blue light that is used to excite them and some of it may bleed into Red and Green subpixels. 

To counter these problems, Samsung Displays is likely to use some sort of color filter which is likely to be eliminated as we progress to second or third-generation QD-OLED panels. It remains to be seen how much brightness penalty is incurred meanwhile. 

QLED vs QD-OLED: What’s different?
QLED layers

Now that we have discussed how Quantum dots are enhancing existing OLED TVs, you might be wondering how the Quantum Dot technology is implemented on existing Samsung QLED TVs.

Unlike QD-OLED TVs, QLED TVs use Quantum dots as a backplane technology behind the LCD. 

A QLED TV works just like LCD TVs, but a Quantum Dot Enhancement Film( QDEF) is used in front of the Blue LED backlight to convert portions of the blue light to Red and Green in order to get pure White light. This helps enhance brightness and achieve a wider color gamut for better HDR performance.

QLED TVs are better at avoiding the backlight bleed into the display colors as compared to conventional LED or mini LED TVs. Samsung’s high-end QLED models can also get brighter than TV OLED displays. Color conversion is still done using a color filter in front of the LCD module. 

And what about Mini LEDs?

LED TVs don’t have self-emissive pixels and it’s not possible to turn off individual pixels. The LCD substrate merely blocks the white light from the backlight to portray blacks, resulting in slightly greyish blacks more noticeable in dark ambiance. The contrast and black level can however be improved by turning off a portion or zone of the backlight. 

That’s where mini LED TVs come in. These TVs have an array of mini LEDs behind the screen which can be individually turned off for a section of the screen. These mini LEDs don’t map pixels one to one, but having more zones helps with better local dimming control and thus enhances quality over conventional edge-lit LED displays. 

Manufacturers are working on adding quantum dot enhancements to microLED backlighting as well (similar to QD enhancements in QLED TVs). 

When will we see QD OLED TVs? 

Samsung Displays is manufacturing QD-OLED displays but Samsung Electronics isn’t keen on adopting the technology. That’s because Samsung has been marketing QLED as superior to OLED panels for years and transitioning back to OLED or OLED-based TVs will make them lose face. 

QD OLED panels are however being provided to a number of other manufacturers including Sony and we will most probably see QD-OLED TVs in 2021.

QD-BOLED

Source: Inkjet printed uniform quantum dots as color conversion layers for full-color OLED displays

Quantum dots (QDs) have shown great potential for next generation displays owing to their fascinating optoelectronic characteristics. In this work, we present a novel full-color display based on blue organic light emitting diodes (BOLEDs) and patterned red and green QD color conversion layers (CCLs). To enable efficient blue-to-green or blue-to-red photoconversion, micrometer-thick QD films with a uniform surface morphology are obtained by utilizing UV-induced polymerization. The uniform QD layers are directly inkjet printed on red and green color filters to further eliminate the residual blue emissions. Based on this QD-BOLED architecture, a 6.6-inch full-color display with 95% Broadcasting Service Television 2020 (BT.2020) color gamut and wide viewing-angles is successfully demonstrated. The inkjet printing method introduced in this work provides a cost-effective way to extend the applications of QDs for full-color displays.

My Related Posts

Color Science of Gem Stones

Nature’s Fantastical Palette: Color From Structure

Optics of Metallic and Pearlescent Colors

Color Change: In Biology and Smart Pigments Technology

Color and Imaging in Digital Video and Cinema

Digital Color and Imaging

On Luminescence: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Bioluminescence

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Key Sources of Research

Light responsive liquid crystal soft matters: structures, properties, and applications

Dae-Yoon Kim & Kwang-Un Jeong

Dae-Yoon Kim & Kwang-Un Jeong (2019)

Liquid Crystals Today, 28:2, 34-45, DOI: 10.1080/1358314X.2019.1653588

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1358314X.2019.1653588?needAccess=true

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY APPLICATIONS: Past, Present & Future

Joseph A Castellano PhD

Liquid Crystals Today, 1:1, 4-6, DOI: 10.1080/13583149108628568

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13583149108628568?needAccess=true

The fiftieth anniversary of the liquid crystal display 

J. Cliff Jones

Liquid Crystals Today, 27:3, 44-70, DOI: 10.1080/1358314X.2018.1529129

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1358314X.2018.1529129?needAccess=true

Advanced liquid crystal displays with supreme image qualities

Haiwei Chen & Shin-Tson Wu

Liquid Crystals Today, 28:1, 4-11, DOI: 10.1080/1358314X.2019.1625138

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1358314X.2019.1625138?needAccess=true

Plenary Lecture. Some pictures of the history of liquid crystals

Hans Kelker  & Peter M. Knoll Pages 19-42 | Published online: 24 Sep 2006

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02678298908026350?src=recsys

Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives

Hai-Wei Chen1, Jiun-Haw Lee2, Bo-Yen Lin2, Stanley Chen3 and Shin-Tson Wu1

Light: Science & Applications (2018) 7, 17168; doi:10.1038/lsa.2017.168

https://www.nature.com/articles/lsa2017168.pdf?origin=ppub

Going beyond the limit of an LCD’s color gamut 

Hai-Wei Chen1, Rui-Dong Zhu1, Juan He1, Wei Duan2, Wei Hu2, Yan-Qing Lu2, Ming-Chun Li3, Seok-Lyul Lee3, Ya-Jie Dong1,4 and Shin-Tson Wu1

Light: Science & Applications (2017) 6, e17043; doi:10.1038/lsa.2017.43

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Going-beyond-the-limit-of-an-LCD’s-color-gamut-Chen-Zhu/523719d14139b9a9e8ada8c1599ac9aa8f67c8ec

An overview about monitors colors rendering

January 2010

TOADERE FLORIN, NIKOS E. MASTORAKIS

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems 9(1)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228666667_An_overview_about_monitors_colors_rendering

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.664.9593&rep=rep1&type=pdf

The History of Liquid-Crystal Displays

HIROHISA KAWAMOTO, FELLOW, IEEE

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.998.7087&rep=rep1&type=pdf

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/LCD-liquid-crystal-display

What is QLED? Samsung’s quantum dot TV tech explained

By Henry St Leger 

https://www.techradar.com/news/samsung-qled-samsungs-latest-television-acronym-explained

OLED vs QLED: the premium TV panel technologies compared

By Henry St Leger

https://www.techradar.com/news/oled-vs-qled

Liquid Crystals Displays

SCIFUN

http://www.scifun.org/chemweek/LCD/LCDs2019.html

The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Technology Turns 50

https://www.corning.com/worldwide/en/innovation/materials-science/glass/liquid-crystal-display-turns-50.html

Color Reproduction Characteristics of Liquid Crystal Display Panels and New Compensation Methods for Them

Yukio Okano* Nozomu Shiotani*

http://cgi.global.sharp/corporate/info/rd/tj3/pdf/9.pdf

COLOR IN DISPLAYS

WOO SUB SHIM

TC 706 COLOR SCIENCE

ADVISOR: DR. RENZO SHAMEY

OCTOBER 28 2008

Color science of nanocrystal quantum dots for lighting and displays

De Gruyter | 2013

https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/nanoph-2012-0031/html

Structural Colors for Display and E-paper Applications

L. Jay Guo

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/107993/sdtp00205.pdf;jsessionid=4ECB722ACF8896CFECA475935B750BD0?sequence=1

The Liquid Crystal Display Story

50 Years of Liquid Crystal R&D that lead The Way to the Future

Editors: Koide, Naoyuki (Ed.)

Book 2014

https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9784431548584

Chemistry On Display

Katherine Bourzac, contributor to C&EN

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4827559/

How Liquid Crystal Displays Work in an eWriter

By Monica Kanojia May 04, 2012

https://www.livescience.com/20104-boogie-board-ewriter-nsf-bts.html

Liquid Crystalline materials used in LCD display

https://madhavuniversity.edu.in/liquid-crystalline-materials.html

Electrophoretic liquid crystal displays: How far are we?

Susanne Klein

HP Laboratories HPL-2013-23

Who will win the future of display technologies?

By Hepeng Jia

National Science Review

5: 427–431, 2018 doi: 10.1093/nsr/nwy050

Advance access publication 23 April 2018

ENERGY EFFICIENT LED DISPLAYS


John Mani Kumar Jupalli

MS Thesis

Univ of Nevada 2010

From the theory of liquid crystals to LCD-displays

Nobel Price in Physics 1991: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

Alexander Kleinsorge FHI Berlin, Dec. 7th 2004

Quantum Dot Display Technology and Comparison with OLED Display Technology

Askari Mohammad Bagher

Visual gamma correction for LCD displays

Kaida Xiao a,⇑, Chenyang Fu a, Dimosthenis Karatzas b, Sophie Wuerger a

Displays 32 (2011) 17–23

http://www.cvc.uab.es/people/dimos/papers/DISPLAYS2011_Xiao.pdf

Mini-LED, Micro-LED and OLED displays: present status and future perspectives

December 2020

Light: Science & Applications 9(1)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342274780_Mini-LED_Micro-LED_and_OLED_displays_present_status_and_future_perspectives

Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327470132_Mini-LED_and_Micro-LED_Promising_Candidates_for_the_Next_Generation_Display_Technology

Mini-LED, Micro-LED and OLED displays: present status and future perspectives

Yuge Huang, En-Lin Hsiang, Ming-Yang Deng & Shin-Tson Wu

Light: Science & Applications

volume 9, Article number: 105 (2020)

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41377-020-0341-9

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Mini-LED%2C-Micro-LED-and-OLED-displays%3A-present-and-Huang-Hsiang/c6178d60899dc59e927e0c2e3f4336af6aecbe0f

Prospects and challenges of mini‐LED and micro‐LED displays

Yuge Huang Guanjun Tan SID
Fangwang Gou Ming‐Chun Li Seok‐Lyul Lee Shin‐Tson Wu

The Display Landscape of Mini- and MicroLEDs

Mon, January 21, 2019

https://www.radiantvisionsystems.com/blog/display-landscape-mini-and-microleds?gclid=EAIaIQobChMItvP3pdvR7gIVqf_ICh1jxwFJEAMYASAAEgL5PPD_BwE

CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS FOR ADVANCED MICROLED DISPLAYS

François Templier
Strategic Marketing, Displays and Displays Systems Optics and Photonics Department

CEA-LETI, Grenoble , France

How to Know the Differences Between an LED Display and LCD Monitor

Zach Cabading|May 11, 2020

https://store.hp.com/us/en/tech-takes/differences-between-led-display-and-lcd-monitor

Colorimetric Characterization of
Three Computer Displays (LCD and CRT)

Jason E. Gibson and Mark D. Fairchild January, 2000

http://www.sgidepot.co.uk/vw/PDFs/Colorimetric_Characterization.pdf

Display Considerations for Improved Night Vision Performance

Allan G. RempelRafał Mantiuk1,2 Wolfgang Heidrich1 1The University of British Columbia, 2Bangor University

Liquid Crystal Display: Environment & Technology Ankita Tyagi1, Dr. S. Chatterjee 2

1Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Electronics and Information Technology Ministry of Communication and Information Technology New Delhi, India

http://www.ijestr.org/IJESTR_Vol.%201,%20No.%207,%20July%202013/Liquid%20Crystal%20Display.pdf

A Study on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) in Optoelectronics

Research Paper (Postgraduate), 2011

https://www.grin.com/document/213415

Color Converting Film With Quantum-Dots for the Liquid Crystal Displays Based on Inkjet Printing

Volume 11, Number 3, June 2019

Bing-Le Huang Tai-Liang Guo Sheng Xu Yun Ye. En-Guo Chen Zhi-Xian Lin

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=8692730

Development of Color Resists Containing Novel Dyes for Liquid Crystal Displays

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Liquid-Crystal-Display-LCD.html

James Fergason, a Pioneer in Advancing of Liquid Crystal Technology

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

Understand color science to maximize success with LEDs 

https://www.ledsmagazine.com/home/article/16698622/understand-color-science-to-maximize-success-with-leds-magazine

Understand color science to maximize success with LEDs – part 2 

https://www.ledsmagazine.com/smart-lighting-iot/white-point-tuning/article/16695431/understand-color-science-to-maximize-success-with-leds-part-2-magazine

Understand color science to maximize success with LEDs – part 3 

https://www.ledsmagazine.com/smart-lighting-iot/white-point-tuning/article/16695448/understand-color-science-to-maximize-success-with-leds-part-3

Understand color science to maximize success with LEDs – part 4 

https://www.ledsmagazine.com/smart-lighting-iot/white-point-tuning/article/16695085/understand-color-science-to-maximize-success-with-leds-part-4-magazine

Full-color micro-LED display with high color stability using semipolar (20-21) InGaN LEDs and quantum-dot photoresist

High performance color‐converted micro‐LED displays

Fangwang Gou  | En‐Lin Hsiang  | Guanjun Tan  | Yi‐Fen Lan | Cheng‐Yeh Tsai | Shin‐Tson Wu

J Soc Inf Display. 2019;27:199–206.

Plasmonic Metasurfaces with Conjugated Polymers for Flexible Electronic Paper in Color

27 September 2016 https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201603358

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/adma.201603358

Flexible electronic ‘paper’ display color spectrum rivals LED and uses less energy

http://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Bendable-electronic-paper-shows-full-colour-scale-.aspx

Plasmonic Color Makes a Comeback

ACS Cent. Sci. 2020, 6, 332−335

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acscentsci.0c00259

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acscentsci.0c00259

Performance of reflective color displays in Out Of Home applications

Etulipa

How Does a Color Changing LED Work

https://www.hunker.com/12000414/how-does-a-color-changing-led-work

The science of colour is upending our relationship with screens

https://www.wired.co.uk/article/project-crayon

Then and Now: The History of Display and LED Technology

Konica Minolta

https://sensing.konicaminolta.us/us/blog/then-and-now-the-history-of-display-and-led-technology/


A Novel RGBW Pixel for LED Displays

Year: 2008, Volume: 1, Pages: 407-411

https://www.computer.org/csdl/proceedings-article/icseng/2008/3331a407/12OmNywfKDb

LED Color Mixing: Basics and Background

Color Part 2:
Color Spaces and Color Perception 

by Roger N. Clark

https://clarkvision.com/articles/color-spaces/

Color Science

Cornell

http://www.cs.cornell.edu/courses/cs4620/2017sp/slides/26color.pdf

High performance color‐converted micro‐LED displays

Fangwang GouEn-Lin Hsiang, +3 authors S. Wu

Published 2019 Journal of The Society for Information Display

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/High-performance-color%E2%80%90converted-micro%E2%80%90LED-displays-Gou-Hsiang/b71e36bc6c999877040d88384598c45a8427925c

Choosing a Light and Color Measurement System for LEDs

https://www.radiantvisionsystems.com/learn/articles/choosing-light-and-color-measurement-system-leds

https://www.aerodefensetech.com/component/content/article/tb/pub/features/application-briefs/26901

Color in Electronic Display Systems

Advantages of Multi-primary Displays

Authors: Miller, Michael E.

Book, 2019

https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030028336

Color science of nanocrystal quantum dots for lighting and displays

2013

Talha Erdem and Hilmi Volkan Demir

Nanophotonics 2013; 2(1): 57–81

http://repository.bilkent.edu.tr/bitstream/handle/11693/12119/10.1515-nanoph-2012-0031.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258807123_Color_science_of_nanocrystal_quantum_dots_for_lighting_and_displays

Full-Color Realization of Micro-LED Displays

Yifan Wu, Jianshe Ma, Ping Su, Lijun Zhang and Bizhong Xia

Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China

Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2482; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122482

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/10/12/2482/htm

Variation of LED Display Color Affected by Chromaticity and Luminance of LED Display Primary Colors

Xinyue Mao, Xifeng Zheng, Ruiguang Wang , Hongbin Cheng,1 and Yu Chen

Hindawi
Mathematical Problems in Engineering Volume 2020, Article ID 1612931, 14 pages

https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/1612931

Full-color micro-LED display with high color stability using semipolar (20-21) InGaN LEDs and quantum-dot photoresist

Vol. 8, No. 5 / May 2020 / Photonics Research

The Display Landscape of Mini- and MicroLEDs

2019 Radiant Visions

https://www.radiantvisionsystems.com/blog/display-landscape-mini-and-microleds?gclid=EAIaIQobChMItvP3pdvR7gIVqf_ICh1jxwFJEAMYASAAEgL5PPD_BwE

Flat screens show their true colors

Innovative pigments from BASF improve television image quality

https://www.basf.com/us/en/media/science-around-us/color-filter.html

THE HISTORY OF LC DISPLAYS

Merck KGaA

https://www.emdgroup.com/en/expertise/displays/solutions/liquid-crystals/history-of-lcd-displays.html

Comparative Evaluation of Color Characterization and Gamut of LCDs versus CRTs

Gaurav Sharma
Xerox Corp., MS0128-27E, 800 Phillips Rd., Webster, NY 14580

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.299.1580&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Calibrated color mapping between LCD and CRT displays: A case study

  • December 2005
  • Color Research & Application 30(6):438 – 447

DOI: 10.1002/col.20156

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227604704_Calibrated_color_mapping_between_LCD_and_CRT_displays_A_case_study

Colorimetric characterization of the Apple studio display (Flat panel LCD)

Mark Fairchild David Wyble

The History of Liquid Crystal Display

https://www.thoughtco.com/liquid-crystal-display-history-lcd-1992078

Self-assembled plasmonics for angle-independent structural color displays with actively addressed black states

Daniel Franklin, Ziqian He, Pamela Mastranzo Ortega, Alireza Safaei, Pablo Cencillo-Abad,  Shin-Tson Wu, and Debashis Chanda

PNAS June 16, 2020 117 (24) 13350-13358; first published June 3, 2020; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2001435117

https://www.pnas.org/content/117/24/13350

Liquid Crystals in Displays

MIT Open Course ware

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Liquid-Crystal-Display-LCD.html

Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives

Hai-Wei Chen1, Jiun-Haw Lee2, Bo-Yen Lin2, Stanley Chen3 and Shin-Tson Wu1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060049/

Color Converting Film With Quantum-Dots for the Liquid Crystal Displays Based on Inkjet Printing

B. Huang, T. Guo, S. Xu, Y. Ye, E. Chen and Z. Lin,

in IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1-9, June 2019, Art no. 7000609,

doi: 10.1109/JPHOT.2019.2911308.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8692730?denied=

CRT Versus LCD Monitors for Soft Proofifing: Quantitative and Visual Considerations

Chovancova

(2003). Master’s Theses. 4982.


https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/masters_theses/4982

A Color Gamut Description Algorithm for Liquid Crystal Displays in CIELAB Space


Bangyong Sun,1,2 Han Liu,2 Wenli Li,1 and Shisheng Zhou1

Hindawi Publishing Corporation
e Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 671964, 9 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/671964

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/671964/

Colour Characterisation of LCD Display Systems

Marjan Vazirian

PhD Thesis

School of Design The University of Leeds

http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/20850/1/Marjan_Vazirian_2018.pdf

Camouflaging metamaterials create the LCD color display of the future

The secret: precision placement of plasmonic aluminum nanorods

September 16, 2014

https://www.kurzweilai.net/camouflaging-metamaterials-create-the-lcd-color-display-of-the-future


Vivid, full-color aluminum plasmonic pixels

Jana Olson, Alejandro Manjavacas, Lifei Liu, Wei-Shun Chang, Benjamin Foerster, Nicholas S. King, Mark W. Knight, Peter Nordlander, Naomi J. Halas, and Stephan Link


PNAS first published September 15, 2014; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1415970111

Contributed by Naomi J. Halas, August 19, 2014 (sent for review June 16, 2014)

Who will win the future of display technologies?

By Hepeng Jia

National Science Review 5: 427–431, 2018

doi: 10.1093/nsr/nwy050

Advance access publication 23 April 2018

https://academic.oup.com/nsr/article/5/3/427/4982784

Wide color gamut LCD with a quantum dot backlight

Zhenyue Luo, Yuan Chen, and Shin-Tson Wu

Full-Color Realization of Micro-LED Displays 

by Yifan WuJianshe MaPing Su *Lijun Zhang and Bizhong Xia

Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China

Nanomaterials202010(12), 2482; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122482

Received: 25 October 2020 / Revised: 23 November 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/10/12/2482/htm

Color science of nanocrystal quantum dots for lighting and displays

DOI: 10.1515/nanoph-2012-0031

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258807123_Color_science_of_nanocrystal_quantum_dots_for_lighting_and_displays

Plasmonic Color Makes a Comeback

The phenomenon behind the earliest photographs is inspiring new research in color printing and displays.

  • Rachel Brazil

ACS Cent. Sci. 2020, 6, 3, 332–335Publication Date:March 16, 2020

https://doi.org/10.1021/acscentsci.0c00259

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acscentsci.0c00259

Plasmonic Metasurfaces with Conjugated Polymers for Flexible Electronic Paper in Color

Kunli Xiong Gustav Emilsson Ali Maziz Xinxin Yang Lei Shao Edwin W. H. Jager. Andreas B. Dahlin

First published: 27 September 2016

 https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201603358

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/adma.201603358

Merck KGaA Germany

https://www.emdgroup.com/en/company.html

Pigments for Color Filters Used in LCDs and OLED Displays(Functional Pigments)

DIC Global

https://www.dic-global.com/en/csr/special/2018/special01.html

Development of Color Resists Containing Novel Dyes for Liquid Crystal Displays

Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.
IT-Related Chemicals Research Laboratory

Masato INOUE Toru ASHIDA

Flat screens show their true colors

BASF

https://www.basf.com/us/en/media/science-around-us/color-filter.html

Color filter-less technology of LED back light for LCD-TV – art. no. 68410G

DOI: 10.1117/12.760045

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241574165_Color_filter-less_technology_of_LED_back_light_for_LCD-TV_-_art_no_68410G

Synthesis and Characterization of Modified Dyes for Dye-Based LCD Color Filters

Cheol Jun Song , Wang Yao  & Jae Yun Jaung Pages 115-124 | Published online: 16 Dec 2013

Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals
Volume 583, 2013 – Issue 1: Proceedings of the Advanced Display Materials and Devices 2012 (ADMD 2012)

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15421406.2013.852895

A study on the fluorescence property and the solubility of the perylene derivatives and their application on the LCD color filter

Jeong Yun Kim

https://s-space.snu.ac.kr/handle/10371/136759

Synthesis and characterization of novel triazatetrabenzcorrole dyes for LCD color filter and black matrix

JunChoi WoosungLee Jin Woong NamgoongTae-Min KimJae PilKim

Dyes and Pigments
Volume 99, Issue 2, November 2013, Pages 357-365

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0143720813001976

HIGH EFFICIENCY AND WIDE COLOR GAMUT LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS

ZHENYUE LUO

2015 Univ of Central Florida PhD Thesis

http://etd.fcla.edu/CF/CFE0006225/Zhenyue_Luo_Dissertation.pdf

A Simple Filter Could Make LCDs More Efficient

The new approach wastes far less light, saving energy.by 

  • Katherine Bourzac
  • 2010

https://www.technologyreview.com/2010/08/30/200821/a-simple-filter-could-make-lcds-more-efficient/

Past, present, and future of WCG technology in display

Musun Kwak | Younghoon Kim | Sanghun Han | Ahnki Kim | Sooin Kim | Seungbeom Lee | Mike Jun | Inbyeong Kang

Color Team, Panel Performance Division, LG Display, LG Science Park, Seoul, Korea

Musun Kwak, Color Team, Panel Performance Division, LG Display, LG Science Park, Magokjungang, Gangseogu, 10‐ro, Seoul, Korea.
Email: musunkwak@lgdisplay.com

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jsid.843

https://www.toppan.co.jp/electronics/english/display/lcd/structure/

Improving the Color Gamut of a Liquid-crystal Display by Using a Bandpass Filter

Yan Sun1, Chi Zhang1, Yanling Yang1, Hongmei Ma1, and Yubao Sun1,2

Current Optics and Photonics 

ISSN: 2508-7266(Print) / ISSN: 2508-7274(Online) 

Vol. 3, No. 6, December 2019, pp. 590-596

Environmentally friendly quantum-dot color filters for ultra-high-definition liquid crystal displays

Yun-Hyuk Ko, Prem Prabhakaran, Sinil Choi, Gyeong-Ju Kim, Changhee Lee & Kwang-Sup Lee

Scientific Reports volume 10, Article number: 15817 (2020)

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-72468-8

Color filter technology for liquid crystal displays

Ram W Sabnis

Displays

Volume 20, Issue 3, 29 November 1999, Pages 119-129

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S014193829900013X

Designs of High Color Purity RGB Color Filter for Liquid Crystal Displays Applications Using Fabry–Perot Etalons

DOI: 10.1109/JDT.2011.2172914

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239766666_Designs_of_High_Color_Purity_RGB_Color_Filter_for_Liquid_Crystal_Displays_Applications_Using_Fabry-Perot_Etalons

Synthesis of yellow pyridonylazo colorants and their application in dye–pigment hybrid colour filters for liquid crystal display

Jong Min Park, Chang Young Jung, Wang Yao, Cheol Jun Song and Jae Yun Jaung*

Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 133791, South Korea
Email: jjy1004@hanyang.ac.kr

Received: 9 June 2015; Accepted: 29 September 2015

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312418853_Synthesis_of_yellow_pyridonylazo_colorants_and_their_application_in_dye-pigment_hybrid_colour_filters_for_liquid_crystal_display

A study on the fluorescence property and the solubility of the perylene derivatives and their application on the LCD color filter

Jeong Yun Kim 2017

https://s-space.snu.ac.kr/handle/10371/136759

Colour filters for LCDs

K.Tsuda

Dai Nippon Printing Co. Ltd, 1-5 Kiyokucho, Kuki City, Saitama Prefecture 346, Japan

Displays

Volume 14, Issue 2, April 1993, Pages 115-124

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/014193829390078J

Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives

Light: Science & Applications

volume 7, page17168(2018)

https://www.nature.com/articles/lsa2017168

Synthesis and Characterization of Modified Dyes for Dye-Based LCD Color Filters

Cheol Jun Song , Wang Yao  & Jae Yun Jaung Pages 115-124 | Published online: 16 Dec 2013

Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals
Volume 583, 2013 – Issue 1: Proceedings of the Advanced Display Materials and Devices 2012 (ADMD 2012)

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15421406.2013.852895

Textile materials inspired by structural colour in nature

Celina Jones, Franz J. Wortmann, Helen F. Gleeson and Stephen G. Yeatesc

RSC Adv., 2020,10, 24362-24367 

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2020/ra/d0ra01326a#!divAbstract

Structure of Color Filters

Toppan Printing Company Japan

https://www.toppan.co.jp/electronics/english/display/lcd/structure/

Quantum Dot Conversion Layers Through Inkjet Printing

Ernest Lee, Ravi Tangirala, Austin Smith, Amanda Carpenter, Charlie Hotz, Heejae Kim, Jeff Yurek, Takayuki Miki*, Sunao Yoshihara*, Takeo Kizaki*, Aya Ishizuka*, Ikuro Kiyoto*

Nanosys, Inc., Milpitas, CA

*DIC Corporation, Sakura, Chiba, JAPAN

https://www.nanosysinc.com/white-papers/2018/11/28/quantum-dot-conversion-layers-through-inkjet-printing

Colors with plasmonic nanostructures: A full-spectrum review 

Applied Physics Reviews 6, 041308 (2019); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5110051

Maowen Song1,2 Di Wang1 Samuel Peana1Sajid Choudhury1 Piotr Nyga1,3Zhaxylyk A. Kudyshev1Honglin Yu2Alexandra Boltasseva1Vladimir M. Shalaev1, and Alexander V. Kildishev1,a)

https://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.5110051

Transmissive/Reflective structural color filters: theory and applications

Journal of Nanomaterials January 2014  Article No.: 6 

https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/212637

https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1155/2014/212637

Review of nanostructure color filters Felix Gildas and Yaping Dan*

University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai, China

J. Nanophoton. 13(2), 020901 (2019), doi: 10.1117/1.JNP.13.020901.

http://yapingd.sjtu.edu.cn/upload/editor/file/20190708/20190708084242_36263.pdf

Nanostructured Color Filters: A Review of Recent Developments

Ayesha Shaukat,1,2Frazer Noble,1 and  Khalid Mahmood Arif1,*

Nanomaterials (Basel). 2020 Aug; 10(8): 1554.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466596/

Bright and Vivid Diffractive-Plasmonic Structural Colors

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsanm.9b02508

Transmissive metamaterial color filters

Yoshiaki Kanamori, Daisuke Ema, and Kazuhiro Hane

JSAP-OSA Joint Symposia 2017 Abstracts(Optical Society of America, 2017),paper 5p_A410_5

https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=JSAP-2017-5p_A410_5

Three-terminal RGB full-color OLED pixels for ultrahigh density displays

Scientific Reports volume 8, Article number: 9684 (2018) 

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-27976-z

Application organic pigment for color filter of LCD

Emperor Chemicals China

https://pigmentpigment.com/news/application-organic-pigment-for-color-filter-of-lcd–9.html

Liquid-crystal tunable color filters based on aluminum metasurfaces

Zu-Wen Xie, Jhen-Hong Yang, Vishal Vashistha, Wei Lee, and Kuo-Ping Chen

Optics ExpressVol. 25,Issue 24,pp. 30764-30770(2017)

Preparation of Colour Filter Photo Resists for Improving Colour Purity in Liquid Crystal Displays by Synthesis of Polymeric Binder
and Treatment of Pigments

Chun Yoonand Jae-hong Choi

Department ofChemistry, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Korea. *E-mail: chuny@sejong.ac.kr ‘Department of Textile System Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea Received May 04, 2009, Accepted July 03, 2009

Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2009, Vol. 30, No. 8

THE SCIENCE OF COLOR AND LIGHT

By Michael Cassera 9. June 2020

https://newsandviews.dataton.com/the-science-of-color-and-light

Image Display Technology

http://www.marcelpatek.com/LCD.html

Past, present, and future of WCG technology in display

Musun Kwak Younghoon Kim Sanghun Han Ahnki Kim Sooin Kim Seungbeom Lee Mike Jun Inbyeong Kang

 First published: 02 October 2019 

Volume27, Issue11 November 2019. Pages 691-699

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jsid.843

Panel Technologies

Simon Baker, updated  17 March 2015

https://www.tftcentral.co.uk/articles/panel_technologies.htm

https://www.tftcentral.co.uk/articles/panel_technologies.htm

LED Backlighting

Simon Baker, 11 November 2010

https://www.tftcentral.co.uk/articles/led_backlighting.htm

The Evolution of LED Backlights

Author: Adam Simmons
Last updated: February 8th 2021

PCmonitors.info

OLED Production: Composition and Color Patterning Techniques

Last updated on January 22, 2020

https://www.findlight.net/blog/2020/01/22/oled-production-composition-and-color-patterning-techniques/

OLED Color Patterning Technologies

Book Author(s): Takatoshi TsujimuraFirst published: 04 March 2017 

OLED Display Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/9781119187493.ch5

OLED Technologies

Tohoku Pioneer Corporation

https://global.pioneer/en/corp/group/tohokupioneer/mainbusinesses/oled/introduction/

Directly Patterened 2645 PPI Full Color OLED Microdisplay for Head Mounted Wearables

DOI: 10.1002/sdtp.10805

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303535486_62-1_Invited_Paper_Directly_Patterened_2645_PPI_Full_Color_OLED_Microdisplay_for_Head_Mounted_Wearables

The Progress of QD Color Filters

https://avantama.com/the-progress-of-qd-color-filters/

19.2: Color Filter Formulations for Full‐Color OLED Displays: High Color Gamut Plus Improved Efficiency and Lifetime

Margaret J. HelberPaula J. AlessiMitchell BurberrySteven EvansM. Christine BrickDonald R. DiehlRonald Cok

SID

First published: 05 July 2012 https://doi.org/10.1889/1.2785479

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1889/1.2785479

Can OLED displays be brighter?

Structure of Color Filters

Toyo Visual

https://www.toyo-visual.com/en/products/fpdcf/colorfilter.html

QLED vs. W-OLED: TV Display Technology Shoot-Out

Samsung Display

https://pid.samsungdisplay.com/en/printpdf/learning-center/blog/qled-vs-oled-tv-display-technology

Thin-film transistor-driven vertically stacked full- color organic light-emitting diodes for high- resolution active-matrix displays

Sukyung Choi 1, Chan-mo Kang1, Chun-Won Byun1, Hyunsu Cho1, Byoung-Hwa Kwon1, Jun-Han Han1, Jong-Heon Yang1, Jin-Wook Shin1, Chi-Sun Hwang 1, Nam Sung Cho1, Kang Me Lee1, Hee-Ok Kim1, Eungjun Kim2, Seunghyup Yoo2 & Hyunkoo Lee

Nat Commun. 2020; 11: 2732. Published online 2020 Jun 1.

doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16551-8

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264127/

QD-OLED vs OLED vs QLED vs Mini LED TVs: What’s the difference?

By Deepak Singh – Updated On 

Inkjet printed uniform quantum dots as color conversion layers for full-color OLED displays

Zhiping Hu,*abYongming Yin,  abMuhammad Umair Ali,  cWenxiang Peng,bShijie Zhang,bDongze Li,bTaoyu Zou,aYuanyuan Li,bShibo Jiao,bShu-jhih Chen,bChia-Yu Lee,bHong Menga  and  Hang Zhou

Nanoscale, 2020,12, 2103-2110 

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2020/nr/c9nr09086j#!divAbstract

Understand RGB LED mixing ratios to realize optimal color in signs and displays

https://www.ledsmagazine.com/smart-lighting-iot/color-tuning/article/16695054/understand-rgb-led-mixing-ratios-to-realize-optimal-color-in-signs-and-displays-magazine

Mini-LED vs MicroLED – What Is The Difference?

BY ROB SHAFER OCTOBER 1, 2020

https://www.displayninja.com/mini-led-vs-microled/

The Progress of QD Color Filters

https://avantama.com/the-progress-of-qd-color-filters/

What are the different types of RGB LEDs?

https://www.lighting.philips.com/main/support/support/faqs/white-light-and-colour/what-are-the-different-types-of-rgb-leds

OLED Production: Composition and Color Patterning Techniques

https://www.findlight.net/blog/2020/01/22/oled-production-composition-and-color-patterning-techniques/

OLED Color Patterning Technologies

Book Author(s): Takatoshi Tsujimura

First published: 04 March 2017 

OLED Display Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition

Can OLED display be brighter?

Structure of Color Filters

https://www.toyo-visual.com/en/products/fpdcf/colorfilter.html

QD-OLED vs OLED vs QLED vs Mini LED TVs: What’s the difference?

By Deepak Singh – Updated On 

Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives

Hai-Wei Chen1, Jiun-Haw Lee2, Bo-Yen Lin2, Stanley Chen3 and Shin-Tson Wu1

Light: Science & Applications (2018) 7, 17168; doi:10.1038/lsa.2017.168

Beyond OLED: Efficient Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes for Display and Lighting Application

Yizhe Sun 1 2Yibin Jiang 2 3Xiao Wei Sun 2Shengdong Zhang 1Shuming Chen 2

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30698895/

Full-Color Realization of Micro-LED Displays

Yifan Wu 1Jianshe Ma 1Ping Su 1Lijun Zhang 1Bizhong Xia 1

Nanomaterials (Basel)
. 2020 Dec 10;10(12):2482.

doi: 10.3390/nano10122482.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33322057/

Color Converting Film With Quantum-Dots for the Liquid Crystal Displays Based on Inkjet Printing

Volume 11, Number 3, June 2019
IEEE Photonics Journal 

Bing-Le Huang Tai-Liang Guo Sheng Xu Yun Ye. En-Guo Chen Zhi-Xian Lin

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8692730?denied=

Who will win the future of display technologies?

By Hepeng Jia

National Science Review. 5: 427–431, 2018

doi: 10.1093/nsr/nwy050

https://academic.oup.com/nsr/article/5/3/427/4982784

Wide color gamut LCD with a quantum dot backlight

Zhenyue Luo, Yuan Chen, and Shin-Tson Wu

Optics Express > Volume 21 > Issue 22 > Page 26269

Prospects and challenges of mini‐LED and micro‐LED displays

Yuge Huang | Guanjun Tan | Fangwang Gou | Ming‐Chun Li2 | Seok‐Lyul Lee | Shin‐Tson Wu

J Soc Inf Display. 2019;27:387–401.

Full-color micro-LED display with high color stability using semipolar (20-21) InGaN LEDs and quantum-dot photoresist

Sung-Wen Huang Chen, Yu-Ming Huang, Konthoujam James Singh, Yu-Chien Hsu, Fang-Jyun Liou, Jie Song, Joowon Choi, Po-Tsung Lee, Chien-Chung Lin, Zhong Chen, Jung Han, Tingzhu Wu, and Hao-Chung Kuo

Photonics Research > Volume 8 > Issue 5 > Page 630

Full-Color Realization of Micro-LED Displays

by Yifan Wu, Jianshe Ma, Ping Su *OrcID, Lijun Zhang and Bizhong Xia

Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China

Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2482; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122482

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/10/12/2482/htm

Color science of nanocrystal quantum dots for lighting and displays

February 2013. Nanophotonics 2(1):57-81
DOI: 10.1515/nanoph-2012-0031

Project: Colloidal organic and inorganic nanoparticles for lighting and displays

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258807123_Color_science_of_nanocrystal_quantum_dots_for_lighting_and_displays

High performance color‐converted micro‐LED display

Fangwang Gou | En‐Lin Hsiang  | Guanjun Tan  | Yi‐Fen Lan | Cheng‐Yeh Tsai | Shin‐Tson Wu

QD-OLED

https://www.oled-info.com/qd-oled

Environmentally friendly quantum-dot color filters for ultra-high-definition liquid crystal displays

Scientific Reports volume 10, Article number: 15817 (2020)

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-72468-8

Color filter technology for liquid crystal displays

Ram W Sabnis

Displays
Volume 20, Issue 3, 29 November 1999, Pages 119-129

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S014193829900013X

Stretchable and reflective displays: materials, technologies and strategies

Do Yoon Kim, Mi-Ji Kim, Gimin Sung & Jeong-Yun Sun

Nano Convergence volume 6, Article number: 21 (2019)

https://nanoconvergencejournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40580-019-0190-5

LTPS LCD

https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/ltps-lcd

LCD Basics

https://www.j-display.com/english/technology/lcdbasic.html

Characterization of TFT and LTPS TFT-LCD Display Panels by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

https://www.horiba.com/en_en/applications/information-technology/semiconductors/display-technologies/characterization-of-tft-and-ltps-tft-lcd-display-panels-by-spectroscopic-ellipsometry/

Display technology explained: A-Si, LTPS, amorphous IGZO, and beyond

LTPS Process

AUO

https://auo.com/en-global/TFT-LCD_Introduction/index/LTPS_TFT_LCD

What Is An LTPS LCD?

https://www.electronicsforu.com/technology-trends/learn-electronics/ltps-lcd

Mini-LED vs MicroLED – What Is The Difference?

BY ROB SHAFER. OCTOBER 1, 2020

https://www.displayninja.com/mini-led-vs-microled/

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY APPLICATIONS Past, Present & Future

by Joseph A Castellano, PhD Stanford Resources Inc.
PO Box 20324, San Jose, CA 95160

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13583149108628568?needAccess=true

The fiftieth anniversary of the liquid crystal display,

J. Cliff Jones (2018)

Liquid Crystals Today, 27:3, 44-70,

DOI: 10.1080/1358314X.2018.1529129

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1358314X.2018.1529129?needAccess=true

Plenary Lecture. Some pictures of the history of liquid crystals, 

Hans Kelker & Peter M. Knoll (1989) 

Liquid Crystals, 5:1, 19-42, DOI: 10.1080/02678298908026350

Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives

Hai-Wei Chen1, Jiun-Haw Lee2, Bo-Yen Lin2, Stanley Chen3 and Shin-Tson Wu1

Light: Science & Applications (2018) 7, 17168; doi:10.1038/lsa.2017.168; 

https://www.nature.com/articles/lsa2017168.pdf?origin=ppub

An overview about monitors colors rendering

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228666667_An_overview_about_monitors_colors_rendering

The History of Liquid-Crystal Displays

HIROHISA KAWAMOTO, FELLOW, IEEE

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.998.7087&rep=rep1&type=pdf

From the theory of liquid crystals to LCD-displays

Nobel Price in Physics 1991: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

Alexander Kleinsorge FHI Berlin, Dec. 7th 2004

Mini-LED, Micro-LED and OLED displays: present status and future perspectives

Light: Science & Applications volume 9, Article number: 105 (2020) 

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41377-020-0341-9

OLED vs QLED: the premium TV panel technologies compared

https://www.techradar.com/news/oled-vs-qled

The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Technology Turns 50

https://www.corning.com/worldwide/en/innovation/materials-science/glass/liquid-crystal-display-turns-50.html

COLOR IN DISPLAYS

The Liquid Crystal Display Story

50 Years of Liquid Crystal R&D that lead The Way to the Future

Editors: Koide, Naoyuki (Ed.)

2014

https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9784431548584

Chemistry On Display

Katherine Bourzac, contributor to C&EN

Mini-LED, Micro-LED and OLED displays: present status and future perspectives

DOI: 10.1038/s41377-020-0341-9

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342274780_Mini-LED_Micro-LED_and_OLED_displays_present_status_and_future_perspectives

Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology

DOI: 10.3390/app8091557

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327470132_Mini-LED_and_Micro-LED_Promising_Candidates_for_the_Next_Generation_Display_Technology

CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS FOR ADVANCED MICROLED DISPLAYS

François Templier
Strategic Marketing, Displays and Displays Systems Optics and Photonics Department

CEA-LETI, Grenoble , France

Three-terminal RGB full-color OLED pixels for ultrahigh density displays

Scientific Reports volume 8, Article number: 9684 (2018)

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-27976-z

Past, present, and future of WCG technology in display

Musun KwakYounghoon KimSanghun HanAhnki KimSooin Kim… See all authors 

First published: 02 October 2019

 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsid.843

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jsid.843

Thin-film transistor-driven vertically stacked full-color organic light-emitting diodes for high-resolution active-matrix displays

Sukyung Choi,1Chan-mo Kang,1Chun-Won Byun,1Hyunsu Cho,1Byoung-Hwa Kwon,1Jun-Han Han,1Jong-Heon Yang,1Jin-Wook Shin,1Chi-Sun Hwang,1Nam Sung Cho,1Kang Me Lee,1Hee-Ok Kim,1Eungjun Kim,2Seunghyup Yoo,2 and  Hyunkoo Lee1,3

Nat Commun. 2020; 11: 2732. Published online 2020 Jun 1. 

doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16551-8

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264127/

Realizing Rec. 2020 color gamut with quantum dot displays

Ruidong Zhu,1 Zhenyue Luo,1 Haiwei Chen,1 Yajie Dong,1,2 and Shin-Tson Wu1,*

1CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA 2NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32826, USA

Full-color micro-LED display with high color stability using semipolar (20-21) InGaN LEDs and quantum-dot photoresist

SUNG-WEN HUANG CHEN,1 YU-MING HUANG,1,2 KONTHOUJAM JAMES SINGH,1 YU-CHIEN HSU,1 FANG-JYUN LIOU,1 JIE SONG,3 JOOWON CHOI,3 PO-TSUNG LEE,1 CHIEN-CHUNG LIN,2
ZHONG CHEN,4 JUNG HAN,5 TINGZHU WU,4,6 AND HAO-CHUNG KUO1,7

Vol. 8, No. 5 / May 2020 / Photonics Research

Nature’s Fantastical Palette: Color From Structure

Nature’s Fantastical Palette: Color From Structure

Peacock Feathers

Source: STRUCTURAL COLORATION IN NATURE

Key Terms

  • Iridescence
  • Nanostructures
  • Color from Pigments
  • Color from Structures
  • Smart Pigments
  • Material Science
  • Color from Bioluminescence
  • Color Change
  • Photonics
  • Biomimicry
  • Non Iridescent Colors
  • Iridescent Colors
  • Photonic Crystals (PhC)
  • Diffraction Grating
  • Specular Reflection
  • Braggs Diffraction
  • 1D Grating
  • 2D and 3D Photonic Crystals
  • Optical Nanotechnology
  • Multilayer Filters
  • Biomimetics
  • Peacock
  • Morpho Butterflies
  • Interference
  • Colloidal Crystals
  • Colloidal Amorphous Array
  • Microfluidics
  • Photonic Pigments
  • Reflective Displays (E-Ink)
  • Colloidal Assembly
  • Photonic Glass (PG)
  • Plasmonic Films
  • Inverse-Opals
  • Braggs Stacks
  • Dielectric Structural Colors
  • Plasmonic Structural Colors
  • Amorphous Photonic Structures
  • Melanin
  • Dopamine
  • Poly Dopamine
  • Plasmonic Metasurfaces

Source: GOLD BUGS AND BEYOND: A REVIEW OF IRIDESCENCE AND STRUCTURAL COLOUR MECHANISMS IN BEETLES (COLEOPTERA)

Source: GOLD BUGS AND BEYOND: A REVIEW OF IRIDESCENCE AND STRUCTURAL COLOUR MECHANISMS IN BEETLES (COLEOPTERA)

Source: Structural color and its interaction with other color-producing elements: perspectives from spiders

Color Vision

Source: Structural Color and Odors: Towards a Photonic Crystal Nose Platform

Color Sources

  • From Pigments
  • From Bioluminescenece
  • From Structure

Source: Chromic Phenomena: Technological Applications of Colour Chemistry

Source: Chromic Phenomena: Technological Applications of Colour Chemistry

Structural Color in Nature

  • Peacock
  • Butterflies
  • Beetles
  • Parrots
  • Birds
  • Moth

Peacock Colors

Feathers of Peacock

Source: Structural colors: from natural to artificial systems

Colors of Marpho Butterfly

Closeup of Marpho Butterfly

Structure and Color

  • Iridescent – (Colloidal Crystals)- Angle Dependent – Regular Structure
  • Non Iridescent – (Colloidal Amorphous Arrays) – Angle Independent – Irregular Structure

Optics of Structural Colors

  • Interference
  • Diffraction Gratings
  • Scattering
  • Reflection

Nano Structures Responsible for Colors

Source: Structural color and its interaction with other color-producing elements: perspectives from spiders

  • Christmas Tree
  • Multilayer – 1 D Periodicity
  • Photonic Crystals – 2 D and 3 D
  • Diffraction Grating
  • Quasi Ordered Photonic Crystal
  • Disorder Structure

Source: BIO-INSPIRED VARIABLE STRUCTURAL COLOR MATERIALS

  • 1 D Gratings
  • 1 D Periodicity Multilayers
  • 1 D Discrete Periodicity
  • 2 D Gratings
  • 2 D Periodicity
  • Closed Packed Spheres of Solid Materials
  • Inverse Opal Analogoues

Source: STRUCTURAL COLORATION IN NATURE

  • Thin Film Interference
  • Multi Film Interference
  • Diffraction Gratings
  • Coherent Scattering
  • Incoherent Scattering
  • 1 D Photonic Crystals
  • 2 D Photonic Crystals
  • 3 D Photonic Crystals

Source: Structural Color and Odors: Towards a Photonic Crystal Nose Platform

Source: PHYSICS OF STRUCTURAL COLORS

Source: PHOTOPHYSICS OF STRUCTURAL COLOR IN THE MORPHO BUTTERFLIES

Source: Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

  • Cuticular Multilayer Reflector
  • Epicuticular Reflector
  • Exocuticular Reflector
  • Endocuticular Reflector

Source: Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

  • Multilayer Reflectors
  • Diffraction Gratings
  • 3 D Photonic Crystals

Multilayer reflectors in beetles have also been described as ‘thin-layer stacks’, ‘one-dimensional photonic crystals’ and ‘thin-film reflectors’ (e.g. Parker 1998, 2002; Vigneron et al. 2006). The vocabulary used to describe these structures is somewhat dispersive, as the variously intersecting disciplines of entomology, physics and applied optics (e.g. laser technology, fibre-optic data transmission, telescopes and microscopy) have all developed slightly different suites of terminology. Other synonyms for ‘multilayer reflector’ include multilayer stack, quarter wave stack, interference reflector and dielectric mirror.

We propose that the term multilayer reflector be applied to such structures in Coleoptera; this describes the multilayered nature of cuticular chitin lamellae (which are not true films) and the reflective mechanism by which colour is produced.

The terms ‘metallic colours’ or ‘metallic iridescence’ can be used to distinguish multilayer effects from those produced by other optical structures. Multilayer reflectance can typically be diagnosed as such by its limited palette (usually one or two apparent hues per reflector), blue shift with decreased observation angle and fixed position on the cuticle surface.

Source: Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

Three-dimensional crystalline structures producing scintillating, gem-like reflectance were described by Parker et al. (2003) in the entimine weevil Metapocyrtus sp. (initially misidentified as Pachyrrhynchus argus); by Welch et al. (2007) in Pachyrrhynchus congestus, and recently in another entimine weevil, Lamprocyphus augustus, by Galusha et al. (2008). The photonic crystals found in the scales of pachyrrhynchine weevils (Pachyrrhynchus and Metapocyrtus) have a close-packed hexagonal arrangement analogous to (mineral) opal, while the photonic crystal of Lamprocyphus has a diamond-based lattice (i.e. a face-centred cubic system rather than a hexagonal one).

Although the term ‘photonic crystal’ applies to any ordered subwavelength structure that affects the propagation of specific wavelengths of light (Parker & Townley 2007), it is the three-dimensionally ordered structures to which the term is most commonly applied. We recommend use of the term ‘three-dimensional photonic crystal’, which distinguishes these structures from the one-dimensional periodicity of multilayer reflectors or Bragg gratings. The terms ‘opal’ and ‘diamond based’ have been used to describe iridescence in weevil scales, but refer to phenomena that are relatively similar from an organismal perspective; it is important to note that these terms refer to crystalline lattice morphology and not the appearance of the scales themselves. Maldovan & Thomas (2004) provided an excellent overview of diamond-based lattice morphology (as observed in Lamprocyphus) in photonic crystals; Yablonovitch (1993) provided a thorough introduction to the photonic band-gap mechanism by which colours are produced in three-dimensional photonic crystals.

Source: Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

A diffraction grating is any nanoscale array of parallel ridges or slits that disperses white light into its constituent wavelengths (figure 8a shows a grating in cross section). Because white light consists of many different wavelengths, it diffracts into full spectra, creating the rainbow-like reflectance shown in figures 1a,b, 8c and 9b,d. While man-made diffraction gratings can disperse light via reflection or transmission, all beetle gratings are strictly reflection mechanisms.

Source: Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

http://photobiology.info/Ball.html

Nature’s Fantastical Palette: Color from Structure

Philip Ball
18 Hillcourt Road
East Dulwich
London SE22 0PE, UK
p.ball@btinternet.com

The changing hues of a peacock’s splendid tail feathers have always captivated the curious mind (Figure 1). The seventeenth-century English scientist Robert Hooke called them ‘fantastical’ because the colors could be made to disappear by wetting the feathers (Hooke, 1665). Using the newly invented microscope, Hooke looked at peacock feathers and saw that they were covered with tiny ridges, which he figured might be the origin of the colors. 

Figure 1

Figure 1. The shifting colors of the peacock’s tail have had metaphorical interpretations for centuries.

Hooke was on the right track. The bright, often iridescent colors of bird plumage, insect cuticle and butterfly wings are ‘structural’; produced not by light absorption by pigments, but light scattering from a regular array of objects just a few hundreds of nanometers (millionths of a millimeter) in size (Vukusic & Sambles, 2003; Vukusic, 2004; Wolpert, 2009). This scattering favors particular wavelengths depending on the size and spacing of the scatterers, and so it picks out specific colors from the full spectrum of sunlight. Because the precise hue may depend also on the viewing angle, structural colors are often iridescent, changing from blue to green or orange to yellow. And because they involve reflection rather than absorption, these colors can be startlingly brilliant. The Blue Morpho butterflies of South and Central America are visible from a quarter of a mile away, seeming almost to shine when sunlight penetrates the tropical forest canopy and bounces off their wings. 

Structural colors are just one example of how living organisms manipulate and channel light using delicately arranged micro- and nanostructures. These biological designs offer inspiration to engineers seeking to control light in optical technologies, and could lead to more brilliant visual displays, new chemical sensors, and better storage, transmission and processing of information. To make effective use of such tricks, we need to understand how nature creates and deploys these tiny optical structures; indeed, we must learn a new language of color production and mixing. 

Rather little is known about how many of these biological structures are put together, how they evolved, and how evolution has made creative use of the color and light effects they offer. But one thing is clear; nature doesn’t have the sophisticated patterning technologies, such as drilling with electron beams, that microengineers can use to laboriously carve such structures from solid blocks. Ingenuity is used instead of finesse; these biological structures must make themselves from the component parts. 

If we can master that art, we might develop new, cheap technologies to make such things as materials that change color or appearance, like the camouflage skins of some fish and squid, or fibres that guide and channel light with virtually no leakage, or chemically controlled light shutters. Here I look at some of nature’s tricks for turning structure into color; and the ways they are being exploited in artificial materials and devices (Ball, 2012). 

Layers

Although the ridges seen by Hooke on butterfly wing scales do scatter light, the bright colors of the reflected light generally come from invisible structures beneath the surface. In the natural world, they offer a robust way of generating color that is not hostage to the fate of delicate, light-sensitive organic pigments. 

The colored scales and feathers of birds, fish and butterflies typically contain organized microscopic layers or rods of a dense light-scattering material embedded in a matrix of a different substance. Because the distance between the scatterers is roughly the same as the wavelengths of visible light, the stacks cause the wave phenomenon of diffraction, in which reflected waves interfere with one another. Depending on the angle of reflection, light rays of a certain wavelength interfere constructively when they bounce off successive layers in the stack, boosting the corresponding color in the reflected light (Vukusic and Sambles, 2003; Vukusic, 2004; Wolpert, 2009). It is much the same process that elicits the chromatic spectrum in light glancing off a tilted CD. 

In butterfly wing scales the reflecting stacks are made of cuticle; a hard material containing the natural polymer chitin, separated by air-filled voids. In bird feathers, the stacks are platelets or rods of the dark pigment melanin; sometimes hollow, as in the Black Inca hummingbird, Coeligena prunellei, embedded in keratin, the protein from which our hair and fingernails are made (Figure 2). Analogous diffraction gratings made from alternating ultrathin layers of two materials are widely used in optical technologies to select and reflect light of a single color. For example, mirrors made from multiple layers of semiconductors are used as reflectors and color filters in devices ranging from astronomical telescopes to solid-state lasers and spectrometers. 

Figure 2

Figure 2. The iridescent blues and greens in the feathers of hummingbirds such as this Black Inca (left; part of blue iridescence highlighted with white box) are created by platelets of melanin pigment punctuated with air holes (right), which act as a photonic crystal to reflect light of a particular wavelength. K=keratin, A=air, M=melanin. (From Shawkey et al., 2009)

The male bird of paradise Lawes’ parotia (Parotia lawesii) has a particularly neat twist on this trick (Figure 3). The barbules (hair-like structures on the feather barbs) of its breast feathers contain layers of melanin spaced at a distance that creates bright orange-yellow reflection. But, as Stavenga and colleagues have recently discovered, each barbule has a V-shaped or boomerang cross-section, with sloping surfaces that also act as reflectors of blue light (Stavenga et al., 2011). Slight movements of the feathers during the bird’s courtship ritual can switch the color abruptly between yellow-orange and blue-green; guaranteed to catch a female’s eye. Stavenga suspects that technologists will want to use this trick for producing dramatic chromatic shifts. “I suspect the fashion or automobile industries will in due time make bent structures or flakes that will exploit these angular color changes”, he says. 

Figure 3a
Figure 3b

Figure 3. A striking color change in the feathers of the male Lawes’ parotia, from yellow-orange (a) to blue-green (b), is caused by the presence of two mirror-like reflectors in the feather barbules (c): layers of melanin rods reflect yellow light, while the sloping faces of the boomerang-shaped barbule cross-section reflect blue at oblique angles. Scale bar in b: 1 cm. (From Stavenga et al., 2011)

Christmas Trees

The butterflies Morpho didius and Morpho rhetenor obtain their dazzling blue color not from simple multilayer’s but from more complex nanostructures in the wing scales: arrays of ornate chitin ‘Christmas Trees’ that sprout at the surface (Vukusic & Sambles, 2003) (Figure 4). Each ‘tree’ presents a stack of disk-like layers to the incoming light, which acts as another kind of diffraction grating. These arrays may reflect up to 80 percent of the incident blue light. And because they are not flat, they can reflect a single color over a range of viewing angles, somewhat reducing the iridescence; organisms don’t always want to change color or get dimmer when seen from different directions. 

Figure 4

Figure 4. The butterfly Morpho didius (left) obtains its dazzling blue color from delicate ‘Christmas Tree’ light-scattering structures (right), made from chitin, that sprout within the wing scales. (Left, courtesy of Peter Vukusic. Right (micrograph) from Vukusic and Sambles, 2003.)

The precise color reflected depends on the refractive index contrast between the nanostructures and the surrounding medium. This is usually air, but as Robert Hooke observed, wetting such surfaces alters the refractive index contrast, and changes the color in a way that is closely linked to the wetting liquid’s refractive index. For that reason, artificial Morpho-like structures carved into solids using microlithographic techniques are being developed by researchers at GE Global Research in New York, in collaboration with others at the State University of New York at Albany and butterfly-wing expert Pete Vukusic at the University of Exeter in England, as color-change chemical sensors that can identify a range of different liquids (Potyrailo, 2011). These might find applications for sensing emissions at power plants, monitoring of food safety, and testing of water purity. 

Reflecting Bowls

The bright green color of the Emerald Swallowtail butterfly (Papilio palinurus), found widely in southeast Asia, is not produced by green light at all. The wing scales are covered with a honeycomb array of tiny bowl-shaped depressions just a few micrometers across, lined with alternating layers of chitin cuticle and air which act as reflective mirrors. Light bouncing off the bottoms of the bowls is preferentially reflected in the yellow part of the spectrum. But from the sides it is reflected twice before bouncing back, and this selects blue. Our eyes can’t resolve these yellow spots and blue rings, which merge to create the perception of green (Vukusic & Sambles, 2003). 

Figure 5

Figure 5. The green of the Emerald Swallowtail butterfly (left) comes from the optical mixing of blue and yellow reflections from tiny bowl-like depressions in the wing scales (right). (Right figure, courtesy of Christopher Summers, Georgia Institute of Technology) 

This way of making color has been copied by Summers and coworkers (Crne et al., 2011). To create the tiny bowls, they let water vapour condense as microscopic droplets, called breath figures, on the surface of a polymer dissolved in a volatile solvent. The solvent gradually evaporates to form a solid polymer film, while the water droplets pack together on the surface of the drying solution much like greengrocers’ oranges and apples in crates, sinking into the setting film to imprint an array of holes. By pulling off the top part of the film, Summers and colleagues were left with a surface with hemispherical bowl-like dimples. They then used this structure as a template on which they deposited alternating thin layers of titania and alumina to make a multilayer reflector, like that lining the bowls of the butterfly wing scales (Figure 6). 

Figure 6

Figure 6. An artificial micro-structured surface that mimics the green color of the Emerald Swallowtail. Scale bar: 5 µm. (Courtesy of Christopher Summers, Georgia Institute of Technology)

Because each reflection changes the polarization of the light, under crossed polarizing filters the yellow light bouncing back from a single reflection at the bowl centers disappears, while the twice-reflected blue-green light from the rims remains. This could offer a distinctive authentification mark on bank and credit cards. Apparently just a simple green reflective coating, such a material would in fact carry a hidden polarized signature in the reflected blue and yellow light that would be hard to counterfeit. But Summers’ collaborator Mohan Srinivasarao admits that the main reason for seeking to replicate the butterfly’s green color was that “it’s beautiful in its own right”. 

Ordered Nanosponges

Scattering by regular arrays of microscopic objects can, for some arrangements, totally exclude light within a particular band of wavelengths, called the photonic band gap (Vukusic, 2004). These so-called photonic crystals occur naturally, for example, in opal, a biogenic form of silica in which the scatterers are tiny mineral spheres. Artificial photonic crystals can be used to confine light within narrow channels, creating waveguides that might be deployed to guide light around on silicon chips for optical information technology. 

Nature has already got there first. Under the electron microscope, the wing scales the Emerald Patched Cattleheart Butterfly (Parides sesostris) display zigzagging, herring-bone arrays: patches of an orderly sponge made from chitin with holes a hundred nanometers or so across. Each patch is a photonic crystal seen from a different alignment. Stavenga and Michielsen have found that these labyrinths in the wing-scales of P. sesostris and some species of papilionid and lycaenid butterflies have a structure known to mathematicians as a gyroid (Michielsen & Stavenga, 2008). In P. sesostris the structure has a photonic band gap that enables it to reflect light within the green part of the spectrum over a wide range of incident angles (Figure 7). Some weevils and other beetles also derive their iridescent color from three-dimensional photonic crystals made of chitin. 

Figure 7

Figure 7. The wing scales of P. sesostris (top left, and close-up, top right) contain photonic crystals of chitin (bottom, middle and right) Scale bars: left, 100 µm; middle, 2 µm; right, 2 µm. (Bottom figure, from Saranathan et al., 2010)

Richard Prum and coworkers have figured out how these photonic crystals grow (Saranathan et al., 2010). The molecules in the soft membranes that template the deposition of chitin during wing-scale growth become spontaneously organized into the ‘crystalline sponge’. Biological membranes are made up of long, tadpole-like molecules called lipids, which have a water-soluble head and an oily tail. To shield the tails from water, they cluster side by side into sheets with the heads pointing outwards; the sheets then sit back to back in bilayer membranes. Pores in these membrane induce curvature, partly exposing the lipid tails and therefore incurring a cost in energy. For this reason, the pores in effect repel one another, and this can force them to become arranged in a regular way, an equal distance apart. Periodic membrane structures have been found in the cells of many different organisms, from bacteria to rats (Hyde et al., 1997). 

In P. sesostris wing-scale progenitor cells, the outer ‘plasma membrane’ and the folded membrane of the inner compartments called the endoplasmic reticulum, where lipids and other molecules are made, come together to form a so-called double-gyroid structure (Figure 8, left), in which two interweaving sets of channels divide up space into three networks that interpenetrate, but are isolated from one another. One of these is then filled with chitin, which hardens into a robust form while the cell dies and the rest of the material is degraded, leaving behind the single gyroid phase (Saranathan et al., 2010). 

It has been suggested that these natural nanostructures might be used as the templates for making artificial ones, for example, by filling the empty space around the chitin with a polymer or an inorganic solid, and then dissolving away the chitin (Saranathan et al., 2010). But it is also possible to mimic the structures from scratch. For instance, artificial bilayer membranes made from lipid-like molecules called surfactants will also form orderly sponges, and so will so-called block copolymers, in which the chain-like molecules consist of two stretches with different chemical composition (Hyde et al., 1997). Ulrich Wiesner and coworkers (Stefik et al., 2012) have mixed liquid block copolymers with nanoparticles of niobium and titanium oxide, and let the polymers form into gyroid and other ordered ‘nanosponge’ structures that usher the nanoparticles into the same arrays. When this composite is heated, the polymer is burnt away while the mineral nanoparticles coalesce into continuous networks (Figure 8, center). 

These porous solids could find a wide range of uses. Thin porous films of titanium dioxide nanoparticles coated in light-absorbing dyes are already used in low-cost solar cells. These orderly gyroid networks can offer improvements, partly because the solid material through which light-excited electrons are harvested is continuously connected rather than relying on random electrical contacts between nanoparticles. And the researchers have calculated that double-gyroid nanosponges made from metals such as silver or aluminum, which might similarly be assembled from nanoparticles guided by block copolymers, could have the weird property of a negative refractive index, meaning that they would bend light ‘the wrong way’ (Hur et al., 2011). Such materials could be used to make so-called superlenses for optical microscopes that can image objects smaller than the wavelength of light; something that isn’t possible with conventional lenses. 

Inspired by the butterfly structures, Mark Turner and colleagues (Turner et al., 2011) have used laser beams to ‘write’ these intricate three-dimensional photonic crystals directly into a commercial light-polymerizable ‘photoresist’ material (Figure 8, right). Being somewhat ‘scaled-up’ versions of the natural nanostructures, these had photonic band gaps in the infrared part of the spectrum. Current telecommunications operates mostly at infrared wavelengths, and these structures could find uses there; some, for example, have a corkscrew lattice that make them respond differently to circularly polarized light with a left- or right-handed twist. 

Figure 8

Figure 8. The gyroid phase (left), and structures mimicking the ‘butterfly gyroid’: (middle) a network of titania organized by self-assembly of a block copolymer, and (right) a larger-scale lattice made by setting a light-sensitive polymer with laser beams (scale bar: 10 µm). (Left figure, courtesy of Matthias Weber, Indiana University. Middle figure, from Stefik et al., 2012. Right figure, from Turner et al., 2011)

Photonic Crystal Fibers

The spines of some marine polychaete worms, such as Aphrodita (the sea mouse) and Pherusa, are tubular structures containing hexagonally packed hollow cylindrical channels a few hundred nanometers across and made from chitin. These arrays act as two-dimensional photonic crystals that reflect light strongly in the long-wavelength part of the spectrum, which gives the Aphrodite spine a deep, iridescent red color (Figure 9) (Parker et al., 2001; Trzeciak & Vukusic, 2009). 

Figure 9a
Figure 9b
Figure 9c

Figure 9. The tiny spines of polychaete worms such as the sea mouse (Polychaeta: Aphroditidae; top left) are natural photonic crystals. Seen close up in cross section, they consist of regularly packed hollow channels with walls of chitin. Middle left: cross-section from Pherusa (scale bar: 2 µm); center: side view of channels from Aphrodita; right: the red color of light passing through a spine of Aphrodita. Artificial photonic fibres like this can easily be made by heating and drawing out bundles of glass capillaries (bottom). They can confine light within the ‘solid’ channels even around tight bends. (Note the solid ‘defect’ in the central channel.) (Top, middle center and middle right, courtesy of Andrew Parker, University of Oxford. Middle left, from Trzeciak & Vukusic, 2009. Bottom, from Russell, 2003)

It is not clear if the optical properties of the polychaete spines have any biological function. But there are certainly uses for such light-manipulating fibres in optical technology. For example, Philip Russell and collaborators (Russell, 2003) have made them by stacking glass capillaries into hexagonally packed bundles and drawing them out under heat into narrow fibers laced through with holes. If ‘defects’ are introduced into the array of tubular channels, either by including a wider capillary or a solid rod in the bundle, light can pass along the defect while being excluded from the photonic crystal, creating an optical fiber with a cladding that is essentially impermeable to light of wavelengths within the band gap. Photonic crystal fibers like this can guide light around tighter bends than is usually possible with conventional fibers, where the light is confined less reliably by internal reflection at the fibre surface. As a result, these fibers would work better for guiding light in tightly confined spaces, such as on optical microchips. And because photonic crystal fibers are in general less ‘leaky’ than conventional ones, they could be replace them in optical telecommunications networks, requiring less power, and obviating the need for amplifiers to boost signals sent over long distances.  

Disordered Nanosponges

The splendid blue and green plumage of many birds, while also being physical rather than pigmented colors, lacks the iridescence of the hummingbird or the peacock. Instead, they have the same color viewed from any angle. They scatter light from sponge-like keratin nanostructures; but because these structures are disordered, the scattering is diffuse, like the blue of the sky, rather than mirror-like and iridescent (Dufresne et al., 2009). 

In the blue-and-yellow macaw, Ara ararauna, (Figure 10), and the black-capped kingfisher Halcyon pileata, the empty spaces in the keratin matrix of the feather barbs form tortuous channels about 100 nm wide. A similar random network of filaments in the cuticle of the Cyphochilus beetle gives it a dazzlingly bright white shell. In some other birds, such as the blue-crowned manakin, Lepidothrix coronata, the air holes are instead little spherical bubbles connected by tiny cavities. 

Figure 10a
Figure 10b

Figure 10. The blue feathers of the blue-and-yellow macaw contain sponge-like labyrinths of air and keratin (bottom left), which scatter blue light strongly in all directions. Some other feathers derive similar colors from spherical ‘bubble-like’ air holes in the keratin matrix (bottom right). Scale bars: 500 nm. (Bottom figure, from Dufresne et al., 2009)

It is believed that both of these structures are formed as keratin separates out spontaneously from the fluid cytoplasm of feather-forming cells, like oil from water (Dufresne et al., 2009). In liquid mixtures, such as solidifying molten metal alloys or polymers, such phase separation creates different structures in different conditions. If the mixture is intrinsically unstable, the components separate into disorderly, interwoven channels in a process called spinodal decomposition. But if the mixture is metastable (provisionally stable), like water supersaturated with dissolved gas, then the separating phase will form discrete blobs or bubbles that grow from very tiny ‘seeds’ or nuclei. Prum thinks that either of these processes may happen as bird feathers develop, and that birds have evolved a way of controlling the rate of keratin phase separation so that they can arrest the nanostructure at a certain size. Once the cells have died and dried, this size determines the wavelength of scattered light, and thus the feather’s color. 

This kind of diffuse light-scattering has been used for centuries as a way of making colors in technology. In milk, microscopic droplets of fat with a wide range of sizes cause scattering of all visible wavelengths, and give the liquid its opaque whiteness. Michael Faraday discovered in the nineteenth century that light scattering from nanoscale particles of gold suspended in water can create a deep reddish-purple color with a precise hue that depends on the size of the particles. Glassmakers had been using alchemical recipes to precipitate nanoscale gold particles in molten silica to make ruby glass ever since ancient times. 

Today, engineers are looking at how these random networks and particle arrays can give rise to strongly colored and high-opacity materials. Pete Vukusic and colleagues (Hallam et al., 2009) have mimicked the cuticle of Cyphochilus beetles in random porous networks made from interconnected filaments of the minerals calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide mixed with a polymer and oil liquid binders and left to dry. Guided by the size and density of filaments in the beetle shell, they were able to make thin coatings with brilliant whiteness. Meanwhile Prum, his colleague Eric Dufresne and their coworkers at Yale University (Forster et al., 2010) have mimicked the disordered sponges of bird feathers by creating films of randomly packed microscopic polymer beads, which have blue-green colors (Figure 11). 

Figure 11

Figure 11. This thin film of randomly arrayed polymer microspheres mimics the keratin matrix in the blue feathers of the blue-crowned manakin. (From Forster et al., 2010)

Color Change

One of the most enviable optical tricks in nature is to produce reversible color changes. The reflective, protean colors in the skins of squid such as the Loligidinae family are produced by a protein called reflectin, arranged into plate-like stacks in cells called iridophores, which again act as color-selective reflectors (Figure 12). The color changes are thought to be involved in both camouflage and communication between squid for mating and displays of aggression. 

Figure 12

Figure 12. Stacked plates of the reflectin protein (left) in iridophore cells (center) create tunable reflective colors in squid (right). (Center figure, courtesy of Daniel Morse, University of California at Santa Barbara)

Daniel Morse and colleagues have recently figured out how the color changes of iridophores are achieved (Tao et al., 2010). The reflectin proteins crumple up into nanoparticles, which pack together into dense arrays that make up the flat layers. These layers are sandwiched between deep folds of the cell membrane. The color change can be triggered by neurotransmitter lipid molecules called acetylcholine, which activate a biochemical process that fixes electrically charged phosphate chemical groups onto the reflectin protein. These groups largely neutralize the proteins’ intrinsic charge and allow them to pack more closely together, increasing the reflectivity of the layers. At the same time, this compaction squeezes water from between the protein particles and out of the cell, and enables the reflectin layers to sit closer together. 

Morse and colleagues (Holt et al., 2010) think that it should be possible to copy some of these tricks in optical devices, perhaps even using reflectins themselves. They have inserted the gene encoding a reflectin protein from the long-finned squid Loligo pealeii into Escherichia colibacteria. When expressed, the protein spontaneously collapses into nanoparticles (Tao et al., 2010). The size of these particles can be tuned by controlling the interactions between charged groups on the proteins using salt. Held between stacks of permeable membranes, these materials might therefore swell and contract, altering the reflected wavelengths, in response to chemical triggers. Morse and colleagues have also taken inspiration from reflectins to develop a light switch based on a wholly synthetic light-sensitive polymer. They use an electric field both to change the refractive index of the polymer and to pull salt into the polymer film to swell it. As with iridophores, this combination of effects alters the material’s response to light dramatically, switching it from transparent to opaque; all without moving parts or high-tech manufacturing methods. The team are currently working with Raytheon Vision Systems, an optics company in Goleta, California, to use this system in fast shutters for infrared cameras. 

The Art and Science of Natural Color Mixing

Many of the optical effects found in nature are not purely due to structural colors, but arise from their combination with absorbing pigments (Shawkey et al., 2009). In squid, a thin pigment layer above the reflective layer acts as a filter that can modify the appearance, for example, making it mottled; reflective and absorbing to different degrees in different places. In bird feathers, the physical colors resulting from melanin nanostructures embedded in a keratin protein matrix can be tuned by light-absorbing filters of pigments, such as carotenoids, which absorb red and yellow light. The characteristic green plumage of parrots seems to be produced by laying a yellow pigment over a blue reflective layer of melanin and keratin (Figure 13). And the purple wing tips of Purple Tip butterflies come from red pigments beneath a blue iridescent surface. 

Figure 13

Figure 13. Green is a characteristic color of parrots, but their plumage contains no green pigment, nor is it purely a structural color. Rather, it results from ‘structural blue’ overlaid with a filter of yellow pigment.

Chameleons display perhaps the most advanced mastery of these mixing tricks. Their spectacular color changes are produced by three separate systems for modifying the reflected light, stacked one atop the other. The first layer consists of cells containing red and yellow light-absorbing pigment particles, the location of which within the cell determines the color intensity. Below these are iridophores like those of squid, from which blue and white light may be selectively reflected by crystalline layers of the molecule guanine (also a component of DNA). Finally there is a layer of cells containing the dark pigment melanin, which act like the colored ‘ground’ layers of Old Master paintings to modify the reflection of light that penetrates through the first two layers. This combination of reflection and absorption enables the chameleon to adapt its skin color across a wide, albeit species-specific, range to signal warning, for mating displays, and for camouflage (Forbes, 2009). 

How pigments alter and adjust the reflected light in such cases is still imperfectly understood. One problem is that the combinations are so diverse; more than 20 different arrangements of melanin, keratin and air have been identified in the plumage of birds. Moreover, melanin is itself a light absorber, creating colors ranging from yellow to black. The bright white markings on the blue wings of the Morpho cypris butterfly are produced by simply removing the melanin from reflective multilayer structures; the mirrors remain, but the pigments do not. 

In such ways, evolution has made creative use of the limited range of materials at its disposal to generate a riot of profuse coloration and markings. A better understanding of how this is achieved could give painters and visual artists access to entirely new ways of making colors based on iridescent and pearlescent pigments, whose use has so far been largely restricted to less sophisticated applications in the automobile and cosmetic industries (Schenk & Parker, 2011). 

Painter Franziska Schenk has been exploring the mixing of structural and pigmented color during her stay as artist-in-residence in the Department of Biosciences at the University of Birmingham in the UK (Schenk, 2009). With iridescent particles, says Schenk, “the established methods of easel painting no longer apply. Their conversion to painting requires something truly innovative.” 

Schenk used iridescent particles to reproduce the starting blue of the Morpho wing in a series of paintings that change color when lit or viewed from different angles (Figure 14). The background color on which the particles are placed is central to the effect. On white, the light not reflected from the blue particles passes through and bounces off the base. This means that when not seen face-on, the blue quickly fades and is replaced by a muted yellow. But on a black background, all non-blue light is absorbed, and the blue is more pure and intense. 

Figure 14

Figure 14. Painting of a Morpho butterfly wing by Franziska Schenk, using blue pearlescent pigments. The color changes depending on the angle of illumination, as well as on the nature of the background color. (Courtesy of Franziska Schenk)

Although the brilliance of these colors doesn’t approach that of butterfly wings, it takes advantage of recent improvements in synthetic pearlescent particles. The first of these were made by coating mica flakes with multilayers of metal oxides to generate the diffraction grating. But because the mica surfaces were not perfectly smooth and the grain sizes varied, there was always a range in the precise colors and intensities of the particles. Schenk has used pigments in which the mica substrate is replaced by a transparent borosilicate glass, which is smoother and gives a purer hue. She believes that “iridescent technology is destined to introduce a previously unimaginable level of intensity and depth, thus adding beauty, luster and a dynamic dimension to art”. Schenk’s Studies of Cuttlefish (Figure 15) is a painting that uses iridescent flakes mixed with beads and wax. 

Figure 15

Figure 15. “Studies of Cuttlefish” by Franziska Schenk, using iridescent flakes mixed with beads and wax. (Courtesy of Franziska Schenk)

Another series of cuttlefish, “Mantle of Many Colours” (Figure 16), was made with iridescent paint that differs in appearance depending on the conditions and angle of lighting, which results in a compelling chameleon effect that traditional paints simply cannot create. The colors change from greens to purples as the viewing angle shifts. “Still images, together with any attempt to verbally describe the effect, are pretty limiting”, Schenk admits; you have to see these things in the flesh to appreciate their full impact. 

Figure 16

Figure 16. “Mantle of Many Colours” by Franziska Schenk, which uses iridescent paint, as seen from different angles. (Courtesy of Franziska Schenk)

Conclusion

“Every day you play with the light of the universe”, wrote the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda, but he had no idea how literally true this would become. Our technologies for transmitting, manipulating and displaying information, whether for work or play, depend increasingly on our ability to control light; to harness and transform color. Some of nature’s most stunning sights depend on such a facility too, and often they show us that beauty can be inextricably linked to utility. We are impressed by plumage, by markings and animal displays, that are specifically designed by evolution to make such an impression. And nature has found ways to make this chromatic exuberance robust, changeable, responsive, and cheap and reliable to manufacture. In shaping color without the chemical contingency of pigments, there seems to be little we can dream up that nature has not already anticipated, exploiting its capacity to fashion intricate fabrics and structures on the tiniest scales. We can only learn, and admire. 

References

Note: The current article is an extended version of Ball P (2012), “Nature’s color tricks”, Sci. Am. 306(5), 74-79.  

Crne M, Sharma V, Blair J, Park J O, Summers C J & Srinivasaro M (2011), “Biomimicry of optical microsctructures of Papilio palinurus”, Europhys. Lett. 93, 14001. 

Dufresne E R, Noh H, Saranathan V, Mochrie S G J, Cao H & Prum R O (2009), “Self-assembly of amorphous biophotonic nanostructures by phase separation”, Soft Matter 5, 1792-1795. 

Forbes P (2009), Dazzled and Deceived: Mimicry and Camouflage. Yale University Press, New Haven. 

Forster J D, Noh H, Liew S F, Saranathan V, Schrenk C F, Yang L, Park J-G, Prum R O, Mochrie S G J, O’Hern C S, Cao H & Dufresne E R (2010), “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration”, Adv. Mater. 22, 2939-2944. 

Hallam B T, Hiorns A G & Vukusic P (2009), “Developing optical efficiency through optimized coating structure: biomimetic inspiration from white beetles”, Appl. Opt. 48, 3243-3249. 

Holt A L, Wehner J G A, Hampp A & Morse D E (2010), “Plastic transmissive infrared electrochromic devices”, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 211, 1701-1707. 

Hooke R (1665), Micrographia. Reprinted by BiblioBazaar, p. 294. Charleston, South Carolina, 2007. 

Hur K, Francescato Y, Giannini V, Maier S A, Hennig R G & Wiesner U (2011), “Three-dimensionally isotropic negative refractive index materials from block copolymer self-assembled chiral gyroid networks”, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 11985-11989. 

Hyde S, Blum Z, Landh T, Lidin S, Ninham B W, Andersson S & Larsson K (1997), The Language of Shape. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 

Michielsen K and Stavenga D G (2008), “Gyroid cuticular structures in butterfly wing scales: biological photonic crystals”, J. R. Soc. Interface 5, 85-94. 

Parker A R, McPhedran R C, McKenzie D R, Botten L C & Nicorovici N-A P (2001), “Aphrodite’s iridescence”, Nature 409, 36-37. 

Potyrailo R A (2011), “Bio-inspired device offers new model for vapor sensing”, SPIE Newsroom, 10.1117/2.1201103.003568. 

Russell P (2003), “Photonic crystal fibers”, Science 299, 358-362. 

Saranathan V, Osuji C O, Mochrie S G J, Noh H, Narayanan S, Sandy A, Dufresne E R & Prum R O (2010), “Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales”, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11676-11681. 

Schenk F (2009), “Nature’s fluctuating colour captured on canvas?”, Int. J. Design & Nature and Ecodynamics 4(3), 1-11. 

Schenk F & Parker A (2011), “Iridescent color: from nature to the painter’s palette”, Leonardo 4(2) [no page numbers]. 

Shawkey M D, Morehouse N I & Vukusic, P (2009), “A protean palette: colour materials and mixing in birds and butterfiles”, J. R. Soc. Interface 6, S221-S231. 

Stavenga D G, Leertouwer H L, Marshall N J & Osorio D (2011), “Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules”, Proc. R. Soc. B 278, 2098-2104. 

Stefik M, Wang S, Hovden R, Sai H, Tate M W, Muller D A, Steiner U, Gruner S M & Wiesner U (2012), “Networked and chiral nanocomposites from ABC triblock terpolymer coassembly with transition metal oxide nanoparticles”, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 1078-1087. 

Tao A R, DeMartini D G, Izumi M, Sweeney A M, Holt A L & Morse D E (2010), “The role of protein assembly in dynamically tunable bio-optical tissues”, Biomaterials 31, 793-801. 

Turner M D, Schröder-Turk G E & Gu M (2011), “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional biomimetic chiral composites”, Opt. Express 19(10), 10001-10008. 

Vukusic P and Sambles J R (2003), “Photonic structures in biology”, Nature 424, 852-855. 

Vukusic P (2004), “Natural photonics”, Physics World 17 (2), 35-39. 

Trzeciak T M & Vukusic P (2009), “Photonic crystal fiber in the polychaete worm Pherusa sp.”, Phys. Rev. E 80, 061908. 

Wolpert H D (2009), “Optical filters in nature”, Optics and Photonics News 20(2), 22-27. 

05/30/12 

Technology of Nanostructures

Colloidal Self Assembly for fabrication of Photonic nanostructures including

  • Colloidal crystals
  • Composite and Inverse Opals
  • Photonic Glasses

Applications

  • Displays
  • Optical Devices
  • Photochemistry
  • Biological Sensors

Source: Self-assembled colloidal structures for photonics

My related posts

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Digital Color and Imaging

Color and Imaging in Digital Video and Cinema

Shapes and Patterns in Nature

Growth and Form in Nature: Power Laws and Fractals

On Luminescence: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Bioluminescence

Color Change: In Biology and Smart Pigments Technology

Optics of Metallic and Pearlescent Colors

Selected Review Papers

Structural colors: from natural to artificial systems

Self-assembled colloidal structures for photonics

Bioinspired Stimuli-Responsive Color-Changing Systems

Structural coloration in nature

Emerging optical properties from the combination of simple optical effects
Artificial Structural Color Pixels: A Review

https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/10/8/944/htm

Bio-Inspired Variable Structural Color Materials

Bio-inspired intelligent structural color materials

Biomimetic and Bioinspired Photonic Structures

Key Sources of Research

Structural color materials in evolution

Volume 19, Issue 8, Page 420–421 | Luoran Shang, Zhongze Gu, Yuanjin Zhao

https://www.materialstoday.com/amorphous/articles/s136970211600095x/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136970211600095X?via%3Dihub

Crafting Color

by KATHERINE XUE

Harvard Magazine 2014

JULY-AUGUST 2014

https://harvardmagazine.com/2014/07/crafting-color

A Different Form of Structural Color in Birds

Molly Moser

https://www.osa-opn.org/home/newsroom/2020/may/a_different_form_of_structural_color_in_birds/

Tunable Structural Color Patterns Based on the Visible‐Light‐Responsive Dynamic Diselenide Metathesis

Cheng LiuZhiyuan FanYizheng TanFuqiang FanHuaping Xu

First published: 06 February 2020

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adma.201907569

Structural color and its interaction with other color-producing elements: perspectives from spiders

Bor-Kai HsiungTodd A. BlackledgeMatthew D. Shawkey

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/9187/91870B/Structural-color-and-its-interaction-with-other-color-producing-elements/10.1117/12.2060831.short?SSO=1

Structural Colour in Nature

Cambridge University

https://www.ch.cam.ac.uk/group/vignolini/research/structural-colour-nature

Angle-independent structural colors of silicon

Emil Højlund-NielsenJohannes WeirichJesper NørregaardJoergen GarnaesN. Asger MortensenAnders Kristensen

J. of Nanophotonics, 8(1), 083988 (2014)

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/journals/journal-of-nanophotonics/volume-8/issue-1/083988/Angle-independent-structural-colors-of-silicon/10.1117/1.JNP.8.083988.short?SSO=1

Omnidirectional Structural Color

Recommended paper in Journal of Nanophotonics.

01 October 2014 

Tom Mackay

https://spie.org/news/spie-professional-magazine-archive/2014-october/hilites-jnp-omnidirectional-structural-color?SSO=1

Structural color switching with a doped indium-gallium-zinc-oxide semiconductor 

Inki Kim, Juyoung Yun, Trevon Badloe, Hyuk Park, Taewon Seo, Younghwan Yang, Juhoon Kim, Yoonyoung Chung, and Junsuk Rho

Polymer opal with brilliant structural color under natural light and white environment

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 August 2015

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-materials-research/article/abs/polymer-opal-with-brilliant-structural-color-under-natural-light-and-white-environment/FEB1DB9D31744F911EB53BDFADC1702C

Structural colors from cellulose-based polymers

Self-assembly of responsive photonic biobased materials in liquid marbles

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-08/w-scf082820.php

Bio-inspired robust non-iridescent structural color with self-adhesive amorphous colloidal particle arrays

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/nr/c7nr08056e#!divAbstract

Transmissive/Reflective Structural Color Filters: Theory and Applications


Yan Yu,1,2 Long Wen,2 Shichao Song,2 and Qin Chen2,3

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/212637/

Structural coloration and its application to textiles: a review

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00405000.2019.1663623

Engineers make clear droplets produce iridescent colors

https://news.mit.edu/2019/water-droplets-structural-color-0227

Colouration by total internal reflection and interference at microscale concave interfaces

Nature 566, pages 523–527 (2019)

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-0946-4

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00638-4

Structural color for wood coloring: A Review

Hu, J., Liu, Y., and Wu, Z. (2020). “Structural color for wood coloring: A Review,” BioResources, 15(4), 9917-9934.

Structural colour using organized microfibrillation in glassy polymer films

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1299-8

Crazy colour printing without ink

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01856-6

Colour without colourants

Nature volume 472, pages423–424(2011)

https://www.nature.com/articles/472423a

Structural Color in Animals

https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-90-481-9751-4_384

Biomimetics of Optical Nanostructures

https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-90-481-9751-4_393

Highly selective photonic glass filter for saturated blue structural color 

APL Photonics 4, 046101 (2019

https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.5084138

Photonic glass based structural color

APL Photonics 5, 060901 (2020

https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0006203

Self-assembling structural colour in nature

Stephanie L Burg1 and Andrew J Parnell1

Published 20 September 2018 • © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd
Journal of Physics: Condensed MatterVolume 30Number 41

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-648X/aadc95

Structural colour

BY ANGELI MEHTA

25 MAY 2018

https://www.chemistryworld.com/features/structural-colour/3009020.article

Structural coloration in nature 

Jiyu Sun,*abBharat Bhushan*b  and  Jin Tonga

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2013/ra/c3ra41096j#!divAbstract

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255772388_Structural_coloration_in_nature

MECHANICS OF STRUCTURAL COLOR

https://mechse.illinois.edu/news/blogs/mechanics-structural-color

Color from Structure

https://www.the-scientist.com/cover-story/color-from-structure-39860

6 – Structural Color in Nature: Basic Observations and Analysis

Shinya Yoshioka

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123970145000067

Nanophotonic Structural Colors

  • Soroosh Daqiqeh Rezaei*
  • Zhaogang Dong, 
  • John You En Chan, 
  • Jonathan Trisno, 
  • Ray Jia Hong Ng, 
  • Qifeng Ruan, 
  • Cheng-Wei Qiu, 
  • N. Asger Mortensen, and 
  • Joel K.W. Yang*

 ACS Photonics 2020, Publication Date:July 28, 2020

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsphotonics.0c00947

Iridescence-controlled and flexibly tunable retroreflective structural color film for smart displays

  1. Wen Fan1,*
  2. Jing Zeng1,*
  3. Qiaoqiang Gan2,3,*
  4. Dengxin Ji2
  5. Haomin Song2
  6. Wenzhe Liu4
  7. Lei Shi4 and 
  8. Limin Wu1,

Science Advances  09 Aug 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 8,

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/8/eaaw8755

Designing Structural-Color Patterns Composed of Colloidal Arrays

  • Jong Bin Kim, 
  • Seung Yeol Lee, 
  • Jung Min Lee, and 
  • Shin-Hyun Kim*

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.8b21276

Physics, Development, and Evolution of Structural Coloration

Prum Lab

Yale Iniv

https://prumlab.yale.edu/research/physics-development-and-evolution-structural-coloration

Structural colors in nature: the role of regularity and irregularity in the structure

Shuichi Kinoshita 1Shinya Yoshioka

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16015669/

Structural Colors in the Realm of Nature

https://doi.org/10.1142/6496 | October 2008Pages: 368

https://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/6496

Self-assembling structural colour in nature

Stephanie L Burg1 and Andrew J Parnell1

Published 20 September 2018 • © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd
Journal of Physics: Condensed MatterVolume 30Number 41

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-648X/aadc95

Structural Colors In Butterflies

http://www.uvm.edu/~dahammon/Structural_Colors/Structural_Colors/Structural_Colors_In_Butterflies.html

Video: Silica layer enables tuning of structural colors for biocompatible pigments that don’t fade in tattoos, paints, foods, and more

Bioinspired bright noniridescent photonic melanin supraballs

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/9/e1701151/tab-pdf

Nature’s Fantastical Palette: Color from Structure

Philip Ball
18 Hillcourt Road
East Dulwich
London SE22 0PE, UK
p.ball@btinternet.com

http://photobiology.info/Ball.html

Bio-inspired intelligent structural color materials

Luoran Shang, page2image1859075856ab Weixia Zhang, page2image1859077760b Ke Xuc and Yuanjin Zhao

Bio-inspired variable structural color materials

Yuanjin Zhao,w Zhuoying Xie,w Hongcheng Gu, Cun Zhu and Zhongze Gu

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41, 3297–3317

Self-Assembly of Colloidal Particles for Fabrication of Structural Color Materials toward Advanced Intelligent Systems

Heng Zhang, Xiuming Bu, SenPo Yip, Xiaoguang Liang, and Johnny C. Ho

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/aisy.201900085

Spherical Colloidal Photonic Crystals with Selected Lattice Plane Exposure and Enhanced Color Saturation for Dynamic Optical Displays

Jing Zhang,† Zhijun Meng,‡ Ji Liu,§ Su Chen,† and Ziyi Yu

Photonic Crystal Structures with Tunable Structure Color as Colorimetric Sensors 

by Hui Wang and Ke-Qin Zhang

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/13/4/4192/htm

Color from hierarchy: Diverse optical properties of micron-sized spherical colloidal assemblies

Nicolas Vogel, Stefanie Utech, Grant T. England, Tanya Shirman, Katherine R. Phillips, Natalie Koay, Ian B. Burgess, Mathias Kolle, David A. Weitz, and Joanna Aizenberg

PNAS September 1, 2015 112 (35) 10845-10850; first published August 19, 2015;

https://www.pnas.org/content/112/35/10845.full

Structural Color Patterns on Paper Fabricated by Inkjet Printer and Their Application in Anticounterfeiting

Phys. Chem. Lett. 2017, 8, 13, 2835–2841Publication Date:June 9, 2017

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jpclett.7b01372

Artificial Structural Color Pixels: A Review 

by Yuqian Zhao 1Yong Zhao 1,*Sheng Hu 1Jiangtao Lv 1Yu Ying 2Gediminas Gervinskas 3 and Guangyuan Si 3,*1

College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China2College of Information & Control Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China3Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia*Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed. 

Materials 201710(8), 944; 

https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/10/8/944/htm

Bioinspired structural color sensors based on responsive soft materials

Meng Qin, Mo Sun, Mutian Hua, Ximin He⁎

Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science

Progress in polydopamine-based melanin mimetic materials for structural color generation

Michinari Kohri

Science and Technology of Advanced Materials,

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/14686996.2020.1852057

Engineering Light at the Nanoscale: Structural Color Filters and Broadband Perfect Absorbers

Chengang Ji, Kyu-Tae Lee, Ting Xu, Jing Zhou, Hui Joon Park, and L. Jay Guo

https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/138917/adom201700368_am.pdf?sequence=1

Biomimetic photonic materials with tunable structural colors

JunXuaZhiguangGuo

Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Volume 406, 15 September 2013, Pages 1-17

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0021979713004554

Antibacterial Structural Color Hydrogels

Zhuoyue Chen,† Min Mo,‡ Fanfan Fu,† Luoran Shang,† Huan Wang,† Cihui Liu,† and Yuanjin Zhao

Designing the iridescences of biopolymers by assembly of photonic crystal superlattices

Yu Wang, Meng Li, Elena Colusso, Wenyi Li, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto*

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/am-pdf/10.1002/adom.201800066

Structural Colored Gels for Tunable Soft Photonic Crystals

MOHAMMAD HARUN-UR-RASHID, TAKAHIRO SEKI, YUKIKAZU TAKEOKA

The Chemical Record, Vol. 9, 87–105 (2009)
© 2009 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Responsive Amorphous Photonic Structures of Spherical/Polyhedral Colloidal Metal–Organic Frameworks

Ling Bai, Yuheng He, Jiajing Zhou, Yun Lim, Van Cuong Mai, Yonghao Chen, Shuai Hou, Yue Zhao, Jun Zhang,* and Hongwei Duan*

Advanced Optical Materials · April 2019

Plasmonic- and dielectric-based structural coloring: from fundamentals to practical applications

Nano Convergence volume 5, Article number: 1 (2018)

https://nanoconvergencejournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40580-017-0133-y

Emerging optical properties from the combination of simple optical effects

Grant T Englandand Joanna Aizenberg

Rep. Prog. Phys. 81 (2018) 016402 (12pp)

Artificial selection for structural color on butterfly wings and comparison with natural evolution

Bethany R. Wasika,1, Seng Fatt Liewb,1, David A. Lilienb,1, April J. Dinwiddiea, Heeso Nohb,c, Hui Caob,2, and Antónia Monteiroa,d,e,2

METHOD OF GENERATING STRUCTURAL COLOR

(75) Inventors:SunghoonKwon,Seoul(KR);Hyoki Kim,Seoul(KR)

(73) Assignee:SNUR&DBFoundation,Seoul(KR)

US8,889,234B2 /2014

Coherent light scattering by blue feather barbs

NATURE | VOL 396 | 5 NOVEMBER 1998

How Structural Coloration Gives the Morpho Butterfly Its Gorgeous Iridescent Blue Color

by Lori Dorn on February 11, 2015

Biomimetic Isotropic Nanostructures for Structural Coloration

Jason D. ForsterHeeso NohSeng Fatt LiewVinodkumar SaranathanCarl F. SchreckLin YangJin‐Gyu ParkRichard O. PrumSimon G. J. MochrieCorey S. O’HernHui CaoEric R. Dufresne

Advanced Materials

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adma.200903693

Structural color

Harvard

https://manoharan.seas.harvard.edu/structural-color

Structural coloration in nature

Jiyu Sun, Bharat Bhushan and Jin Tong

RSC Advances, 2013, 3, 14862

Structural color printing: full color printing with single ink

Hyoki KimJianping GeJunhoi KimSung-Eun ChoiHosuk LeeHowon LeeWook ParkYadong YinSunghoon Kwon

Proceedings Volume 7609, Photonic and Phononic Crystal Materials and Devices X; 760916 (2010)

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/7609/760916/Structural-color-printing-full-color-printing-with-single-ink/10.1117/12.841420.short?SSO=1

Structural colors in nature: the role of regularity and irregularity in the structure

Shuichi Kinoshita 1Shinya Yoshioka

Chemphyschem 2005 Aug 12;6(8):1442-59

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16015669/

Mechanisms of structural colour in the Morpho butterfly: cooperation of regularity and irregularity in an iridescent scale.

Shuichi KinoshitaShinya Yoshioka, and  Kenji Kawagoe

Proc Biol Sci. 2002 Jul 22;269(1499):1417-21.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12137569/

Structural Colours in Feathers

Nature volume 112, page243(1923)

https://www.nature.com/articles/112243a0


Angle-independent Structural Coloured Materials inspired by Blue Feather Barbs

Yukikazu TAKEOKA
NIPPON GOMU KYOKAISHI (2014)

Stimuli-responsive opals: colloidal crystals and colloidal amorphous arrays for use in functional structurally colored materials

Yukikazu Takeoka
Journal of Materials Chemistry C (2013)

Angle-independent structural coloured amorphous arrays

Yukikazu Takeoka
Journal of Materials Chemistry (2012)

Full-Spectrum Photonic Pigments with Non-iridescent Structural Colors through Colloidal Assembly

Jin-Gyu Park, Shin-Hyun Kim, Sofia Magkiriadou, Tae Min Choi, Young-Seok Kim, Vinothan N. Manoharan*

Angewandte Chemie International Edition 53(11): 2899 (2014)

https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/24873725/submitted_version-postprint.pdf?sequence=1

Amorphous Photonic Structures with Brilliant and Noniridescent Colors via Polymer-Assisted Colloidal Assembly

Yang Hu, Dongpeng Yang,* and Shaoming Huang*

ACS Omega 2019, 4, 18771−18779

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acsomega.9b02734

Viburnum tinus Fruits Use Lipids to Produce Metallic Blue Structural Color

Rox Middleton,1,8,10 Miranda Sinnott-Armstrong,2,9,10 Yu Ogawa,3 Gianni Jacucci,1 Edwige Moyroud,4,5 Paula J. Rudall,6 Chrissie Prychid,6 Maria Conejero,6 Beverley J. Glover,7 Michael J. Donoghue,2 and Silvia Vignolini

In-Plane Direct-Write Assembly of Iridescent Colloidal Crystals

Alvin T. L. Tan, Sara Nagelberg, Elizabeth Chang-Davidson, Joel Tan, Joel K. W. Yang, Mathias Kolle, and A. John Hart

Fabrication of non-iridescent structural color on silk surface by rapid T polymerization of dopamine

Xiaowei Zhu, Biaobiao Yan, Xiaojie Yan, Tianchen Wei, Hongli Yao, Md Shipan Mia, Tieling Xing*, Guoqiang Chen

Bioinspired Stimuli-Responsive Color-Changing Systems

Golnaz Isapour and Marco Lattuada

Advanced Materials 30(19): 1707069

Plasmonic films based on colloidal lithography

Bin Ai a, Ye Yu a, Helmuth Möhwald b, Gang Zhang a,⁎, Bai Yang

Advances in Colloid and Interface Science

Printing a Wide Gamut of Saturated Structural Colors Using Binary Mixtures, With Applications in Anti-Counterfeiting

March 2020

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340326621_Printing_a_Wide_Gamut_of_Saturated_Structural_Colors_Using_Binary_Mixtures_With_Applications_in_Anti-Counterfeiting

Template Synthesis for Stimuli-Responsive Angle Independent Structural Colored Smart Materials

Mohammad Harun-Ur-Rashid1, Abu Bin Imran1, Takahiro Seki1, Yukikazu Takeoka1*, Masahiko Ishii2 and Hiroshi Nakamura2

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tmrsj/34/2/34_333/_pdf

Optical Characterization of the Photonic Ball as a Structurally Colored Pigment

Ryosuke Ohnuki,* Miki Sakai, Yukikazu Takeoka, and Shinya Yoshioka

2020

HIGHLY DIFFRACTING, COLORSHIFTING, POLYMERIZED CRYSTALLINE COLLODAL ARRAYS OF HIGHILY CHARGED POLYMER SPHERES, PAINTS AND COATINGS AND PROCESSES FOR MAKING THE SAME

Matti Ben-Moshe, Reut(IL);

Sanford A. Asher, Pitsburgh, PA(US);

Justin J.Bohn, Pitsburgh, PA(US)

US7,902,272B2 /2011

Structural colors: from natural to artificial systems

Yulan Fu,1 Cary A. Tippets,2 Eugenii U. Donev3 and Rene Lopez

WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016

Structural color and its interaction with other color-producing elements: perspectives from spiders

Bor-Kai Hsiung*, Todd A Blackledge, and Matthew D Shawkey
Department of Biology and Integrated Bioscience Program, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio

Self-assembled colloidal structures for photonics

Shin-Hyun Kim1, Su Yeon Lee2, Seung-Man Yang2* and Gi-Ra Yi3*

Harvard University, USA, KAIST and Chungbuk National University, Korea

Chameleon-Inspired Strain-Accommodating Smart Skin

Yixiao Dong,† Alisina Bazrafshan,† Anastassia Pokutta,‡ Fatiesa Sulejmani,‡ Wei Sun,‡ J. Dale Combs,† Kimberly C. Clarke,† and Khalid Salaita

ACS Nano XXXX, XXX, XXX−XXX

A composite hydrogels-based photonic crystal multi-sensor

Cheng Chen1, Zhigang Zhu1, Xiangrong Zhu1, Wei Yu1, Mingju Liu1, Qiaoqiao Ge1 and Wei-Heng Shih2

Published 16 April 2015 • 
Materials Research ExpressVolume 2Number 4

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2053-1591/2/4/046201/pdf

Template Synthesis for Stimuli-Responsive Angle Independent Structural Colored Smart Materials

Article in Transactions of the Materials Research Society of Japan

February 2009

PATTERNED SILK INVERSE OPAL PHOTONIC CRYSTALS WITH TUNABLE, GEOMETRICALLY DEFINED STRUCTURAL COLOR

US Patent US2019/018731A1

Fiorenzo G.Omenetto, Lexington,MA (US);

YuWang, Medford, MA (US)

Bioinspired colloidal materials with special optical, mechanical, and cell-mimetic functions

Taiji Zhang, Yurong Ma and Limin Qi*

J. Mater. Chem. B, 2013, 1, 251

DYNAMICALLY TUNABLE PLASMONIC STRUCTURAL COLOR

DANIEL FRANKLIN

PhD Thesis 2018

Wetting in Color: Colorimetric Differentiation of Organic Liquids with High Selectivity

Ian B. Burgess,†,* Natalie Koay,‡,§, Kevin P. Raymond,‡,§, Mathias Kolle,† Marko Loncar,† and Joanna Aizenberg†,‡,^,*

Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern

Jae-Jun Kima, Youngseop Leea, Ha Gon Kimb, Ki-Ju Choic, Hee-Seok Kweonc, Seongchong Parkd, and Ki-Hun Jeong

PNAS | November 13, 2012 | vol. 109 | no. 46

Functional Micro–Nano Structure with Variable Colour: Applications for Anti-Counterfeiting

Hailu Liu , Dong Xie, Huayan Shen, Fayong Li, and Junjia Chen

Hindawi
Advances in Polymer Technology
Volume 2019, Article ID 6519018, 26 pages

REVIEW ARTICLE
515 million years of structural colour

Andrew Richard Parker

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2000) R15–R28

Colloidal Crystals from Microfluidics

Feika Bian, Lingyu Sun, Lijun Cai, Yu Wang, Yuetong Wang, and Yuanjin Zhao

Small 2019, 1903931

Nanochemistry Chapter 1

Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly

Mathias Kolle1,2, Pedro M. Salgard-Cunha1, Maik R. J. Scherer1, Fumin Huang1, Pete Vukusic3, Sumeet Mahajan1, Jeremy J. Baumberg1 & Ullrich Steiner

Cambridge Univ

Nature Nanotechnology, 2010, (5) 511-515

Bioinspired bright noniridescent photonic melanin supraballs

Ming Xiao,1* Ziying Hu,2,3* Zhao Wang,4 Yiwen Li,5 Alejandro Diaz Tormo,6 Nicolas Le Thomas,6 Boxiang Wang,7 Nathan C. Gianneschi,2,3,4† Matthew D. Shawkey,8,9† Ali Dhinojwala

Sci. Adv. 2017;3:e1701151 15 September 2017

Structural Color and Odors: Towards a Photonic Crystal Nose Platform

Leonardo da Silva Bonifacio

PhD Thesis 2010

The Self-Assembly of Cellulose Nanocrystals: Hierarchical Design of Visual Appearance

Richard M. Parker, Giulia Guidetti, Cyan A. Williams, Tianheng Zhao, Aurimas Narkevicius, Silvia Vignolini,* and Bruno Frka-Petesic

Adv. Mater. 201830, 1704477

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/adma.201704477

Bio-inspired design of multiscale structures for function integration

Kesong Liua, Lei Jiang

A ROBUST SMART FILM :REVERSIBLY SWITCHING FROM HIGH TRANSPARENCY TO ANGLE-INDEPENDENT STRUCTURAL COLOR DISPLAY

US Patent 2018

US2018/024876A1

Inventors:Shu YANG, BlueBel, PA(US);

Deng teng GE, Shanzhai(CN);

Elaine LEE,Brooklyn,NY (US)

https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/78/03/19/ade3c5123148cb/US20180244876A1.pdf

Optimization of sharp and viewing-angle-independent structural color

Chia Wei Hsu,1,2,∗ Owen D. Miller,3 Steven G. Johnson,3 and Marin Soljacˇic ́1

Bioinspired living structural color hydrogels

Fanfan Fu, Luoran Shang, Zhuoyue Chen, Yunru Yu, Yuanjin Zhao

SCIENCE ROBOTICS

Measuring and specifying goniochromatic colors

Alejandro Ferrero1, Joaquín Campos1, Esther Perales2, Ana M. Rabal1, Francisco Martínez-Verdú2, Alicia Pons1, Elisabet Chorro2 and M. Luisa Hernanz

Bio-Inspired Photonic Structures: Prototypes, Fabrications and Devices

By Feng Liu, Biqin Dong and Xiaohan Liu

Submitted: November 5th 2011Reviewed: May 28th 2012Published: September 19th 2012

https://www.intechopen.com/books/optical-devices-in-communication-and-computation/bio-inspired-photonic-structures-prototypes-fabrications-and-devices

Photobiology

The Science of Light and Life
  • Lars Olof Björn

https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4939-1468-5

“Guanigma”: The Revised Structure of Biogenic Anhydrous Guanine 

Anna Hirsch,† Dvir Gur,‡ Iryna Polishchuk,§ Davide Levy,§ Boaz Pokroy,§ Aurora J. Cruz-Cabeza,∥ Lia Addadi,*,‡ Leeor Kronik,*,† and Leslie Leiserowitz*,†

Natural photonics 

Pate Vukusic

Stimuli-Responsive Structurally Colored Films from Bioinspired Synthetic Melanin Nanoparticles

Ming Xiao,†,# Yiwen Li,‡,#,○ Jiuzhou Zhao,† Zhao Wang,‡ Min Gao,§ Nathan C. Gianneschi,*,‡ Ali Dhinojwala,*,† and Matthew D. Shawkey

Chem. Mater. 2016, 28, 5516−5521

A Microfluidic Chip with Integrated Colloidal Crystal for Online Optical Analysis

Siew-Kit Hoi, Xiao Chen, Vanga Sudheer Kumar, Sureerat Homhuan, Chorng-Haur Sow, and Andrew A. Bettiol*

Highly monodisperse zwitterion functionalized non-spherical polymer particles with tunable iridescence

Vivek Arjunan Vasantha*aWendy RusliaChen JunhuiaZhao WenguangaKandammathe Valiyaveedu SreekanthbcRanjan Singhbc and Anbanandam Parthiban*a 

 RSC Adv., 2019, 9, 27199-27207

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2019/ra/c9ra05162g

Stimuli-responsive opals: colloidal crystals and colloidal amorphous arrays for use in functional structurally colored materials

Yukikazu Takeoka

J. Mater. Chem. C, 2013, 1, 6059

Biomimetic and Bioinspired Photonic Structures

Wu Yi, Ding-Bang Xiong * and Di Zhang

Nano Adv., 2016, 1, 62–70.

Bio-inspired photonic crystal patterns

Pingping Wu,abJingxia Wang *abc  and  Lei Jiang

https://pubs.rsc.org/no/content/articlelanding/2020/mh/c9mh01389j/unauth#!divAbstract

Stretchable and reflective displays: materials, technologies and strategies

Nano Convergence volume 6, Article number: 21 (2019)

https://nanoconvergencejournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40580-019-0190-5

Colloidal Lithography

By Ye Yu and Gang Zhang

2013

https://www.intechopen.com/books/updates-in-advanced-lithography/colloidal-lithography

Structure and mechanical properties of beetle wings: a review 

Jiyu Sun and Bharat Bhushan

RSC Advances, 2012, 2, 12606–12623

A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

Ling LiStefan KolleJames C. WeaverChristine OrtizJoanna Aizenberg & Mathias Kolle 

Nature Communications volume 6, Article number: 6322 (2015) 

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms7322/

Fabrication of 3D polymeric photonic arrays and related applications 

A. Yadav a, *, A. Kaushik b, Y. Mishra c, V. Agrawal d, A. Ahmadivan e, K. Maliutina f, Y. Liu g, Z. Ouyang h, W. Dong a, **, G.J. Cheng

Materials Today Chemistry, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtchem.2019.100208

Reversible Design of Dynamic Assemblies at Small Scales

Fernando Soto, Jie Wang, Shreya Deshmukh, and Utkan Demirci

Adv. Intell. Syst. 2020, 2000193

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/aisy.202000193

Biological composites— complex structures for functional diversity.

Eder, M., Shahrouz, A., & Fratzl, P. (2018).

Science, 362(6414), 543-547.

Stimuli-Responsive Optical Nanomaterials

Zhiwei Li, and Yadong Yin

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/am-pdf/10.1002/adma.201807061

Bio-Inspired Structural Colors Produced via Self-Assembly of Synthetic Melanin Nanoparticles

Ming Xiao,†,^ Yiwen Li,‡,^ Michael C. Allen,§ Dimitri D. Deheyn,§ Xiujun Yue,‡ Jiuzhou Zhao,† Nathan C. Gianneschi,*,‡ Matthew D. Shawkey,*, and Ali Dhinojwala

ACS Nano 2015

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acsnano.5b01298

Pigments Based on Colloidal Photonic Crystals

Carlos Israel Aguirre Vélez

PhD Thesis 2010

Structural Colors in Nature: The Role of Regularity and Irregularity in the Structure

Shuichi Kinoshita* and Shinya Yoshioka

ChemPhysChem 2005, 6, 1442 – 1459

Flexible mechanochromic photonic crystals: routes to visual sensors and their mechanical properties

Rui Zhang, Qing Wang  and Xu Zheng

J. Mater. Chem. C, 2018, 6, 3182

Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

VILLADS EGEDE JOHANSEN,1,* LASSE HØJLUND THAMDRUP,2 KRISTIAN SMISTRUP,2 THEODOR NIELSEN,2 OLE SIGMUND,1 AND PETER VUKUSIC

Vol. 2, No. 3 / March 2015 / Optica

Subwavelength nanocavity for flexible structural transmissive color generation with a wide viewing angle

KYU-TAE LEE,1 JI-YUN JANG,2 SANG JIN PARK,2 UJWAL KUMAR THAKUR,2 CHENGANG JI,1 L. JAY GUO,1 AND HUI JOON PARK

Vol. 3, No. 12 / December 2016 / Optica

Color and Texture Morphing with Colloids on Multilayered Surfaces

Ziguang Chen,†,‡,⊥ Shumin Li,†,‡,⊥ Andrew Arkebauer,§ George Gogos,† and Li Tan

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2015, 7, 10125−10131

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/am5087215

Electrodeposition of Large Area, Angle-Insensitive Multilayered Structural Colors

Chengang Ji,1,† Saurabh Acharya,1,† Kaito Yamada,2 Stephen Maldonado,2,3,* and L. Jay Guo

https://par.nsf.gov/servlets/purl/10111165

Bright and Vivid Diffractive-Plasmonic Structural Colors

Emerson G. Melo,†,‡,§ Ana L. A. Ribeiro,†,‡ Rodrigo S. Benevides,†,‡ Antonio A. G. V. Zuben,†,‡ Marcos V. P. Santos,† Alexandre A. Silva,¶ Gustavo S. Wiederhecker,†,‡ and Thiago P. M. Alegre

2019

Biomimetic photonic structures for optical sensing

Raúl J. Martín-Palmaa, Mathias Kolle

Optics and Laser Technology 109

2019

􏰀􏰁􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰅 􏰇􏰈􏰉 􏰊􏰇􏰅􏰋􏰌 􏰍􏰋􏰄􏰎􏰈􏰏􏰐􏰏􏰑􏰒 􏰓􏰔􏰕 􏰖􏰗􏰔􏰓􏰕􏰘 􏰗􏰙􏰔􏰚􏰀􏰁􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰅 􏰇􏰈􏰉 􏰊􏰇􏰅􏰋􏰌 􏰍􏰋􏰄􏰎􏰈􏰏􏰐􏰏􏰑􏰒 􏰓􏰔􏰕 􏰖􏰗􏰔􏰓􏰕􏰘 􏰗􏰙􏰔􏰚􏰗􏰙􏰙

Colloidal Self-Assembly Concepts for Plasmonic Metasurfaces

Martin Mayer, Max J. Schnepf, Tobias A. F. König,* and Andreas Fery

Adv. Optical Mater. 20197, 1800564

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/adom.201800564

Flourishing Smart Flexible Membranes Beyond Paper

Anal. Chem. 2019, 91, 7, 4224–4234

Publication Date:March 18, 2019

https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00743

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00743

Biological vs. Electronic Adaptive Coloration: How Can One Inform the Other?

Eric Kreit1, Lydia M. Mäthger2, Roger T. Hanlon2, Patrick B. Dennis3, Rajesh R. Naik3, Eric Forsythe4 and Jason Heikenfeld1*

Dynamic plasmonic color generation enabled by functional materials

  1. Frank Neubrech
  2. Xiaoyang Duan
  3. Na Liu

Science Advances  04 Sep 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 36, eabc2709
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abc2709

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/36/eabc2709

The New Generation of Physical Effect Colorants

Faiz Rahman and Nigel P. Johnson

Optics and Photonics News

2008

https://www.osa-opn.org/home/articles/volume_19/issue_2/features/the_new_generation_of_physical_effect_colorants/

The Japanese jewel beetle: a painter’s challenge

Franziska Schenk1, Bodo D Wiltsand Doekele G Stavenga2

Bioinspir. Biomim. (2013) 045002 (10pp)

Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

Ainsley E. Seago1,*, Parrish Brady2, Jean-Pol Vigneron3 and Tom D. Schultz4

Iridescence as Camouflage

Karin Kjernsmo,1,4,* Heather M. Whitney,1 Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel,2 Joanna R. Hall,2 Henry Knowles,1 Laszlo Talas,2,3 and Innes C. Cuthill1

Current Biology

VOLUME 30, ISSUE 3, P551-555.E3, FEBRUARY 03, 2020

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdfExtended/S0960-9822(19)31608-2

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(19)31608-2?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982219316082%3Fshowall%3Dtrue

Chromic Phenomena: Technological Applications of Colour Chemistry

Peter Bamfield

Book, Royal Society of Chemistry 2018 edition

Amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal in the feather barbs of the scarlet macaw

Haiwei Yina,1, Biqin Donga,1, Xiaohan Liua, Tianrong Zhana, Lei Shia, Jian Zia,2, and Eli Yablonovitchb,2

PNAS | July 24, 2012 | vol. 109 | no. 30

Amorphous Photonic Crystals with Only Short-Range Order

Lei Shi, Yafeng Zhang, Biqin Dong, Tianrong Zhan, Xiaohan Liu,* and Jian Zi

Adv. Mater. 201325, 5314–5320

Diamond-structured photonic crystals

Nature Materials  volume 3, pages593–600(2004)

https://www.nature.com/articles/nmat1201

Nano-Optics in the Biological World: Beetles, Butterflies, Birds, and Moths

Mohan Srinivasarao*

Fiber and Polymer Science Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8301

Chem. Rev. 1999, 99, 1935−1961

515 million years of structural colour

Andrew Richard Parker

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK

E-mail: andrew.parker@zoo.ox.ac.uk

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2000) R15–R28

Photophysics of Structural Color in the Morpho Butterflies

Shuichi KINOSHITA1,2*, Shinya YOSHIOKA1,2, Yasuhiro FUJII2 and Naoko OKAMOTO

Forma17, 103–121, 2002

Photonic structures in biology

  • October 2004

Peter Vukusic

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235888153_Photonic_structures_in_biology

Physics of structural colors

S Kinoshita, S Yoshioka and J Miyazaki

Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

E-mail: skino@fbs.osaka-u.ac.jp

Rep. Prog. Phys. 71 (2008) 076401 (30pp)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/231075466_Physics_of_structural_colors

Coloration strategies in peacock feathers

Jian Zi*, Xindi Yu, Yizhou Li, Xinhua Hu, Chun Xu, Xingjun Wang, Xiaohan Liu*, and Rongtang Fu

A Review of Electronic Paper Display Technologies from the Standpoint of SID Symposium Digests

Tatsumi Takahashi

Review of Paper-Like Display Technologies

Peng Fei Bai1, Robert A. Hayes1, Ming Liang Jin1, Ling Ling Shui1, Zi Chuan Yi1, L. Wang1, Xiao Zhang1, and Guo Fu Zhou1, 2

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 147, 95–116, 2014

Stretchable and reflective displays: materials, technologies and strategies

Nano Convergence volume 6, Article number: 21 (2019)

https://nanoconvergencejournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40580-019-0190-5

Review Paper: A critical review of the present and future prospects for electronic paper

Jason Heikenfeld (SID Senior Member) Paul Drzaic (SID Fellow)
Jong-Souk Yeo (SID Member)
Tim Koch (SID Member)

Journal of the SID 19/2, 2011

Biological versus electronic adaptive coloration: how can one inform the other?

Eric Kreit1, Lydia M. Ma ̈thger2, Roger T. Hanlon2, Patrick B. Dennis3, Rajesh R. Naik3, Eric Forsythe4 and Jason Heikenfeld1

J R Soc Interface 10: 20120601.

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rsif.2012.0601

Transmissive/Reflective Structural Color Filters: Theory and Applications


Yan Yu,1,2 Long Wen,2 Shichao Song,2 and Qin Chen

Volume 2014 |Article ID 212637 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/212637

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/212637/

Interferometric modulator display

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interferometric_modulator_display

Qualcomm resurrects Mirasol reflective displays with new 576 ppi smartphone panel

https://www.theverge.com/2013/5/22/4354642/high-res-mirasol-display-for-smartphones-demonstrated

Iridescence-controlled and flexibly tunable retroreflective structural color film for smart displays

  • Wen Fan
  • Jing Zeng
  • Qiaoqiang Gan
  • Dengxin Ji
  • Haomin Song
  • Wenzhe Liu
  • Lei Shi
  • Limin Wu

Science Advances  09 Aug 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 8, eaaw8755
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw8755

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/advances/5/8/eaaw8755.full.pdf

Artificial Structural Color Pixels: A Review 

by Yuqian Zhao 1Yong Zhao 1,*Sheng Hu 1Jiangtao Lv 1Yu Ying 2Gediminas Gervinskas 3 and Guangyuan Si 

Materials 201710(8), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10080944

https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/10/8/944/htm

Dynamically Tunable Plasmonic Structural Color

Daniel Franklin
University of Central Florida 2018

PHD Thesis

Colors with plasmonic nanostructures: A full-spectrum review 

Applied Physics Reviews 6, 041308 (2019); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5110051

https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.5110051?journalCode=are

Dynamic plasmonic color generation enabled by functional materials

Frank Neubrech1,2, Xiaoyang Duan1,2, Na Liu3,4*

Bright and Vivid Diffractive–Plasmonic Reflective Filters for Color Generation

  • Emerson G. Melo, 
  • Ana L. A. Ribeiro, 
  • Rodrigo S. Benevides, 
  • Antonio A. G. V. Zuben, 
  • Marcos V. Puydinger dos Santos, 
  • Alexandre A. Silva, 
  • Gustavo S. Wiederhecker, and 
  • Thiago P. M. Alegre*

ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2020, 3, 2, 1111–1117Publication Date:December 31, 2019 https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.9b02508

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acsanm.9b02508

Active control of plasmonic colors: emerging display technologies

Kunli Xiong, Daniel Tordera, Magnus Jonsson and Andreas B. Dahlin

Rep Prog Phys. 2019 Feb;82(2):024501.

doi: 10.1088/1361-6633/aaf844.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30640724/

Self-assembled plasmonics for angle-independent structural color displays with actively addressed black states

Daniel Franklina,b, Ziqian Hec, Pamela Mastranzo Ortegab, Alireza Safaeia,b, Pablo Cencillo-Abadb, Shin-Tson Wuc, and Debashis Chandaa,b,c,1

https://www.pnas.org/content/117/24/13350

Bio-inspired intelligent structural color materials

Luoran Shang, Weixia Zhang, Ke Xuc and Yuanjin Zhao

Mater. Horiz., 2019,6, 945-958 

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/mh/c9mh00101h#!divAbstract

Advanced Plasmonic Materials for Dynamic Color Display

DOI: 10.1002/adma.201704338

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320997060_Advanced_Plasmonic_Materials_for_Dynamic_Color_Display

Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces

Nature Communications volume 6, Article number: 7337 (2015)

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms8337

Tunable plasmonic color filter 

Rosanna Mastria, Karl Jonas Riisnaes, Monica Craciun, and Saverio Russo

Frontiers in Optics / Laser Science OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020),paper JTh4B.7•

https://doi.org/10.1364/FIO.2020.JTh4B.7

https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=FiO-2020-JTh4B.7

Global US Dollar Funding Markets

Global US Dollar Funding MarkeTS

When US interest rates decline ( accomadating monetary policy), funding flows increase in to USA. (Money markets). Driven by increase in loans in USA.

When US interest rates increase (tightening of Monetary policy), capital Investment flows increase into USA. (Capital Markets). Driven by search for yields.

Key Terms

  • Eurodollars
  • International Money Markets
  • Funding Markets
  • Shadow Banking
  • Money Flows
  • Capital Flows
  • Round Tripping
  • International Financial System
  • FX Market
  • FX Swaps
  • FX Reserves
  • Payment Flows
  • Funding Flows
  • Eurocurrency
  • EuroEuro
  • EuroYen
  • EuroRMB
  • FX Forwards
  • Currency Swaps

International Markets for US Dollar

US dollar is currently predominant currency in global financial markets.

Its use is wide spread and deep.

  • Cross Border Loans
  • International Debt Securities
  • FX Transactions
  • Official Public FX Reserves
  • Trade Invoicing
  • SWIFT Payments

How are dollars funded by institutions involved in international credit markets?

  • Euro Dollars
  • FX Swaps and Forwards
  • Currency Swaps

Please see this new publication from BIS for details.

US DOLLAR FUNDING: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

The US dollar plays a central role in the international monetary and financial system. It is the foremost funding currency, with about half of all cross-border loans and international debt securities denominated in US dollars. Around 85% of all foreign exchange transactions occur against the US dollar. It is the world’s primary reserve currency, accounting for 61% of official foreign exchange reserves. Around half of international trade is invoiced in US dollars, and around 40% of international payments are made in US dollars (Graph 1).

Image Source: US DOLLAR FUNDING: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

Currencies in Global Payments

Image Source: RMB Tracker

Currencies in Trade Finance Market

Image Source: RMB Tracker

Currencies in FX Spot market

Image Source: RMB Tracker

Characteristics of Global US Dollar Funding Markets

Image Source: US DOLLAR FUNDING: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

Image Source: US DOLLAR FUNDING: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

Image Source: THE GLOBAL ROLE OF THE US DOLLAR AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

Image Source: THE GLOBAL ROLE OF THE US DOLLAR AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

Image Source: THE GLOBAL ROLE OF THE US DOLLAR AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

Image Source: THE GLOBAL ROLE OF THE US DOLLAR AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

Image Source: FX swaps and forwards: missing global debt?

Image Source: FX swaps and forwards: missing global debt?

Assets and Liabilities of Banks and Shadow Banks in Onshore and Offshore markets

Assets and Liabilities in Balance sheets in Onshore markets

Image Source: Offshore Dollar Creation and the Emergence of the post-2008 International Monetary System

Liabilities in Balance sheets of Financial Intermediatory in Onshore and Offshore markets

Image Source: The Future of Offshore Dollar Creation: Four Scenarios for the International Monetary System by 2040

Transactions Chains in cross border funding markets

Image Source: US DOLLAR FUNDING: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

Money Inflows and RounD tripping

Several papers and articles in the references below discuss issues of US dollar inflows on US money and credit markets and monetary policy.

Round tripping involves foreign banks borrowing money from US funding markets and lending it to borrowers in the capital/credit markets.

US monetary policy also impacts capital outflows and inflows.

My Related posts

Global Liquidity and Cross Border Capital Flows

Global Flow of Funds: Statistical Data Matrix across National Boundaries

Low Interest Rates and International Capital Flows

Currency Credit Networks of International Banks

Global Financial Safety Net: Regional Reserve Pools and Currency Swap Networks of Central Banks

Balance Sheet Economics – Financial Input-Output Analysis (using Asset Liability Matrices) – Update March 2018

TARGET2 Imbalances in European Monetary Union (EMU)

Contagion in Financial (Balance sheets) Networks

Balance Sheets, Financial Interconnectedness, and Financial Stability – G20 Data Gaps Initiative

Foundations of Balance Sheet Economics

The Future of FX Markets – Update October 2019

Understanding Global OTC Foreign Exchange (FX) Market

Economics of Trade Finance

The Dollar Shortage, Again! in International Wholesale Money Markets

Repo Chains and Financial Instability

Shadow Banking

Key Sources of Research

US dollar funding: an international perspective

Report prepared by a Working Group chaired by
Sally Davies (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System) and Christopher Kent (Reserve Bank of Australia)

BIS June 2020

The Eurodollar Market in the United States

MAY 27, 2015

NYFED

https://libertystreeteconomics.newyorkfed.org/2015/05/the-eurodollar-market-in-the-united-states.html

The global role of the US dollar and its consequences

Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin

2017 Q4

“Down The Rabbit Hole” — The Eurodollar Market Is The Matrix Behind It All

the1millionproject

Apr 19

by Tyler Durden

https://t1mproject.medium.com/down-the-rabbit-hole-the-eurodollar-market-is-the-matrix-behind-it-all-a7a054dd4b0f

The Fed’s Quandary With Uncle ED (Eurodollar)

Feb. 28, 2015 4:45 AM ET

https://seekingalpha.com/article/2961016-the-feds-quandary-with-uncle-ed-eurodollar

US Monetary Aggregates, Income Velocity and the Euro-dollar Market

BIS 1980Warren D. McClam

Chapter 5 EURODOLLARS 

Marvin Goodfriend

Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond Richmond, Virginia
1998

The evolution of the Offshore US-Dollar System: past, present and four possible futures

Steffen Murau, Joe Rini and Armin Haas

Global Development Policy Center, Boston University, Boston; City Political Economy Research Centre (CITYPERC), City, University of London, London; Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam and Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam
*Corresponding author. Email: armin.haas@iass.de

(Received 30 September 2019; revised 17 March 2020; accepted 24 March 2020; first published online 6 May 2020)

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-institutional-economics/article/evolution-of-the-offshore-usdollar-system-past-present-and-four-possible-futures/B36ED9082CECE54F3F5B8E8F40D15148/core-reader

Hyper-Stablecoinization: From Eurodollars to Crypto-Dollars

Pascal Hügli

July 12, 2020·

https://finance.yahoo.com/news/hyper-stablecoinization-eurodollars-crypto-dollars-120000891.html

IMPACT OF EURO-MARKETS ON THE UNITED STATES BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

*FRED H. KLOpSTOCKf

Financial globalization as positive integration: monetary technocrats and the Eurodollar market in the 1970s

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340100333_Financial_globalization_as_positive_integration_monetary_technocrats_and_the_Eurodollar_market_in_the_1970s

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09692290.2020.1740291

The Euromarket and the making of the transnational network of finance 1959 – 1979 (Doctoral thesis).

Kim, S. W. (2018). 

University of Cambridge

 https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.23876

https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/276574

Dollar Shortage and Eurodollars

By Prashant K. Trivedi and Krushi Parekh | Apr 14 2020 | What We Are Writing, Global Macro

https://multi-act.com/dollar-shortage-and-eurodollars/

Evolution of US-Dollar-Centric International Money Markets and Pro-Cyclicality of Basel III Liquidity Framework

Oleksandr Valchyshen 2019

Bard College

Eurodollars and the US Money Supply

page1image2272994224

The dollar and international capital flows in the COVID-19 crisis 

Giancarlo Corsetti, Emile Marin  

03 April 2020

https://voxeu.org/article/covid-19-crisis-dollar-and-capital-flows

Crypto Dollars and the Evolution of Eurodollar Banking

MAX BRONSTEIN

7 APR 2020 

https://unexpected-values.com/crypto-dollars/

The $40 Trillion Problem

Apr. 6, 2020

Lyn Alden Schwartzer

https://seekingalpha.com/article/4336136-40-trillion-problem

Euro-Dollars and United States Monetary Policy. 

Cort Burk Schlichting 1973

Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College

Eurodollar Banking and Currency Internationalization

  • January 2013
  • In book: Investing in Asian Offshore Currency Markets (pp.199-214)

Authors:

Dong He

Robert Neil Mccauley

BIS

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304796024_Eurodollar_Banking_and_Currency_Internationalization

The Eurodollar Market, Short-term Capital Flows and Currency Crises

Book 1979

Author: Leonard Gomes

Publisher: Macmillan Education UK

https://www.springerprofessional.de/en/the-eurodollar-market-short-term-capital-flows-and-currency-cris/10146406

The Eurodollar Market and the International Transmission of Interest Rates

Jay H. Levin

The Canadian Journal of Economics / Revue canadienne d’Economique 

Vol. 7, No. 2 (May, 1974), pp. 205-224 (20 pages) Published By: Wiley 

The Eurodollar Deposit Market: Stategies for Regulation

George H. Windecker Jr.

1993

American University International Law Review 9, no. 1 (1993): 357-384.

The circular flow of dollars in the world financial markets

Kashi NathTiwari

Available online 23 March 2002.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/104402839090012C

The Euro-dollar market as a source of United States bank liquidity

Steve B. Steib

Iowa State University

1972

RMB Tracker

SWIFT

https://www.swift.com/our-solutions/compliance-and-shared-services/business-intelligence/renminbi/rmb-tracker/rmb-tracker-document-centre

The Eurodollar Conundrum

FRBNY 1982

The federal funds market and the overnight Eurodollar market

Yungsook Lee

1999

Research Notes, No. 99-2, Deutsche Bank Research, Frankfurt

THE RISE AND FALL OF THE EURODOLLAR SYSTEM 

SEPTEMBER 2016

Offshore Dollar Creation and the Emergence of the post-2008 International Monetary System

Steffen Murau

The Future of Offshore Dollar Creation:
Four Scenarios for the International Monetary System by 2040

Steffen Murau, Joe Rini, Armin Haas

IASS Potsdam, in collaboration with Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University

2017 | ‘The Political Economy of Private Credit Money Accommodation. A Study of Bank Notes, Bank Deposits and Shadow Money’, PhD thesis

7th November 2017  Private Credit Money Accommodation  by Steffen Murau

https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/19010/

Towards a theory of shadow money

Daniela Gabor and Jakob Vestergaard

Private Debt as Shadow Money? Conceptual Criteria, Empirical Evaluation and Implications for Financial Stability

Steffen Murau1 and Tobias Pforr2 May 2020

Grey matter in shadow banking: international organizations and expert strategies in global financial governance

Cornel Bana, Leonard Seabrookeb and Sarah Freitasa

aBoston University, Boston, MA, USA; bDepartment of Business and Politics, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark

The Politics of Shadow Money: Security Structures, Money Creation and Unconventional Central Banking

Pre-print version. Print version forthcoming in: New Political Economy Joscha Wullweber

Faculty of Economics University of Witten/Herdecke

REFORMING THE SHORT-TERM FUNDING MARKETS

Morgan Ricks

Discussion Paper No. 713 05/2012

Money and (Shadow) Banking: A Thought Experiment

Review of Banking and Financial Law, Vol. 31, 2011-2012

18 Pages Posted: 7 Apr 2013

Morgan Ricks

Vanderbilt University – Law School; European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI)

Date Written: April 1, 2012

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2245685

Privatized global money: The US-Dollar and the international monetary system — Steffen Murau interviewed by Dezernat Zukunft, Part 1

By Mathis Richtmann

FX swaps and forwards: missing global debt?

Claudio Borio Robert McCauley Patrick McGuire

claudio.borio@bis.org robert.mccauley@bis.org patrick.mcguire@bis.org

The Global Financial and Monetary System in 2030

WEFORUM

Global Liquidity Indicators

BIS

https://www.bis.org/statistics/gli.htm

The Financial Crisis and the Global Shadow Banking System

La crise financière et le Global Shadow Banking System

Maryse Farhi et Marcos Antonio Macedo Cintra

https://journals.openedition.org/regulation/7473

Rise of Debt and Market Based Finance

Rise of Debt and Market Based Finance

It is also known as Non Bank finance or Shadow Banking.

The key difference between traditional banking and shadow banking is fragmented credit chains in the shadow banking.

Traditional Banking does

  • Maturity Transformation
  • Liquidity Transformation
  • Credit Transformation

While traditional banking has backstops

  • Deposit Insurance
  • Central bank

Shadow Banks are not regulated and do not have advantage of backstops.

Hence they are susceptible to systemic risk and runs.

Questions

  • What is Market based Finance?
  • How big is the market?
  • Institutions?
  • Instruments?
  • Who are the borrowers?
  • Who are the investors?
  • What are the risks in market based finance?
  • Role of Central Banks?
  • How to minimize risks?
  • Regulations? Macro Prudential policies?
  • How are banks involved in market based finance?
  • How are they connected to each other and others?

Key Terms

  • Market based Finance MBF
  • Non Bank Credit Intermediation NCBI
  • Shadow Banking
  • Financial Stability
  • Systemic Risk
  • Liquidity Risk
  • Broker Dealers
  • Non Bank Finance NBF
  • Balance Sheet Economics
  • Market Makers
  • Capital Markets
  • Money Markets
  • Money View
  • Money Flows
  • Network Dynamics
  • Regulatory Arbitrage
  • Credit Chains
  • Fragmented Credit Chains
  • Financial Supply Chains
  • Credit Chain Length
  • Growth of Debt

Growth and Size of Market based Finance

Image Source: BANK AND NONBANK LENDING OVER THE PAST 70 YEARS

Image Source: Shining a Light on Shadow Banking

Image Source: The Shadow Banking System in the United States: Recent Developments and Economic Role

Image Source: Shining a Light on Shadow Banking

Image Source: NON-BANK FINANCE: TRENDS AND CHALLENGES

Image Source: THE GROWTH OF NON-BANK FINANCE AND NEW MONETARY POLICY TOOLS 

Image Source: SHADOW BANKING AND MARKET BASED FINANCE

Structural Dynamics of Banking and Financial System

Changes prior to Global Financial Crisis

  • Rise of Debt
  • Rise of Market Based Finance
  • Increase in capital flows both domestic and cross border

Debt dynamics is related to assets side of balance sheet of financial intemediatory.

Market based Finance is related to liabilities side of balance sheet of Financial Intermediatory.

If the chains of financial intermediation are long, then both assets and liabilities of each participant are linked.

Intermediation results in increase of capital flows. From money markets to capital markets. From deposits to loans. From liabilities to assets. There is both pull and push of money flows in the financial system. Demand for capital and supply of capital. They both are linked by banks and non bank finance. Growth of debt is linked to growth of money markets and non bank finance.

Size of Nonfinancial Business and Household Credit

Image Source: FINANCIAL STABILITY REPORT – NOVEMBER 2020

In a future post I will discuss debt in US and global financial system.

Please see my related posts for evolution of Financial System Complexity and Its dynamics.

Low Interest Rates and Banks’ Profitability – Update October 2020

Funding Sources and Liquidity for US Commercial Banks

Trends in Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks in the USA

Size and complexity arise together. Along with balance sheet expansion comes changes in links with counterparties (financial networks and interconnections).

Research continues in this area by several institutions and academics.

  • OECD
  • BIS
  • FED RESERVE
  • ECB
  • FSB
  • BOE
  • IMF
  • BOF
  • Others

Source: Structural developments in global financial intermediationThe rise of debt and non-bank credit intermediation

The global financial crisis of 2008 underlined the importance for policy makers in understanding the scale and types of financial intermediation in their economies. During the financial crisis, non-bank financial intermediation was of particular concern to authorities, as such forms of ‘shadow banking’, contributed to both the root causes of the crisis, the transmission of financial contagion, and the amplification of shocks.

As this report is published, the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus Covid-19 has caused a global health crisis, has brought economic activity in some sectors to a halt, and has presented the greatest challenge to the global financial system since 2008. As then, understanding financial intermediation activities is critical to mapping the faultlines in the global financial system and mounting effective policy responses.

However, the shape of financial intermediation has changed in important ways since the global financial crisis. Activities in non-bank intermediation, including market-based intermediaries like investment funds and securitised products, have grown and are increasingly interconnected with financial markets. Understanding the interplay between these elements, and the benefits and risks of each, offers a more complete understanding of how global finance can contribute to sustainable economic growth. It also helps provide the full picture needed to help policy makers prepare for and respond to shocks, including pandemics.

“Structural developments in global financial intermediation: The rise of debt and non-bank credit intermediation” shines a light on the evolution of global financial intermediation in three key ways. First, it maps the broad-based growth of financial intermediation relative to GDP in many advanced and emerging market economies, and with this growth a shift toward market-based finance. Second, it assesses the shift from equity to debt markets, and the growing imbalances in sovereign and corporate debt markets during a period of highly accommodative monetary policies. Third, it draws attention to key activities in credit intermediation that could contribute to structural vulnerabilities in the global financial system, including: a sharp rise of below-investment grade corporate debt, in particular leverage loans and collateralised loan obligations; the growth of open-ended investment funds that purchase high-yield debt and leveraged loans; and risks associated with the large stock of bank contingent convertible debt.

While these various activities have helped to satisfy investors’ reach for yield during years of market exuberance, they represent new potential faultlines of systemic risk in the event of exogenous shocks, be they from trade tensions, geopolitical risks or the current global pandemic. This report underlines the need for policy frameworks to adapt to market-based finance, and fully reflect the interaction between monetary, prudential, and regulatory tools on credit intermediation. It also underlines the need for dynamic microprudential and activities-based tools to help mitigate excessive risk taking with respect to liquidity and leverage.

By mapping the global financial system, evaluating growing imbalances and risks that could amplify shocks, and assessing the interaction between macro and regulatory tools, this report provides a practical complement to the OECD’s Policy Framework for Effective and Efficient Financial Regulations. Financial authorities should use this analysis to inform both their assessments of activities and risks, and efforts to maximise available tools to harness the benefits of market-based finance to support fair, efficient markets and sustainable economic growth.

Greg Medcraft Director, OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs

Image Source: UNDERSTANDING THE RISKS INHERENT IN SHADOW BANKING: A PRIMER AND PRACTICAL LESSONS LEARNED

Image Source: THE ECONOMICS OF SHADOW BANKING 

Image Source: IS SHADOW BANKING REALLY BANKING?

Table Source: SHADOW BANKING AND MARKET BASED FINANCE

Table 1. A Stylized View of Structural Characteristics of Credit-based Intermediation

Characteristic:Traditional BankingShadow BankingMarket-based Finance
Key Risk TransformationsLiquidity, maturity, leverageCredit enhancement,liquidity, maturity, leverageLess emphasis on credit enhancement and less opaque vs. shadow banking
Institutions Involved in Intermediation Single entityCan be many entities, interconnected through collateral chains and credit guaranteesSingle/few entities
Formal Ex-anteBackstopYesNo / IndirectNo
Implied Sponsor Supportn.a.Yes, can sometimes be contingent liabilitiesNo(insolvency remote)
Example of EntitiesCommercial bankSynthetic CDO, Structured Investment Vehicle (SIV), CNAV MMF, ABCP ConduitBond mutual fund, Distressed debt or PE partnership,Direct lending by pension fund
Main Form of LiabilitiesDebt and deposits,Wholesale & retail-financedDebt,Mainly wholesale financedHighly diverse –Short and long-term debt and equity,Retail & wholesale financed
Key Resulting Financial Stability Risk Systemic risk(institutional spillovers)Systemic risk(institutional spillovers)Shift in price of risk (market risk premia)

My Related Posts

Shadow Banking

Economics of Broker-Dealer Banks

Evolution of Banks Complexity

Low Interest Rates and International Capital Flows

Repo Chains and Financial Instability

Global Liquidity and Cross Border Capital Flows

The Dollar Shortage, Again! in International Wholesale Money Markets

Low Interest Rates and Banks’ Profitability – Update October 2020

Funding Sources and Liquidity for US Commercial Banks

Funding Strategies of Banks

Trends in Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks in the USA

Key sources of Research

The growth of non-bank finance and new monetary policy tools 

Adrien d’Avernas, Quentin Vandeweyer, Matthieu Darracq Pariès  

20 April 2020

https://voxeu.org/article/growth-non-bank-finance-and-new-monetary-policy-tools

Financial Stability Report

November 2019

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

Financial Intermediaries, Financial Stability, and Monetary Policy

Tobias Adrian and Hyun Song Shin
Federal Reserve Bank of New York Staff Reports, no. 346 September 2008

US BROKER-DEALER LIQUIDITY IN THE TIME OF FINANCIAL CRISIS

https://www.shearman.com/perspectives/2020/05/us-broker-dealer-liquidity-in-the-time-of-financial-crisis

Unconventional monetary policy and funding liquidity risk

ECB

Structural developments in global financial intermediation

The rise of debt and non-bank credit intermediation

by

Robert Patalano and Caroline Roulet*

OECD

https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/finance-and-investment/structural-developments-in-global-financial-intermediation-the-rise-of-debt-and-non-bank-credit-intermediation_daa87f13-en

Financial Stability Review, May 2020

ECB

https://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/financial-stability/fsr/html/ecb.fsr202005~1b75555f66.en.html#toc1

Structural changes in banking after the crisis

Report prepared by a Working Group established by the Committee on the Global Financial System

The Group was chaired by Claudia Buch (Deutsche Bundesbank) and B Gerard Dages (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)

January 2018

BIS

BANK-BASED OR MARKET-BASED FINANCIAL SYSTEMS: WHICH IS BETTER?

Ross Levine

Working Paper 9138 http://www.nber.org/papers/w9138

NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
September 2002

Non-bank finance: trends and challenges

Financial Stability Review

Bank of France

2018

The Origins of Bank-Based and Market-Based Financial Systems: Germany, Japan, and the United States

Sigurt Vitols*

January 2001

Financial Stability Report

August 2020

Bank of England

Market-Based Finance:
Its Contributions and Emerging Issues

May 2016

Financial Conduct Authority

Bank-Based Versus Market-Based Financing: Implications for Systemic Risk

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322088863_Bank-Based_Versus_Market-Based_Financing_Implications_for_Systemic_Risk

Off the radar: The rise of shadow banking in Europe 

Martin Hodula  

16 March 2020

https://voxeu.org/article/radar-rise-shadow-banking-europe

Global Monitoring Report on Non-Bank Financial Intermediation 2019

2020

FSB

https://www.fsb.org/2020/01/global-monitoring-report-on-non-bank-financial-intermediation-2019/

Global Monitoring Report on Non-Bank Financial Intermediation 2018

FSB 2019

https://www.fsb.org/2019/02/global-monitoring-report-on-non-bank-financial-intermediation-2018/

Global Shadow Banking Monitoring Report 2017

FSB 2018

https://www.fsb.org/2018/03/global-shadow-banking-monitoring-report-2017/

Global Shadow Banking Monitoring Report 2016

10 May 2017

FSB 2015 Report

FSB 2014 Report

https://www.fsb.org/wp-content/uploads/r_141030.pdf?page_moved=1

FSB 2013 Report

FSB 2012 Report

FSB 2011 Report

Shadow Banking: Monitoring Vulnerabilities and Strengthening Policy Tools

https://www.garp.org/#!/risk-intelligence/all/all/a1Z1W0000054xEzUAI

BANK-BASED AND MARKET-BASED FINANCIAL SYSTEMS: CROSS-COUNTRY COMPARISONS

Asli Demirguc-Kunt and Ross Levine*

June 1999

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/18e5/660bef2325f326bb8077bd0dd6f5225b1bf8.pdf?_ga=2.215410079.942675951.1605328042-1052966156.1604782392

Off the Radar: Exploring the Rise of Shadow Banking in the EU

Martin Hodula

https://www.cnb.cz/en/economic-research/research-publications/cnb-working-paper-series/Off-the-Radar-Exploring-the-Rise-of-Shadow-Banking-in-the-EU/

https://voxeu.org/article/radar-rise-shadow-banking-europe

Shadow Banking: Economics and Policy

Stijn Claessens, Zoltan Pozsar, Lev Ratnovski, and Manmohan Singh

IMF

2012

https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/Staff-Discussion-Notes/Issues/2016/12/31/Shadow-Banking-Economics-and-Policy-40132

Bank-Based and Market-Based Financial Systems: Cross-Country Comparisons

A. Demirguc-Kunt

Published 1999

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Bank-Based-and-Market-Based-Financial-Systems%3A-Demirguc-Kunt/cd8cf558db2f8404271050ba40408a28ac4fcbc4

Market-based finance: a macroprudential view

Speech given by
Sir Jon Cunliffe, Deputy Governor Financial Stability, Member of the Monetary Policy Committee, Member of the Financial Policy Committee and Member of the Prudential Regulation Committee

BOE/BIS

Asset Management Derivatives Forum, Dana Point, California Friday 9 February 2017

Shadow Banking and Market Based Finance

Tobias Adrian, International Monetary Fund 
Helsinki

September 14, 2017

https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2017/09/13/sp091417-shadow-banking-and-market-based-finance

Transforming Shadow Banking into Resilient Market-based Finance

An Overview of Progress

12 November 2015

FSB

Mapping Market-Based Finance in Ireland

Simone Cima, Neill Killeen and Vasileios Madouros1,2 

Central Bank of Ireland
December 13, 2019

BANK AND NONBANK LENDING OVER THE PAST 70 YEARS

FDIC

Financial Stability Review

November 2019

ECB

Shadow Banking

Zoltan Pozsar, Tobias Adrian, Adam Ashcraft, and Hayley Boesky

FRBNY Economic Policy Review / December 2013

https://www.newyorkfed.org/research/epr/2013/0713adri.html

Shadow Banking and Market-Based Finance

Tobias Adrian and Bradley Jones

IMF

No 18/14

Why Shadow Banking Is Bigger Than Ever

DANIELA GABOR

https://jacobinmag.com/2018/11/why-shadow-banking-is-bigger-than-ever

The Non-Bank Credit Cycle

Esti Kemp, Ren ́e van Stralen, Alexandros P. Vardoulakis, and Peter Wierts

2018-076

Fed Reserve

The role of financial markets for economic growth

Speech delivered by Dr. Willem F. Duisenberg, President of the European Central Bank, at the Economics Conference “The Single Financial Market: Two Years into EMU” organised by the Oesterreichische Nationalbank in Vienna on 31 May 2001

https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/key/date/2001/html/sp010531.en.html

Bank deleveraging, the move from bank to market-based financing, and SME financing

Gert Wehinger

OECD

OECD Journal: Financial Market Trends Volume 2012/1
© OECD 2012

Shadow Banking: A Review of the Literature

Tobias Adrian Adam B. Ashcraft

2012 FRBNY

The Global Pandemic and Run on Shadow Banks

FRBKC

2020

https://www.kansascityfed.org/en/publications/research/eb/articles/2020/global-pandemic-run-shadow-banks

Shadow Banking: The Rise, Risks, and Rewards of Non-Bank Financial Services

Roy J. Girasa

The Macroeconomics of Shadow Banking

ALAN MOREIRA and ALEXI SAVOV∗

THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE • 2017

Is Shadow Banking Really Banking?

Bryan J. Noeth ,  Rajdeep Sengupta

Saturday, October 1, 2011

FRBSL

https://www.stlouisfed.org/publications/regional-economist/october-2011/is-shadow-banking-really-banking

Three Essays on Capital Regulations and Shadow Banking

Diny Ghuzini
Western Michigan University, diny.ghuzini@wmich.edu

CLARIFYING THE SHADOW BANKING DEBATE: APPLICATION AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

Amias Gerety 2017

Institute of International Economic Law Georgetown University Law Center

Commercial Banking and Shadow Banking

The Accelerating Integration of Banks and Markets and its Implications for Regulation

ARNOUD W. A. BOOT AND ANJAN V. THAKOR

(prepared as revised version of Chapter 3 in The Oxford University Press Handbook, The Accelerating Integration of Banks and Markets and its Implications for Regulation, 3rd edition.)

The Shadow Banking System in the United States: Recent Developments and Economic Role

Tresor Economics

France

2013

https://www.tresor.economie.gouv.fr/Articles/ccfd4180-fddb-4333-bd16-0b91f2daa18c/files/6ae6455a-92be-43a5-a94d-91b03b38a8d8

Shadow Banking: Policy Challenges for Central Banks

Thorvald Grung Moe*

Levy Economics Institute of Bard College

May 2014

BANKS, SHADOW BANKING, AND FRAGILITY

Stephan Luck and Paul Schempp

2014 ECB

Restructuring the Banking System to Improve Safety and Soundness

Thomas M. Hoenig
Vice Chairman of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

Charles S. Morris
Vice President and Economist Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City

Original version: May 2011 Revised: December 2012

Understanding the Risks Inherent in Shadow Banking: A Primer and Practical Lessons Learned

by David Luttrell Harvey Rosenblum and Jackson Thies

FRB Dallas

Shadow Banking Concerns: The Case of Money Market Funds

Saad Alnahedh† , Sanjai Bhagat

Towards a theory of shadow money

Daniela Gabor* and Jakob Vestergaard

The Economics of Shadow Banking 

Manmohan Singh

2013

Regulating the Shadow Banking System

GARY GORTON

ANDREW METRICK

Yale University

The Rise of Shadow Banking: Evidence from Capital Regulation

Rustom M. Irani, Raymakal Iyer, Ralf R. Meisenzahl, and Jos ́e-Luis Peydr ́o

2018-039

Fed Reserve

Shadow Banking: Background and Policy Issues

Edward V. Murphy

Specialist in Financial Economics

December 31, 2013

Shining a Light on Shadow Banking

The Clearing House

https://www.theclearinghouse.org/banking-perspectives/2015/2015-q4-banking-perspectives/articles/shining-a-light-on-shadow-banking

REGULATING SHADOW BANKING*

STEVEN L. SCHWARCZ

2011

Duke Law

Money Creation and the Shadow Banking System Adi Sunderam

Harvard Business School and NBER September 2014

https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/27336543/sunderam_money-creation.pdf?sequence=1

Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission Report Chapter 2

Shadow Banking

THE SHADOW BANKING CHARADE

By Melanie L. Fein*

February 15, 2013

Assessing shadow banking – non-bank financial intermediation in Europe

No 10/ July 2016

by
Laurent Grillet-Aubert Jean-Baptiste Haquin Clive Jackson
Neill Killeen
Christian Weistroffer

ESRB

Shedding Light on Shadow Banking

Timothy Lane

Bank of Canada

shadow banking and capital markets

RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES

Group of Thirty

Shadow Banking and Market Based Finance

Tobias Adrian, International Mone