On Luminescence: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Bioluminescence

Key Words

  • Photoluminescence
  • Fluorescence
  • Phosphorescence
  • Chemiluminescence
  • Luminescence
  • Incandescence
  • Spectrophotometer
  • Spectrofluorophotometer
  • Bioluminescence
  • Chemluminescence
  • Mechnoluminescence
  • Thermoluminescnce
  • Sonoluminescence
  • Electroluminescence
  • Daylight Fluorescent dyes
  • UV Fluorescent Dyes
  • Angle dependent Pigments in coatings
  • Optical Effects
  • Opalescence
  • Iridescence
  • Pearlescence
  • Adularescence
  • Labradorescence
  • Aventurescence
  • GonioSpectrometers
  • Multi Angle Spectrophotometers

There are many forms of energy which selected luminescent pigments can absorb and convert to luminescence, e.g. radioactive (radioluminescence); X-ray (Roentgenoluminescence); cathode ray (cathodoluminescence); mechanical (triboluminescence); electrical (electroluminescence); heat -after previous storage of energy (thermoluminescence); and Ultraviolet (UV) visible and Infrared (IR) (photoluminescence).

Luminescence Vs Incandescence

  • Incandescence
  • Luminescence
    • Bioluminescence
    • Photoluminescence
      • Fluorescence
      • Phosphorescence

Source:

Source:

Source: Introduction/Molecular Fluorescence: Principles and Application

Source: FLUORESCENCE AND PHOSPHORESCENCE

Source: Introduction/Molecular Fluorescence: Principles and Application

Bioluminescence

Please see references listed below for examples of bioluminescence.

  • In plants
    • Reviewing the relevance of fluorescence in biological systems
    • PLANTS WITH SELF-SUSTAINED LUMINESCENCE
  • In ocean Life
    • BIOLUMINESCENCE IN THE SEA
  • Fireflies
    • RESURRECTING THE ANCIENT GLOW OF THE FIREFLIES

Photoluminescence

  • Fluorescence
  • Phasphorescence

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Jablonski Diagram – Molecular States

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Fluorescence

Types of Fluorescence

  • Daylight
  • UV

Fluorescent Dyes and Pigments

Source: Fluorescent Dyes and Pigments

1.Introduction
2.Naphthalimide Dyes
3.Coumarin Dyes
4.Xanthene Dyes
5.Thioxanthene and Benzoxanthene Dyes
6.Naphtholactam, Hydrazam Dyes and Homologues
7.Azlactone Dyes
8.Methine Dyes
9.Oxazine and Thiazine Dyes
10.Miscellaneous Fluorescent Dyes
11.UV Fluorescent Chromophores with No or Low Body Color
12.Special Uses
13.Daylight Fluorescent Pigments
13.1.Production
13.1.1.Dyes for Daylight Fluorescent Pigments
13.1.2.Pigment Matrices
13.1.3.Formaldehyde‐Free and Solvent Resistant Fluorescent Pigments
13.1.4.Sunlight Sensors
13.1.5.Fluorescent Modifications with Covalently Bound Dyes
13.1.6.More ‐ Not Resinated ‐ Solid‐State Fluorescent Pigments
13.2.Quality Specifications of Fluorescent Pigments
13.3.Applications of Fluorescent Pigments
13.4.Toxicology

Industrial Applications of Fluorescence

  • Paper
  • Plastics
  • Paints
  • Textiles
  • Printing Inks
  • Laudary Detergent

In Paper Industry

  • Disulfonated OBA – used in wetend of paper machines
  • Tetrasulfonated OBA – surface coating in size press for standard whiteness
  • Hexasulfonated OBA- for high whiteness

Optical brightening agents in paper

Posted on April 6, 2018 by admin

Optical brightening agents are additives which are used in the paper industries to enhance whitening effects of papers. These chemical compounds absorb light in the ultraviolet and violet region (usually 340-370nm) and re-emit light in the blue region (typically 420-470 nm). It gives a fluorescent effect that masks the inherent yellowness of the fiber and enhances the brightness of the paper product. They not only used in paper but also used in plastics, textiles, laundry detergents. They are also known as optical brighteners, artificial whiteners. It is one kind of coating agent.

The optical brighteners can be applied in either the wet end or dry end or both end. If you want to internal brightness then you have to add them to the stock in wet end. Many paper manufactures use them in dry end at the size press or calender stack as surface coating. The dry end application is more economical compare to the wet end because in the dry end the chemical are used on the outer surface fiber in lieu of whole fiber content for reflects the ultraviolet light. However some manufacturers use a combination treatment; they use both the wet and dry end. 

Types of optical brightening agents

The optical brighteners that are used in paper industries can be sort into three types based on the sulfonic groups. All of them contain stilbene structure.

Disulfonated OBAs

This OBAs contains two sulphonic groups. They are hydrophobic and have a very good affinity. The solubility is very low. Normally it is used in wet end.

Tetrasulfonated types

This OBAs contains four sulphonic groups. It has medium affinity and good solubility so ideal for paper industries both in wet end and dry end. They are suitable for neutral or alkaline pH medium. It is most common type of OBAs that are used in paper and paper board.

Hexasulfonated OBAs

hexasulfonated OBAs contains six sulphonic groups. It is special type of brightener which has excellent solubility. Mostly it is used in those papers where high brightness is required such as photographic paper. They are used in dry end as coating.

Optical brightener’s chemistry

We know that optical brightening agents are stilbene derivatives. The stilbene is a diphenylethene which consist two stereo-isomer – trans-isomer and cis-isomer. Between these two configurations, the trans-isomer can exhibits strong fluorescence whereas the cis-isomer does not exhibit fluorescence. The trans configuration is more stable than cis configuration but when the uv light applied on the trans configuration then it become electronically exited and converted into cis configuration. Consequently the fluorescence phenomenon occurs in. The visible blue light effectively neutralizes the cream color or yellowish hue of the paper fiber.

Disadvantage

All the optical brightening agents are dyestuffs. As like most of the other colorants they also degraded by oxygen in air slowly. So after several years or months, the increasing brightness of the paper with optical brighteners will decrease. As a result the printed paper will not look good. Thus some people does not like print on the paper with artificial brightness. Similarly it is not useful in photographic or art applications. On the other hand in some places or some printers the OBAs would not work. Therefore the paper will appear its normal brightness. This is the reason why some printed papers have a yellowish hue. Although the OBAs are efficient on bleached chemical pulps but it is ineffective on unbleached pulp due to lignin is also an ultraviolet absorbing agent.

Finally

Normally the consumers expect higher brightness paper and paper boards. But all the time the brightness of pulp and fillers cannot fulfill the targeted brightness. Therefore the manufactures use different type of optical brightening agents. Most of the paper manufacturers add these chemicals in order to make paper appear brighter.

Source: The issues of Optical Brightening Agents in paper and ink

Industrial Testing and Measurements

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Fluorescence Prediction and Control

Please see my post related to Color and Fluorescence Meaurement, Prediction and Control.

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

There are also several references in the list below which describe fluorescence measurement, prediction, and control in more detail. Papers by LG Coppel describe fluorescence modelling. Papers by Tarja Shakespeare describe fluorescence modeling and control online on paper machines.

My Related Posts

Digital Color and Imaging

Color and Imaging in Digital Video and Cinema

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Key Sources of Research

Constructing Models to Explain Photoluminescence

Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Chemiluminescence

Noureen Siraj,† Bilal El-Zahab,‡ Suzana Hamdan,† Tony E. Karam,† Louis H. Haber,† Min Li,§
Sayo O. Fakayode,∥ Susmita Das,⊥ Bertha Valle,⊗ Robert M. Strongin,○ Gabor Patonay,#
Herman O. Sintim,× Gary A. Baker,$ Aleeta Powe,¶ Mark Lowry,○ Jan O. Karolin,& Chris D. Geddes,& and Isiah M. Warner*,†

Anal. Chem. 2016, 88, 170−202

Reviewing the relevance of fluorescence in biological systems

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/getauthorversionpdf/c5pp00122f

Pigments, dyes and fluorescent brightening agents for plastics: An overview

Robert M. Christie

First published: August 1994

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pi.1994.210340401

FLUORESCENT DYES FOR PAPER DYEING

Inventor: Helmut-MartinMeier,Ratingen(DE)

Assignee: KemiraGermanyGmbH,Leverkusen (DE)

Photochromic and Thermochromic Colorants in Textile Applications

M. A. Chowdhury, M. Joshi and B. S. Butola

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/155892501400900113

THE CHEMISTRY & PHYSICS OF
SPECIAL EFFECT PIGMENTS & COLORANTS

A. NURHAN BECIDYAN

President
UNITED MINERAL & CHEMICAL CORPORATION

Luminescence Phenomena: An Introduction

K.V.R. Murthy

Hardev Singh Virk

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271866484_Luminescence_Phenomena_An_Introduction

Introduction

Molecular Fluorescence: Principles and Applications, Second Edition. Bernard Valeur,
Mário Nuno Berberan-Santos.
© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

A Brief History of Fluorescence and Phosphorescence before the Emergence of Quantum Theory

Bernard Valeur*,† and Mario N. Berberan-Santos*,‡

Plants with self-sustained luminescence

Tatiana Mitiouchkina et all

Bioluminescence in the Sea

Steven H.D. Haddock,1 Mark A. Moline,2 and James F. Case3

Resurrecting the ancient glow of the fireflies

PHOTOLUMINESCENTS: FLUORESCENT AND PHOSPHORESCENT INKS AND PAINTS

An Introduction to Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Molecular Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Chemiluminescence Spectrometry

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ac00084a016

Molecular Luminescence Spectrometry

Molecular Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Chemiluminescence Spectrometry

Anal Chem. 2006 Jun 15; 78(12): 4047–4068.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2662353/

Fluorescence and phosphorescence

Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Practical Capture and Reproduction of Phosphorescent Appearance

O. Nalbach1, H.-P. Seidel1 and T. Ritschel2

1Max-Planck Institut für Informatik, Germany 2University College London, United Kingdom

Fluorescent Dyes and Pigments

Rami Ismael Hansrudolf Schwander Paul Hendrix

Dyes, optical brightening agents

Permanency of paper and board

Structural colour and iridescence in plants: the poorly studied relations of pigment colour

Beverley J. Glover1,* and  Heather M. Whitney2

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2850791/

Analysing photonic structures in plants 

Silvia Vignolini1,2, Edwige Moyroud3, Beverley J. Glover3 and Ullrich Steiner1

1Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK 3Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK

The Mechanism of Color Change in the Neon Tetra Fish: a Light‐Induced Tunable Photonic Crystal Array

Dvir Gur 1 , Benjamin A Palmer 1 , Ben Leshem 2 , Dan Oron 2 , Peter Fratzl 3 , Steve Weiner 1 , Lia Addadi 4

First published: 27 April 2015

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25914222/

Colour measurement in the paper industry

https://www.erx50.com/en/anwendungen/papier-obsolete

Print Quality Control Management for Papers Containing Optical Brightening Agents

Roberto Pasic, Ivo Kuzmanov, Svetlana Mijakovska

The issues of Optical Brightening Agents in paper and ink

http://the-print-guide.blogspot.com/2009/03/issues-of-optical-brightening-agents-in.html

Optical Brightening Agents in Manufacturing

Posted July 20, 2015 by Greg Stehn

https://www.xrite.com/blog/controlling-obas-in-manufacturing

SUCCESSFUL COLOR MANAGEMENT OF PAPERS WITH OPTICAL BRIGHTENERS

Effect of Optical Brightening Agents and UV Protective Coating on Print Stability of Fine Art Substrates for Ink Jet

Veronika Chovancova-Lovell* and Paul D. Fleming III**

*Daniel J Carlick Technical Center Sun Chemical Corporation

**Department of Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Imaging, Center for Ink and Printability Western Michigan University

OPTICAL BRIGHTENING AGENTS

A Visual Examination of the Solubility of Brighteners in Paper after Aqueous Treatment

Emily H. Cohen

December 17, 2014

Color & Perception Roemich

To Brighten or Not to Brighten

Scientifically examining the controversy over OBA inkjet media additives.

SIGN & DIGITAL GRAPHICS • July 2009

Substitution of Optical Brightener Agents in Industrial Textiles

MUDP report October 2018

Denmark

Chemistry of optical brighteners and uses in textile industries

by Mr. Anwer Tiki, Afreen Amin and Azeema Kanwal, AVM Chemical Industries.

Archroma Introduces Leucophor® MT, A New Cost-Effective Optical Brightening Agent For High Whiteness Surface Applications

Reinach, Switzerland – 20/02/2018

https://www.archroma.com/press/releases/archroma-introduces-leucophor-mt-a-new-cost-effective-optical-brightening-agent-for-high-whiteness-surface-applications

Whiteness indices and UV standards

Konica Minolta

https://www5.konicaminolta.eu/ru/measuring-instruments/learning-centre/colour-measurement/colour/the-colour-of-white.html

The Effect of Optical Brightening Agent (OBA) in Paper and Illumination Intensity on Perceptibility of Printed Colors

Changlong Yu 2014

RIT MS Thesis

Demystifying Three Key Paper Properties

Whiteness, Brightness and Shade

Xerox

The Evolution of Tinting Dyes and Optical Brighteners in White Papers

Mark Crable

Greenville Colorants

Addressing the Challenges of Optical Brightening Agents in Paper Color Measurement

Posted on  December 4, 2015 by Ken Phillips

Hunter Lab

Adding optical brightening agents to high-yield pulp at the pulp mill

Review: Use of optical brightening agents (OBAs) in the production of paper containing high-yield pulps

Shi, H., Liu, H., Ni, Y., Yuan, Z., Zou, X., and Zhou, Y. (2012). 

BioRes. 7(2), 2582-2591.

FLUORESCENT WHITENING AGENTS IN LAUNDRY DETERGENT & PAPER

https://www.sas.upenn.edu/~kimg/mcephome/chem507/spec6.html

A summary of ultra-violet fluorescent materials relevant to Conservation


AICCM National Newsletter No 137 March 2017

Danielle Measday, Museums Victoria

Efficiency of Fluorescent Whitening Agents in Pigment Coatings

Zaeem Aman 2012

Master Thesis
Master of Science in Chemical Engineering

Karlstads universitet (KAU) 651 88 Karlstad

Colour Chemistry 2nd edition

Robert M Christie

School of Textiles & Design, Heriot-Watt University, UK and Department of Chemistry, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Email: r.m.christie@hw.ac.uk

Colour and the Optical Properties of Materials

An Exploration of the Relationship Between Light, the Optical Properties of Materials and Colour

PROFESSOR RICHARD J. D. TILLEY

Emeritus Professor, University of Cardiff, UK

2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

FLUORESCENCE AND PHOSPHORESCENCE

Andrew Glassner

Rendering of fluorescent materials using spectral path tracing : Niixtracer, a custom rendering engine

Nolan MESTRES

2018

Spectral Mollification for Bidirectional Fluorescence

A. Jung1, J. Hanika1 and C. Dachsbacher1 1Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

Assessment of whiteness and tint of fluorescent substrates with good inter-instrument correlation

Rolf Griesser

1994 Williamsburg Conference on Colorimetry of Fluorescent Materials“; English first publication in Color Res. Appl. 19 (1994), 6, p. 446-460

CIE whiteness and tint : possible improvements

R. Griesser

„AIC Interim Meeting ’95 Colorimetry”, Berlin, 4. – 6. September 1995;

first publication (Engl.) Appita 49 (1996), 2, p. 105-112;

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/CIE-whiteness-and-tint-%3A-possible-improvements-Griesser/d2a1df7fb5b7b489fecd344c1f6b8025b3a84165?p2df

WHITENESS DETERMINATION OF OPTICALLY BRIGHTENED TEXTILES

R. Hirschler, D.F. Oliveira and A.F. Azevedo

WHITENESS ASSESSMENT OF PAPER SAMPLES AT THE VICINITY OF THE UPPER CIE WHITENESS LIMIT

Coppel L., Lindberg, S., and Rydefalk, S.

STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm, Sweden

Limitations in the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper

Ludovic G. Coppel, Mattias Andersson, Per Edström and Jussi Kinnunen

WHITENESS EVALUATIONS ON TINTED AND FWA ADDED PAPERS

Burak Aksoy, Paul D. Fleming* and Margaret K. Joyce

Department of Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Imaging Center for Coating Development
Western Michigan University
Kalamazoo, MI 49008

Comparative Study of Brightness/Whiteness Using Various Analytical Methods on Coated Papers Containing Colorants

Burak Aksoy, Margaret K. Joyce and Paul D. Fleming
Department of Paper and Printing Science and Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, 49008

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/250763960_Comparative_Study_of_BrightnessWhiteness_Using_Various_Analytical_Methods_on_Coated_Papers_Containing_Colorants

Using Optical Brightening Agents (OBA) for Improving the Optical Properties of HYP-Containing Paper Sheets

H. ZhangZ. HeY. Zhou

Published 2009 Materials Science

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Using-Optical-Brightening-Agents-%28OBA%29-for-the-of-Zhang-He/665b2e9c5e7749d54f8904624370945c2e723dd1?p2df

Whiteness and Fluorescence in Layered Paper and Board

Perception and Optical Modelling

L G Coppel

PhD Thesis 2012 Sweden

Influence of SPD on Whiteness value of FWA treated samples

Michal VIK, Martina VIKOVÁ, Aravin Prince PERIYASAMY

https://dspace.vutbr.cz/bitstream/handle/11012/51679/257-vik.pdf?sequence=1

Fluorescence model for multi-layer papers using conventional spectrophotometers

L. G. Coppel, M. Andersson, M. Neuman and P. Edström

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258551824_Fluorescence_model_for_multi-layer_papers_using_conventional_spectrophotometers

Factors affecting the whiteness of optically brightened material

Juan Lin 1Renzo ShameyDavid Hinks

J Opt Soc Am . 2012 Nov 1; 29 (11): 2289-99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23201789/

FLUORESCENCE AND THE PAPER APPEARANCE – CHALLENGES IN PAPER COLORING

Dr. Tarja Shakespeare1, Dr. John Shakespeare

  • June 2009
  • Conference: Papermaking Research Symposium, PRS2009
  • At: Kuopio, Finland

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328873894_FLUORESCENCE_AND_THE_PAPER_APPEARANCE-CHALLENGES_IN_PAPER_COLORING

A fluorescent extension to the Kubelka–Munk model

Tarja Shakespeare John Shakespeare

First published: 30 December 2002

Col Res Appl, 28, 4–14, 2003

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/col.10109

Problems in colour measurement of fluorescent paper grades

Tarja Shakespeare John Shakespeare

Analytica Chimica Acta
Volume 380, Issues 2–3, 2 February 1999, Pages 227-242

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003267098004838

Colorant modelling for on-line paper coloring: Evaluations of models and an extension to Kubelka-Munk model 

Show affiliations

  • Shakespeare, Tarja Tuulikki
  • Thesis (PhD). TAMPEREEN TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU (FINLAND), Source DAI-B 61/11, p. 6074, May 2001, 147 pages.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234289229_Colorant_modelling_for_on-line_paper_coloring_Evaluations_of_models_and_an_extension_to_Kubelka-Munk_model

Kubelka Munk Model in Paper Optics: Successes, Limitations and Improvements

L. Yang

Progress in Paper Physics Seminar 2011

Conference Proceedings

Editor U. Hirn

Radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media

Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Vol. 26,Issue 8,pp. 1896-1900(2009)•

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-26-8-1896

Fluorescent Transfer of Light in Dyed Materials

S. D. Howison and R. J. Lawrence


Read More: https://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/0153026

SIAM J. Appl. Math., 53(2), 447–458. (12 pages)

https://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/0153026

Extension of the Stokes equation for layered constructions to fluorescent turbid media

Ludovic G. Coppel,1,2 Magnus Neuman,2 and Per Edström

1Innventia AB, Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden

2Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-87188 Härnösand, Sweden

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223985363_Extension_of_the_Stokes_equation_for_layered_constructions_to_fluorescent_turbid_media

Influence of Deinked Pulp on Paper Colour and its Susceptibility to Ageing

Ewa Drzewińska

Whiteness Assessment: A Primer

Concepts, Determination and Control of Perceived Whiteness

Dr. Claudio Puebla Axiphos GmbH Germany

The Chemistry and Physics of Special-Effect Pigments and Colorants for Inks and Coatings

Paints and Coatings Industry

2003

https://www.pcimag.com/articles/85016-the-chemistry-and-physics-of-special-effect-pigments-and-colorants-for-inks-and-coatings

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

This is a topic close to my heart. My masters thesis research was on color prediction and modeling. My research work was published by IPST Atlanta as Technical paper no 469. Those who work in Paper and Printing Industry know IPST very well. It used to be called Institute of Paper Chemistry and was based in Appleton, Wisconsin.

Key Terms

  • Color Science
  • Human Vision
  • Color Models
  • Industrial Color
  • Measurement
  • Color Physics
  • Color Chemistry
  • Color Perception
  • Color Psychology
  • Instruments
  • Light
  • Color Technology
  • Light Absorption
  • Light Scattering
  • Psycho-Physics of Color
  • Reflectance
  • Refraction
  • Gloss
  • Texture
  • Colorimeter
  • Spectrophotometer
  • Color Dyes and Pigments
  • Paint, Plastics, Paper, Textiles
  • Digital Color
  • Device Independent color
  • Computer Monitors
  • Color Theory
  • Color Physics
  • Kubelka Munk Theory
  • Munsell Colors
  • Pantone Colors
  • RIT
  • Newton’s Optics
  • Goethe Color Theory
  • Four Color Problem
  • Primary Colors
  • CIE LAB color
  • CIE LCH color
  • Visual Match
  • Instrument Match
  • Radiative Transfer Theory
  • Two Flux vs Multi Flux Models
  • CIE
  • ICC
  • Optical Society of America
  • Inter-Society Color Council ISCC
  • Color and Appearance
  • Whiteness
  • Yellowness
  • Color Profiles
  • Color Scales
  • CIE XYZ
  • RGB
  • CMYK
  • Rods and Cones

Human Vision

Retina of Human eye has two kind of cells responsible for color vision

Rod Cells. Rod Cells are used for motion and lightness

Cone Cells. Cone Cells are responsible for color vision in the eye retina.

Image Source: Basics of Color Imaging/Yao Wang

Image Source: Basics of Color Imaging/Yao Wang

Image Source: Clarkvision

In the references, I have included many links to articles and papers on the following importatnt topics of color. Many companies who meaure and do testing of color provide excellent tutorials on color. See References.

  • Light and Visible Spectrum
  • What is Color?
  • Color Perception in Human
  • Color Models for Visual Perception
  • Color Physics
  • Dyes and Pigments
  • Color Chemistry
  • Optical Properties of Materials

Color Standards

  • ICC International Color Consortium
  • CIE
  • ISCC Inter Society Color Council

Coloring of Materials

  • Paper
  • Textiles
  • Paints
  • Plastics

Color Meaurement in Industry

  • Colorimeters
  • Spectrophotometers

Color Measurement Companies

  • Xrite
  • Datacolor
  • Konica Minolta
  • Hunterlab
  • Technidyne

Color Prediction and Control

  • Prediction in Lab
  • Online Prediction and Control

Kubelka Munk Theory (KM)

It was developed using Radiative Transfer Theory to measure Light Absorption and Light Scattering by objects. Reflection and Transmission.

Limitations of KM Theory

  • Only Two Flux
  • Errors in measuring Strong Absorption and Weak Scattering
  • Correlation between K and S. As K goes up S goes down
  • Use of Single Constant Vs Two Constant KM Theory
  • Can not measure effects of Fluroscent Dyes FWA OBA

Several efforts have been made since early 1990s, to revise, modify KM theory or develop other multiflux models to improve prediction better than KM model.

Key Recent Researchers

  • Li Yang
  • Per Edstrom
  • L G Coppel
  • Tarja Shakespeare
  • H Granberg

My related posts

Some of my earlier published papers

Sounds True: Speech, Language, and Communication

Myth of Invariance: Sound, Music, and Recurrent Events and Structures

Understanding Rasa: Yoga of Nine Emotions

Key sources of Research

Measurement and Control of the Optical Properties of Paper

Technidyne

https://www.technidyne.com/product-page/measurement-and-control-of-the-optical-properties-of-paper

https://imisrise.tappi.org/TAPPI/Products/20/MCOPP/20MCOPP.aspx

Optical paper properties and their influence on colour reproduction and perceived print quality

Authors:

Ivana Jurič

Igor Karlovits

Ivana Tomić

Dragoljub Novaković

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275637561_Optical_paper_properties_and_their_influence_on_colour_reproduction_and_perceived_print_quality

An assessment of Saunderson corrections to the diffuse reflectance of paint films

A García-Valenzuela et al 

2011 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274 012125

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/274/1/012125/pdf

Review: Optical properties of paper: theory and practice.

R. Farnood.

In Advances in Pulp and Paper Research, Oxford 2009, 

Trans. of the XIVth Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 2009,
(S.J. I’Anson, ed.), pp 273–352, FRC, Manchester, 2018

Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy; Applications, Standards, and Calibration (With Special Reference to Chromatography)

R. W. Frei

Analytical Research and Development, Pharmaceutical Department Sandoz Ltd., 4002 Basel, Switzerland

(May 26, 1976)

Optical models for colored materials

Mathieu Hébert
Institut d’Optique Graduate School, Saint-Etienne. mathieu.hebert@institutoptique.fr

The Use of Reflectance Measurements in the Determination of Fixation of Reactive Dyes to Cotton

N. Ahmed, D. P. Oulton, J. A. Taylor*

Textile sand Paper Group, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD, United Kingdom

Received 3 January 2005; accepted 9 August 2005

Two-flux and multiflux matrix models for colored surfaces

Mathieu Hébert

Université de Lyon, Université Jean Monnet de Saint-Etienne, CNRS UMR 5516 Laboratoire Hubert Curien, F-42000, Saint-Etienne, France.

Patrick Emmel
14 rue de Münchendorf, 68220 Folgensbourg, France.

https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01179591/document

DETERMINING SCATTERING AND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS BY DIFFUSE ILLUMINATION

USDA 1967

F. A. SIMMONDS and C. L. COENS

Optical Response from Paper

Doctoral Thesis

H Granberg 2003

Sweden

PAPER’S APPEARANCE: A REVIEW

Martin A. Hubbe, Joel J. Pawlak and Alexander A. Koukoulas

2008 BioResources online Journal

Examination of the revised Kubelka–Munk theory: considerations of modeling strategies

Per Edström

Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-87188 Härnösand, Sweden

Received April 5, 2006; revised July 3, 2006; accepted July 18, 2006; posted September 11, 2006 (Doc. ID 70185); published January 10, 2007

Revised KubelkaMunk theory. I. Theory and application

Li Yang and Bjo ̈rn Kruse

Campus Norrko ̈ ping (ITN), Linko ̈ ping University, S-601 74, Norrko ̈ ping, Sweden

Received November 20, 2003; revised manuscript received May 3, 2004; accepted May 5, 2004

Revised Kubelka–Munk theory II Unified framework for homogeneous and inhomogeneous optical media

Article in Journal of the Optical Society of America A · November 2004

Li Yang, Bjo ̈rn Kruse, and Stanley J. Miklavcic

Campus Norrko ̈ ping (ITN), Linko ̈ ping University, S-601 74, Norrko ̈ ping, Sweden

Revised Kubelka–Munk theory. III. A general theory of light propagation in scattering and absorptive media

Li Yang

Graphical Technology/Package Printing Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Karlstad University, S-651 88 Karlstad, Sweden

Stanley J. Miklavcic

Center for Creative Media Technology, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, S-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden

Received January 18, 2005; accepted March 9, 2005

Qualifying the arguments used in the derivation of the revised Kubelka-Munk theory: reply

Yang, Li 

Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.2007 (English)

In: JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION, ISSN 1084-7529, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 557-560

A novel method for studying ink penetration of a print.

Yang L, Fogden A, Pauler N, Sävborg Ö, Kruse B.

Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal. 2005;20(4):423-429.

INK-PAPER INTERACTION

A study in ink-jet color reproduction

L i Y a n g 2003

Department of Science and Technology Link ̈oping University

SE-601 74 Norrko ̈ping Sweden

Color Prediction and Separation Models in Printing

-Minimizing the Colorimetric and Spectral Differences employing Multiple Characterization Curves

Yuanyuan Qu

Department of Science and Technology Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden Norrköping 2013

Deriving Kubelka–Munk theory from radiative transport 

Christopher Sandoval and Arnold D. Kim*

Applied Mathematics Unit, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343, USA
*Corresponding author: adkim@ucmerced.edu

Received November 12, 2013; accepted January 6, 2014;
posted January 16, 2014 (Doc. ID 201164); published February 21, 2014

KUBELKA-MUNK THEORY IN DESCRIBING OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPER (I)

Vesna Džimbeg-Malčić, Željka Barbarić-Mikočević, Katarina Itrić

KUBELKA-MUNK THEORY IN DESCRIBING OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPER (II).

  • Source: Tehnicki vjesnik / Technical Gazette . Jan-Mar2012, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p191-196. 6p. 
  • Author(s): Džimbeg-Malčić, Vesna; Barbarić-Mikočević, Željka; Itrić, Katarina

Applicability conditions of the Kubelka–Munk theory

William E. Vargas and Gunnar A. Niklasson

Extension of the Kubelka–Munk theory of light propagation in intensely scattering materials to fluorescent media 

Leonid Fukshansky and Nina Kazarinova

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • Vol. 70,
  • Issue 9,
  • pp. 1101-1111
  • (1980)

What Has Been Overlooked in Kubelka-Munk Theory?

Author: Yang, Li

Source: NIP & Digital Fabrication Conference, 2005 International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies. Pages 332-679., pp. 376-379(4)

Publisher: Society for Imaging Science and Technology

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ist/nipdf/2005/00002005/00000002/art00012?crawler=true

Kubelka Munk Theory for Efficient Spectral Printer Modeling

Mekides Assefa

https://ntnuopen.ntnu.no/ntnu-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/143732/FinalThesisReportMekidesAssefaHIG2.pdf?sequence=1

On Measurements of Effective Residual Ink Concentration (ERIC) of Deinked Papers Using Kubelka-Munk Theory

D.W. Vahey, J.Y. Zhu and C.J. Houtman

Single‐constant simplification of Kubelka‐Munk turbid‐media theory for paint systems—A review

Roy S. Berns Mahnaz Mohammadi

First published: 25 April 2007

Color Research and Application J

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/col.20309

Spectrophotometric color prediction of mineral pigments with relatively large particle size by single- and two-constant Kubelka-Munk theory

Authors: Li, JunfengWan, Xiaoxia

Source: Color and Imaging Conference, Volume 2017, Number 25, September 2017, pp. 324-329(6)

Publisher: Society for Imaging Science and Technology

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ist/cic/2017/00002017/00000025/art00054

Theory of light propagation incorporating scattering and absorption in turbid media

Li Yang and Stanley J. Miklavcic

Department of Science and Technology, Link ̈oping University, S-601 74, Norrko ̈ping, Sweden

Article in Optics Letters · May 2005

Kubelka-Munk Model for Imperfectly Diffuse Light Distribution in Paper

Li Yang􏰀
Holmen Paper Development Center (HPD), Holmen AB, Sweden E-mail: li.yang@holmenpaper.com

R. D. Hersch

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), School of Computer and Communication Sciences, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland

Quantification of the Intrinsic Error of the Kubelka–Munk Model Caused by Strong Light Absorption

H. GRANBERG and P. EDSTRÖM

JOURNAL OF PULP AND PAPER SCIENCE: VOL. 29 NO. 11 NOVEMBER 2003

Anisotropic reflectance from turbid media. I. Theory

Neuman, Magnus 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.(Pappersoptik och färg)

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.(Pappersoptik och färg)

2010 (English)

In: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, ISSN 0740-3232, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1032-1039

Mathematical modeling and numerical tools for simulation and design of light scattering in paper and print

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.(FSCN – Fibre Science and Communication Network)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0529-1009

Mid Sweden University

2007 (English)

Theoretical Investigation of Bioactive Papers Using the Kubelka-Munk Theory

Elina Levi Gendler

Masters of Applied Science Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry University of Toronto
2015

The color prediction model of fluorescent prints

Na DongYixin ZhangGuoyun Shi

Proceedings Volume 7241, Color Imaging XIV: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications;72411N (2009) 
Event: IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, 2009, San Jose, California, United States

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/7241/72411N/The-color-prediction-model-of-fluorescent-prints/10.1117/12.808459.short?SSO=1

State of the art on macroscopic models for the determination of thin films optical properties

G. Saridakis, D. Kolokotsa

Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Greece

M. Santamouris

Radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media

Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Journal of the Optical Society of America AVol. 26,Issue 8,pp. 1896-1900(2009)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-26-8-1896

Radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media: errata 

A. A. Kokhanovsky  

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • Vol. 27,
  • Issue 9,
  • pp. 2084-2084
  • (2010)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-27-9-2084

Spectral Reflectance Model of a Single Sheet of Blank Paper*

Yongchi XU** and Shisheng ZHOU** **

Faculty of Printing and Packaging Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an, 710048 China

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/nig/51/2/51_103/_pdf

Next Generation Simulation Tools for Optical Properties in Paper and Print

Per Edström
Mid Sweden University, TFM, SE‐87188 Härnösand, Sweden,

Improving the performance of computer color matching procedures 

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America A
  • Vol. 25,
  • Issue 9,
  • pp. 2251-2262
  • (2008)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-25-9-2251

A two-phase parameter estimation method for radiative transfer problems in paper industry applications

Per Edstro ̈ m*

Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, Ha ̈rno ̈sand, Sweden

Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering

Vol. 16, No. 7, October 2008, 927–951

A Guide to Understanding Color

Xrite

Understanding CIE *L*a*b Colour Space

Kydex

Understanding Color

Giordino Beretta 2008 and 2010

HP Labs

SPIE

PRECISE COLOR COMMUNICATION  : COLOR CONTROL FROM PERCEPTION TO INSTRUMENTATION

Konica Minolta

The basics of Color Perception and Measurement

HunterLab

The Color Guide and Glossary

Xrite

Color Differences & Tolerances Commercial Color Acceptability

Datacolor

Defining and Communicating Color: The CIELAB System

SAPPI

Color Science Course

Berns

RIT

ftp://ftp.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/berns/Berns_color_course.pdf

Using Color Effectively in Computer Graphics

Lindsay W. MacDonald

University of Derby, UK

Color Management Fundamentals

Color realism and color science

Alex Byrne

Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139
abyrne@mit.edu mit.edu/abyrne/www

David R. Hilbert

Department of Philosophy and Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607
hilbert@uic.edu http://www.uic.edu/~hilbert/

BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES (2003) 26, 3–64 

Introduction to Color Models

Routledge

Color Appearance Models

Second Edition

Mark D. Fairchild

Munsell Color Science Laboratory Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

COLOR IN GEMS: THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES

By George R. Rossman

THE NATURE OF LIGHT AND COLOR

Kodak

Light and Color

Colour physics and colour measurement: state-of-the-art and challenges

S Westland

THE PHYSICS OF COLOUR

Mil􏰀osz Michalski

Institute of Physics Nicolaus Copernicus University

July 3, 2012

Lecture 26: Color and Light

On the Kubelka-Munk Single-Constant/Two-Constant Theories

Ning Pan and others

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/216567998_On_the_Kubelka-Munk_Single-ConstantTwo-Constant_Theories

Kubelka-Munk Prediction for Dark Mixtures

  • December 2013
  • Conference: 5th International Color and Coatings Congress (ICCC 2013)
  • At: Isfahan, Iran

Authors:

Farhad Moghareh Abed

Roy S. Berns

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323656636_Kubelka-Munk_Prediction_for_Dark_Mixtures

Colour Measurement and Analysis in Fresh and Processed Foods: A Review

Pankaj B Pathare

Umezuruike Linus Opara

Fahad Al-Julanda Al-Said

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225037588_Colour_Measurement_and_Analysis_in_Fresh_and_Processed_Foods_A_Review

Extending Kubelka-Munk’s Theory with Lateral Light Scattering

Safer Mourad *, Patrick Emmel **, Klaus Simon and Roger David Hersch **

IS&T’s NIP17: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies

Kubelka Munk Model in Paper Optics: Successes, Limitations and Improvements

L. Yang

Page 81

DETERMINATION OF OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS FOR COMPUTER COLORANT ANALYSIS

Gülen Bayhan

https://www.academia.edu/5407157/DETERMINATION_OF_OPTICAL_CHARACTERISTICS_OF_MATERIALS_FOR_COMPUTER_COLORANT_ANALYSIS

DETERMINATION OF OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS FOR COMPUTER COLORANT ANALYSIS

Dibakar Raj Pant.

University of Joensuu Department of Computer Science Pro gradu
April, 2006

ftp://www.cs.joensuu.fi/pub/Theses/2005_MSc_Pant_Dibakar_Raj.pdf

Next Generation Simulation Tools for Optical Properties in Paper and Print

Per Edström
Mid Sweden University, TFM, SE‐87188 Härnösand, Sweden, per.edstrom@miun.se

The optical properties of bleached kraft pulp

Steven R. Middleton and Anthony M. Scallan, 

Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, Canada

Light Scattering in Fibrous Sheets

Edwin W Arnold

IPC PhD Thesis 1962

https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/5809/arnold_ew.pdf?…

INFLUENCE OF LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPERS

BARBARA BLAZNIK, DIANA GREGOR-SVETEC and SABINA BRAČKO

Department of Information and Graphic Arts Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Snežniška 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Determining optical properties of mechanical pulps 

Anette Karlsson, Sofia Enberg, Mats Rundlöf, Magnus Paulsson and Per Edström

Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 27 no.3/2012

Color iQC and Color iMatch Multi Flux Matching Guide

Version 8.0 | July 2012

Xrite

Industrial Color Physics 

By Georg A. Klein

PREDICTION OF PAPER COLOR:
A PROCESS SIMULATION APPROACH

G.L. JONES, M. CHATURVEDI, AND R. ARAVAMUTHAN

MARCH 1993

IPST Technical Paper Series 469

Click to access tps-469.pdf

Application of Kubelka-Munk Theory in Device-independent Color Space Error Diffusion

Shilin Guo and Guo Li

Hewlett-Packard Company, San Diego Site

The Practical Guide To Color Theory For Photographers

In-Depth Guide on How to Measure Color in Plastics

https://www.ptonline.com/articles/in-depth-guide-on-how-to-measure-color-in-plastics

A Guide to Understanding Color Communication

Tintometer Group

A partial explanation of the dependence between light scattering and light absorption in the Kubelka-Munk model 

M. Neuman, L. G. Coppel and P. Edström

Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal Vol 27 no.2/2012

Limitations of the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper

Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic 

Andersson, Mattias 

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.

Kinnunen, Jussi 

Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Math & Phys, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.

2011 (English) In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 319-328

Determination of light scattering coefficient of dark and heavy sheets

KNOX, J.M., and WAHREN, D.

Tappi J 1984

Whiteness and Fluorescence in Layered Paper and Boards

Perception and Optical Modelling

L G Coppel

PhD Thesis

Mid Sweden University

Extension of the Stokes equation for layered constructions to fluorescent turbid media

Ludovic G. Coppel,1,2 Magnus Neuman,2 and Per Edström2,*
1Innventia AB, Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden
2Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-87188 Härnösand, Sweden 

*Corresponding author: per.edstrom@miun.se

Received January 3, 2012; accepted January 20, 2012;
posted January 24, 2012 (Doc. ID 160521); published March 22, 2012

Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media.

Coppel LG,  Andersson M,  Edström P

Applied Optics, 31 May 2011, 50(17):2784-2792

Extension of the Kubelka–Munk theory of light propagation in intensely scattering materials to fluorescent media 

Leonid Fukshansky and Nina Kazarinova

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • Vol. 70,
  • Issue 9,
  • pp. 1101-1111
  • (1980)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-70-9-1101

Revised Optical Properties of Turbid Media on a Base of Generally Improved Two-Flux Kubelka-Munk Approach

D. A. Rogatkin1, and V. V. Tchernyi2

Understanding Color Communication

Xrite

Correspondences between the Kubelka-Munk and the Stokes model of strongly light-scattering materials. II: Implications

OLF, H. G
[1] North Carolina state univ., dep. wood & paper sci., Raleigh NC 27695-8005, United StatesSource

Tappi journal1989, Vol 72, Num 7, pp 159-163

Precise Color Communication

Konica Minolta

The Color Guide and Glossary

Xrite

CIE LAB Color

Sappi

Principles of Color Technology for Color Imaging Scientists and Engineers

Berns

RIT

ftp://ftp.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/berns/Berns_color_course.pdf

Using Color Effectively in Computer Graphics

Lindsay W. MacDonald

University of Derby, UK

Color Management Fundamentals Wide Format Series

Introduction to Color Models

Anisotropic reflectance from turbid media. I. Theory

Neuman, Magnus 

Edström, Per 

Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.(Pappersoptik och färg)

2010 (English)In: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, ISSN 0740-3232, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1032-1039

Anisotropic reflectance from turbid media. II. Measurements 

Magnus Neuman and Per Edström

  • Journal of the Optical Society of America A
  • Vol. 27,
  • Issue 5,
  • pp. 1040-1045
  • (2010)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-27-5-1040

Angular dependence of fluorescence from turbid media

Ludovic G. Coppel,1,∗ Niklas Johansson,and Magnus Neuman2

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281069011_Angular_dependence_of_fluorescence_from_turbid_media

Limitations in the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper

Ludovic G. Coppel, Mattias Andersson, Per Edström and Jussi Kinnunen

Fluorescence model for multi-layer papers using conventional spectrophotometers

 L. G. Coppel, M. Andersson, M. Neuman and P. Edström

Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal | Volume 27: Issue 2

Whiteness Assessment: A Primer Concepts, Determination and Control of Perceived Whiteness

September 2006

Claudio Puebla

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331802584_Whiteness_Assessment_A_Primer_Concepts_Determination_and_Control_of_Perceived_Whiteness

FLUORESCENCE AND THE PAPER APPEARANCE – CHALLENGES IN PAPER COLORING

Dr. Tarja Shakespeare1, Dr. John Shakespeare2

2009

MODELING A COLORING PROCESS 

Tarja Shakespeare, John Shakespeare 

US Patent

A fluorescent extension to the Kubelka–Munk model

Tarja Shakespeare

John Shakespeare

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229559432_A_fluorescent_extension_to_the_Kubelka-Munk_model

Radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media

Alexander A Kokhanovsky 1

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-26-8-1896

A New Look at Fundamentals of the Photometric Light Transport and Scattering Theory. Part 2: One-Dimensional Scattering with Absorption

Authors: Persheyev S.Rogatkin D.A.Published: 22.11.2017 
Published in issue: #6(75)/2017 
DOI: 10.18698/1812-3368-2017-6-65-78

http://vestniken.ru/eng/catalog/phys/opt/787.html

Spectral prediction model for color prints on paper with fluorescent additives.

Hersch RD1

Applied Optics, 30 Nov 2008, 47(36):6710-6722

https://europepmc.org/article/med/19104523

Relationship between the Kubelka-Munk scattering and radiative transfer coefficients

Suresh N Thennadil 1

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18594602/

Effect of strong absorption on the Kubelka-Munk scattering coefficient

A. KoukoulasB. Jordan

Published 1997

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Effect-of-strong-absorption-on-the-Kubelka-Munk-Koukoulas-Jordan/fee09ae8d3bfd2e8d58eff34321f60eec89d445b

A note concerning the interaction between light scattering and light absorption in the application of the Kubelka-Munk equations

Mats RundlöfJ. A. Bristow

Published 1997

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-note-concerning-the-interaction-between-light-and-Rundlöf-Bristow/c87c601ad12a90ba9e241469dd45f85797c19f70

Color Measurements on Prints Containing Fluorescent Whitening Agents

Mattias Andersson and Ole Norberg

Digital Printing Center, Mid Sweden University, 89118 Örnsköldsvik, Sweden

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/238022968_Color_measurements_on_prints_containing_fluorescent_whitening_agents_-_art_no_64930Q

Colorant modelling for on-line paper coloring: evaluations of models and an extension to Kubelka-Munk model

Shakespeare, T. (2000)

Tampere University of Technology

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328873794_Colorant_Modelling_for_On-Line_Paper_Coloring_Evaluations_of_Models_and_an_Extentsion_to_Kubelka-Munk_Model

Fluorescent White Dyes: Calculation of Fluorescence from Reflectivity Values 

Eugene Allen

1964 OSAJ

https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-4-506

Extension of the Kubelka–Munk theory for fluorescent turbid media to a nonopaque layer on a background

Article in Journal of the Optical Society of America A · July 2011

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51472634_Extension_of_the_Kubelka-Munk_theory_for_fluorescent_turbid_media_to_a_nonopaque_layer_on_a_background

Tutorial on Fluorescence and Fluorescent Instrumentation

Colour measurement in practice 

Contemporary wool dyeing and finishing

Dr Rex Brady Deakin University

Separation of the Spectral Radiance Factor Curve of Fluorescent Substances into Reflected and Fluoresced Components 

Eugene Allen

  • Applied Optics
  • Vol. 12,
  • Issue 2,
  • pp. 289-293
  • (1973)

https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-12-2-289

Fluorescence and kubelka‐munk theory

James S. Bonham

First published: Autumn (Fall) 1986

Color Research and Application J

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/col.5080110310

Spectrophotometry of fluorescent pigments

R Donaldson1

1954


British Journal of Applied PhysicsVolume 5Number 6

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0508-3443/5/6/303

KUBELKA-MUNK THEORY OF FLUORESCENT COLORANTS

He Guoxin (Department of Textile Technology)

1988

http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-DHDZ198804018.htm

Problems in colour measurement of fluorescent paper grades

Tarja Shakespeare John Shakespeare11

Analytica Chimica Acta

Volume 380, Issues 2–3, 2 February 1999, Pages 227-242

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003267098004838

Spectral Colour Prediction Model for a Transparent Fluorescent Ink on Paper*

Patrick Emmel, Roger David Hersch

Laboratoire de Systèmes Périphériques

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL),

The extended Kubelka–Munk theory and its application to spectroscopy

2020

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40828-019-0097-0

The color prediction model of fluorescent prints

Na DongYixin ZhangGuoyun Shi

Author Affiliations +Proceedings Volume 7241, Color Imaging XIV: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications;72411N (2009) 
Event: IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, 2009, San Jose, California, United States

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/7241/72411N/The-color-prediction-model-of-fluorescent-prints/10.1117/12.808459.short?SSO=1

REVIEW: USE OF OPTICAL BRIGHTENING AGENTS (OBAs) IN THE PRODUCTION OF PAPER CONTAINING HIGH-YIELD PULPS

He Shi,a Hongbin Liu,a,b,* Yonghao Ni,a,c Zhirun Yuan,d Xuejun Zou,d and Yajun Zhou

The Kubelka-Munk Theory for Color Image Invariant Properties

Jan-Mark Geusebroek, Theo Gevers, Arnold W.M. Smeulders Intelligent Sensory Information Systems, University of Amsterdam

Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media 

Ludovic Gustafsson Coppel, Mattias Andersson, and Per Edström

Applied OpticsVol. 50,Issue 17,pp. 2784-2792(2011)

https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-50-17-2784

4.2 Colour Science

ALAN MARTIN

Quantification of the Intrinsic Error of the Kubelka–Munk Model Caused by Strong Light Absorption

H. GRANBERG and P. EDSTRÖM

Effect of Moisture on Paper Color

SHAKESPEARE TARJA and SHAKESPEARE JOHN

page 85

Basic equations used in computer color matching, II. Tristimulus match, two-constant theory 

Eugene Allen

Journal of the Optical Society of AmericaVol. 64,Issue 7,pp. 991-993(1974)

Spectrophotometric color formulation based on two-constant Kubelka-Munk theory

Eric Walowit

(1985). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology

Basic Equations Used in Computer Color Matching 

Eugene Allen

Journal of the Optical Society of AmericaVol. 56,Issue 9,pp. 1256-1259(1966)

https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-56-9-1256

Computer-Aided Color Formulation (How to Formulate Color)

Posted March 02, 2017 by Mike Huda

Xrite

https://www.xrite.com/blog/computer-aided-color-formulation

COMIC: An Analog Computer in the Colorant Industry

July-Sept. 2014, pp. 4-18, vol. 36

Computer

https://www.computer.org/csdl/magazine/an/2014/03/man2014030004/13rRUx0Pqrq

An investigation of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of dyed handsheets and the application of the ICI system of color specification to these handsheets

Foote, William J. (William John)

1938 PhD Thesis IPC

https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/5491

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF FORMATION ON THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPER

DOUGLAS WAHREN

FEBRUARY, 1987 IPC Technical Paper 223

Mathematical Modelling of
Light Scattering in Paper and Print

Per Edström

PhD Thesis Mid Sweden University Sweden 2004

A Comparison Between the Coefficients of the Kubelka-Munk and DORT2002 Models

Per Edström
Mid Sweden University 2003

Simulation and modeling of light scattering in paper and print applications

Edström P. (2010)

In: Kokhanovsky A. (eds) Light Scattering Reviews 5. Springer Praxis Books. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-10336-0_10

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-10336-0_10

Measuring and Modelling Light Scattering in Paper

Niklas Johansson

Department of Natural Sciences Mid Sweden University

Doctoral Thesis No. 224 O ̈ rnsko ̈ ldsvik, Sweden 2015

Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh

B. Chance

D. A. Boas

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A/Vol. 14, No. 12/December 1997

Some of my earlier published papers

Some of my earlier published papers

Below is a list of my papers which have been published in referred journals or as technical paper.  All of the work was done by me during my post graduate studies at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA.  I was there since 1987 to 1991.

My research projects included:

  • Paper Recycling
  • Paper Color modeling and prediction
  • Simulation Modeling and Analysis of a Just In Time production system

Based on my research, I was awarded All University Graduate Creative and Research Scholar award by the University and was given a Award Citation by the University President in a Award Ceremony.

 

Effect of Recycling on the Physical Properties of Specific Fibers and Their Networks,”

by John F. Bobalek and Mayank Chaturvedi. In Proceedings, 1988 TAPPI Pulping Conference, p. 183-187.

 

 

Bobalek, John F., and Mayank Chaturvedi. 1989.

“The Effects of Recycling on the Physical Properties of Handsheets with Respect to Specific Wood Species.”

Tappi Journal June: 123- 125.

 

http://imisrise.tappi.org/TAPPI/Products/89/JUN/89JUN123.aspx

 

 

PREDICTION OF PAPER COLOR: A PROCESS SIMULATION APPROACH

WMU Masters Thesis 890

http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/masters_theses/890/

 

 

PREDICTION OF PAPER COLOR: A PROCESS SIMULATION APPROACH

IPST Technical Paper 469

Click to access tps-469.pdf

 

 

PREDICTION OF PAPER COLOR: A PROCESS SIMULATION APPROACH

IPST Annual Research Review

 

Click to access a31667.pdf

 

 

Simulation modelling and analysis of a JIT production system

Mayank Chaturvedi, Damodar Y Golhar
1992/1/1
Production Planning & Control
Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages 81-92
Taylor & Francis Group

My Research Page at Bepress.com