The Strength of Weak Ties

The Strength of Weak Ties

Key Terms

  • Loosly Coupled Systems
  • Weak Ties
  • Strong Ties
  • Connections
  • Networks
  • Diffusion
  • Lockdown
  • Isolation
  • Quarantine
  • Separation
  • Preferences
  • Epidemiology
  • Tightly Coupled Systems
  • Slack
  • Buffer
  • Communities in Networks
  • Ties
  • Borders
  • Boundaries
  • Brokers
  • Boundary Spanners
  • Cooperation
  • Competition
  • Divisions
  • Risks
  • Contagion
  • Interconnectedness
  • Clusters

The Strength of Weak Ties is quite a relevant topic currently due to focus on

  • Diffusion of Innovation
  • Spread of Diseases
  • Global Supply Chains
  • Community Formation in Networks
  • Communication in Networks
  • Relations between Groups
  • Resilience
  • Risks and Fragility
  • Contagion and Spillovers

The Strength of Weak Ties

Mark Granovetter

The Strength of Weak Ties – Continued

My Related Posts

Boundaries and Networks

Contagion in Financial (Balance sheets) Networks

Boundaries and Relational Sociology

Boundaries and Distinctions

Boundary Spanning in Multinational and Transnational Corporations

FDI vs Outsourcing: Extending Boundaries or Extending Network Chains of Firms

Global Flow of Funds: Statistical Data Matrix across National Boundaries

Balance Sheets, Financial Interconnectedness, and Financial Stability – G20 Data Gaps Initiative

Micro Motives, Macro Behavior: Agent Based Modeling in Economics

Multiplex Financial Networks

Multilevel Approach to Research in Organizations

On Holons and Holarchy

Networks and Hierarchies

Key Sources of Research

The Strength of Weak Ties

Mark Gronovetter

The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No. 6. (May, 1973), pp. 1360-1380

Click to access granovetterTies.pdf

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Strength-of-Weak-Ties-Granovetter/c9aece346139711b8c65c618da99cdbecb162575

THE STRENGTH IN WEAK TIES

WILLIAM T. LIU,  ROBERT W. DUFF

Public Opinion Quarterly, Volume 36, Issue 3, FALL 1972, Pages 361–366, https://doi.org/10.1086/268018

Published: 01 January 1972

https://academic.oup.com/poq/article-abstract/36/3/361/1875803

The Future of Weak Ties

Aral, Sinan. “The Future of Weak Ties.”

American Journal of Sociology 121, no. 6 (May 2016): 1931–1939.

MIT

Attention on Weak Ties in Social and Communication Networks

Lilian Weng, Ma ́rton Karsai, Nicola Perra, Filippo Menczer and Alessandro Flammini

2017

Algebraic Analysis of Social Networks: Models, Methods and Applications Using R

By J. Antonio R. Ostoic

A test of structural features of granovetter’s strength of weak ties theory

Noah Friedkin

Department of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, U.S.A.

Social Networks
Volume 2, Issue 4, 1980, Pages 411-422

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0378873380900064

Social network Analysis
Lecture 5–Strength of weak ties paradox

Donglei Du

Faculty of Business Administration, University of New Brunswick, NB Canada Fredericton E3B 9Y2 (ddu@unb.ca)

Click to access Lec5_weak_tie_handout.pdf

THE STRENGTH OF WEAK TIES: A NETWORK THEORY REVISITED

Mark Granovetter

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK, STONY BROOK

Sociological Theory, Vol. 1 (1983), pp. 201-233
John Wiley & Sons
http://www.jstor.org/stable/202051 .

Social Interactions and Well-Being: The Surprising Power of Weak Ties

Gillian M. Sandstrom, Elizabeth W. Dunn
First Published April 25, 2014
https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167214529799

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0146167214529799

Information Flow Through Strong and Weak Ties in Intraorganizational Social Networks

Noah E Friedkin

UCSB

Social Networks 3, 1982

Click to access SNIflow.PDF

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

Márton KarsaiNicola PerraAlessandro Vespignani

https://arxiv.org/abs/1303.5966

https://www.technologyreview.com/2013/03/28/83867/how-strong-social-ties-hinder-the-spread-of-rumours/

Strong and Weak Ties

Web Science (VU) (707.000)

Elisabeth Lex
KTI, TU Graz
April 20, 2015

Click to access strongweakties.pdf

Communication boundaries in networks

Trusina, Ala 

Rosvall, Martin 

Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.

Sneppen, Kim 

2005 (English)

In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 94, no 23, p. 238701-

Quantitative Models for Closed Loop Supply Chain and Reverse Logistics

 

Quantitative Models for Closed Loop Supply Chain and Reverse Logistics

 

 

Closing the Supply Chain Loop

  • Repair/Refurbish
  • Reuse
  • Remanufacture
  • Recycle

 

Industrial Sectors

  • Automotive
  • Beverages
  • Paper and Paperboard
  • Packaging
  • Food
  • Plastics
  • Metals
  • Electronics
  • Others

 

Key Terms:

  • Reverse Logistics
  • Closed Loop Supply Chain
  • Sustainability
  • Recycling
  • Green SCM
  • European Network on Reverse Logistics (REVLOG)

 

 

reverse4

 

 

 

From A Review on Strategic, Tactical and Operational Decision Planning in Reverse Logistics of Green Supply Chain Network Design

REVERSE

 

 

Reverse2Reverse3

 

 

reverse5

 

 

reverse7

 

 

Please see my related posts:

Towards the Circular Economy

Resource Flows: Material Flow Accounting (MFA), Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Input Output Networks and other methods

Production and Distribution Planning : Strategic, Global, and Integrated

Hierarchical Planning: Integration of Strategy, Planning, Scheduling, and Execution

 

 

 

 

 

Key Sources of Research:

 

 

‘Agility and reverse logistics: a conceptual framework’

 

Soosay, Claudine

2013

11th ANZAM Operations, Supply Chain and Services Management Symposium, pp. 1-14

 

http://search.ror.unisa.edu.au/record/UNISA_ALMA11143749860001831/media/digital/open/9915910203301831/12143749850001831/13143746160001831/pdf

 

 

 

 

An Overview of Research Characteristics on Reverse Logistics

Mohamad Tabikh

MÄLARDALEN UNIVERSITY, IDT, SWEDEN

Click to access 11TabMR27.32040645.pdf

 

 

 

 

A Review on Strategic, Tactical and Operational Decision Planning in Reverse Logistics of Green Supply Chain Network Design

Farahanim Misni1,2, Lai Soon Lee1,3*

 

Click to access JCC_2017063016203535.pdf

 

 

 

 

Reverse Logistics Network Design: A Framework for Decision Making

Theresa J. Barker and Zelda B. Zabinsky

Click to access f94945e69e2bcfd663691059f8cde408e652.pdf

 

 

 

The Reverse Logistics Process in the Supply Chain and Managing Its Implementation

Joseph Raymond Huscroft, Jr.

https://etd.auburn.edu/bitstream/handle/10415/2438/Huscroft_FINAL_Ver_3_Dissertation_TC_good.pdf;sequence=2

 

 

 

Adopting Circular Economy principles in supply chain management of organizations: reverse logistics.

 

https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2414339/Aurdahl.pdf?sequence=1

 

 

SUSTAINABLE LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES FOR SUSTAINABLE OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

 

Click to access slscm-sample.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction to Management of Reverse Logistics and Closed Loop Supply Chain Processes

Donald F.Blumberg

 

Click to access eb0d0daf4db0b15b3162c08f1be295e11e60.pdf

 

 

 

WHY REVERSE LOGISTICS IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF A CIRCULAR ECONOMY

 

https://circulatenews.org/2016/06/why-corporations-will-have-to-invest-in-their-reverse-logistics/

 

 

 

 

Optimizing the Supply Chain in Reverse Logistics

Pitipong Veerakamolmal

Surendra M. Gupta

Click to access 4193-26-SPIE.PDF

 

 

 

 

 

Reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain A comprehensive review to explore the future

 

Govindan, M.E., PhD., , Kannan; Soleimani, Hamed; Kannan, Devika
European Journal of Operational Research

2015

Click to access reverse_logistics.pdf

 

 

 

 

Reverse Logistics

How to realise an agile and efficient reverse chain within the Consumer Electronics industry

PWC

 

Click to access pwc-reverse-logistics.pdf

 

 

 

Closed Loop Supply Chain Management and Reverse Logistics -A Literature Review

N. Raj Kumar and R.M. Satheesh Kumar

2013

Click to access ijertv6n4spl_07.pdf

 

 

 

The Returns Management Process in Supply Chain Strategy

 

Click to access matdid002596.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

The Reverse Logistics Process in the Supply Chain and Managing Its Implementation

Joseph Raymond Huscroft, Jr.

https://etd.auburn.edu/bitstream/handle/10415/2438/Huscroft_FINAL_Ver_3_Dissertation_TC_good.pdf;sequence=2

 

 

Quantitative Models for Reverse Logistics

Moritz Fleischmann

2000

https://www.erim.eur.nl/doctoral-programme/phd-in-management/phd-tracks/detail/426-quantitative-models-for-reverse-logistics/

 

 

 

Resolving forward-reverse logistics multi-period model using evolutionary algorithms.

Kumar, V.N.S.A., Kumar, V., Brady, M. et al. (2 more authors)

(2016)

 

Click to access Manuscript_SI_Revised_IJPE-D-15-01250R1.pdf

 

 

 

Reverse Logistics Planning: A Strategic Way to Address Environmental Sustainability While Creating a Competitive Advantage

Melissa R. Icenhour

 

http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2701&context=utk_chanhonoproj

 

 

 

 

 

DECISION SUPPORT IN REVERSE LOGISTICS AND CLOSED-LOOP SUPPLY CHAINS

An overview of exclusive challenges in reverse logistics operations and areas where decision support tools are needed.

Click to access Reverse%20Logistics-VNL%20Magazine.pdf

 

 

 

Operations Research for Green Logistics – An Overview of Aspects, Issues, Contributions and Challenges

Rommert Dekkera , Jacqueline Bloemhof b and Ioannis Mallidisc

Click to access 18511839.pdf

 

 

 

 

A bibliometric analysis of reverse logistics research (1992-2015) and opportunities for future research

2016

 

https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1024&context=scm_pubs

Reverse Logistics

Quantitative Models for Closed-Loop Supply Chains

Editors: Dekker, R., Fleischmann, M., Inderfurth, K., van Wassenhove, L.N. (Eds.)

2004

Inventory Management in Reverse Logistics in FAW Co., Ltd

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of the Research on Reverse Logistics (1995-2005)

 

Sergio Rubio, Antonio Chamorro, Francisco Javier Miranda

https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00512945/document

 

 

 

 

Identification of Reverse Logistics Decision Types from
Mathematical Models

 

Pascual Cortés Pellicer , Faustino Alarcón Valero

 

 

 

 

REVERSE LOGISTICS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN MANUFACTURING AND E-BUSINESS INDUSTRIES

 

Click to access Dissanayake.pdf

 

 

 

How the reverse supply chain impacts the financial performance of original equipment manufacturers

Samuel Bruning Larsen

2017

 

Click to access PhD_thesis_Summary_Samuel_Br_ning_Larsen.pdf

 

 

 

 

WASTE NOT, WANT NOT.

CAPTURING THE VALUE OF The Circular Economy Through Reverse Logistics

 

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

 

Click to access Reverse-Logistics.pdf

 

 

 

 

The Use of Recycled Materials in Manufacturing: Implications for Supply Chain Management and Operations Strategy

Joy M. Field

Click to access 002-0037.pdf

 

 

 

 

Design of a Forward/Reverse Logistics Network with Environmental Considerations

Masoud Rabbani *, a, Niloufar Akbarian Saravi a, Hamed Farrokhi-Asl ba

 

 

Quantitative models for reverse logistics: A review

 

Moritz Fleischmann a, Jacqueline M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard ~, Rommert Dekker b,*,
Erwin van der Laan ~, Jo A.E.E. van Nunen a, Luk N. Van Wassenhove c

Impact of Product Recovery on Logistics Network Design

REVERSE LOGISTICS NETWORK STRUCTURES AND DESIGN

MORITZ FLEISCHMANN
2001

 

Click to access 18511677.pdf

 

 

Chapter 4

Reverse Logistics Network Design

Moritz Fleischmann, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Jacqueline M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Patrick Beullens, University of Leuven

Rommert Dekker, Erasmus University Rotterdam

https://8a9a5012-a-62cb3a1a-s-sites.googlegroups.com/site/ashivarov/home/obratna-logistika/revlog4.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7cp2kufwR6xgXQKXmQNIBXfG-iGMdzNhaEjxBpuxTOtkW8D9mP0XIkbM_bB75cpJWvOQN1sGaJ5EaVyBl2xyTrm2kAuU5oZZNngCBWjEzFnpRO_pqOETnn6-4X2-82AVZJnI9LDDHzn9NLD_r1C_iRREDz4T6MYcahQmkwja39fDkI02jf37_EldHcyFc_lQi_BZ24YALYm1sTY6AbAu1ETWRQNLwWFvwhb7L9WNMNdJGSBiPPE%3D&attredirects=0

 

 

 

 

Reverse Logistics – Capturing Value in the Extended Supply Chain

Moritz Fleischmann1∗, Jo van Nunen1, Ben Gräve2, and Rainer Gapp3

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F3-540-27354-9_8

 

 

 

 

Closed Loop Supply Chain (CLSC): Economics, Modelling, Management and Control

 

Int. J. Production Economics 183 (2017) 319–321

 

Click to access sp1.pdf

https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/international-journal-of-production-economics/vol/183/part/PB

 

 

 

 

 

INTEGRATED FORWARD-REVERSE LOGISTICS SYSTEM DESIGN: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

 

by Yong Joo Lee, Ph.D. Washington State University May 2009

 

Click to access y_lee_042009.pdf

 

 

A New Approach in Supply Chain Design: studies in reverse logistics and nonprofit settings

2012

Berenguer Falguera, Gemma

 

https://escholarship.org/uc/item/572933w2

 

 

 

 

Reverse Logistics: Network Design Based on Life Cycle Assessment

 

Joanna Daaboul, Julien Le Duigou, Diana Penciuc, Benoît Eynard

 

https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01452146/document

 

 

 

 

Collection Center Location with Equity Considerations in Reverse Logistics Networks

I ̧sıl Taria,b, Sibel A. Alumurc

 

https://uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/bitstream/handle/10012/12781/INFOR%20-%20Collection%20center%20location%20with%20equity%20considerations%20in%20reverse….pdf?sequence=1

 

 

 

 

METHODS AND TOOLS FOR CLOSED LOOP SUPPLY CHAIN AND REVERSE LOGISTICS

Giuseppe Stecca

 

University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Italy

 

 

 

 

REVERSE LOGISTICS FROM THE PAST TO PRESENT

Paul Alfred Colligan

 

 

 

 

SUSTAINABILITY OF INTERNATIONAL DUTCH SUPPLY CHAINS

Progress, effects and perspectives

© PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment
Agency

The Hague, 2014

 

 

 

Reverse Logistics: Overview and Challenges for Supply Chain Management

 

Sergio Rubio1,*and Beatriz Jiménez-Parra

 

 

 

 

 

Reverse Logistics Network Design: A Framework for Decision Making

 

Theresa J. Barker and Zelda B. Zabinsky

 

 

 

 

Strategic Planning Models for Reverse and Closed-Loop Supply Chains

Kishore K. Pochampally, Satish Nukala, Surendra M. Gupta

2008

Recycling, International Trade and the Environment

An Empirical Analysis

Authors: van Beukering, P.J

https://www.springer.com/us/book/9780792368984

 

 

 

 

 

Modelling and analysis of international recycling between developed and developing countries

 

Pieter J.H. van Beukering a,∗, Jeroen C.J.M. van den Bergh

 

 

 

Reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain: A comprehensive review to explore the future

Kannan Govindan a,⇑, Hamed Soleimani b, Devika Kannan

 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377221714005633

 

 

 

 

Concepts, design and implementation of Reverse Logistics Systems for sustainable
supply chains in Brazil

 

Henrique Luiz Corrêa

Lucia Helena Xavier

 

 

 

Strategic Modeling of Service Parts Closed-Loop Supply Chain of Philips Healthcare:

A system dynamics approach

by
M.C. Koeken BSc

http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=120806

 

A Review of Decision-Support Tools and Performance Measurement for Sustainable Supply Chain Management

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Systematic Literature Review of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) Model Application with Special Attention to Environmental Issues

Eric N. Ntabe1,2,*, Luc LeBel1,2, Alison D. Munson2, Luis Antonio De Santa-Eulalia3

Click to access CIRRELT-2014-09.pdf

 

 

 

 

Perspectives in Reverse Supply Chain Management(R-SCM): A State of the Art Literature Review

Arvind Jayant*,a, P. Guptaa, S.K.Gargb

Click to access JJMIE-242-10.pdf

 

 

 

 

A robust optimization approach to closed-loop supply chain network design under uncertainty

Mir Saman Pishvaee, Masoud Rabbani *, Seyed Ali Torabi

Click to access AMM-2011.pdf

 

 

 

 

Towards supply chain sustainability: economic, environmental and social design and planning

Bruna Mota a, *, Maria Isabel Gomes b, Ana Carvalho a, Ana Paula Barbosa-Povoa a

Click to access 2015_motagomescarvalhobpovoa_jcp.pdf

 

 

An NPV Optimization Model for Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network Design and Planning

http://thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajeassp.2017.114.125

 

 

 

 

 

Strategic and Tactical Planning of a Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network: A Linear Physical Programming Approach

Satish Nukala and Surendra M. Gupta

Click to access 004-0210.pdf

 

 

 

SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODELLING OF CLOSED LOOP SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEMS FOR EVALUATING SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES

Roberto Poles

Click to access 18619468.pdf

 

 

 

CLOSED LOOP SUPPLY CHAIN WITH PRODUCTION PLANNING

Wojciech Stecz

Click to access stecz_closed_2016_6_2_02.pdf

 

 

 

 

Closed-loop supply chain management: From conceptual to an action oriented framework on core acquisition

Jighyasu Gaur a, *, Ramesh Subramoniam b, Kannan Govindan c, Donald Huisingh

Click to access Journal%20of%20Cleaner%20Production%20Article.pdf

 

 

 

CLOSED-LOOP SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK OPTIMIZATION FOR HONG KONG CARTRIDGE RECYCLING INDUSTRY

Closed Loop Supply Chain Management and Remanufacturing in the Automotive sector

2005

Modelling and Optimization of Closed Loops Supply Chains

A Closed-loop Supply Chain Model for Managing Overall Optimization of Eco-efficiency

Wei D. Solvang, Ziqiong Deng, Bjoern Solvang

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modeling and Simulation of Closed-Loop Supply Chains Considering Economic Efficiency

 

Yoshitaka Tanimizu, Yusuke Shimizu, Koji Iwamura, Nobuhiro Sugimura

 

https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01452147/document

Closed-loop supply chains: What reverse logistics factors influence performance?

 

 

 

Adopting Circular Economy principles in supply chain management of organizations: reverse logistics

https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2414339/Aurdahl.pdf?sequence=1

 

 

 SUSTAINABLE LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES FOR SUSTAINABLE OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

Strategic Planning and Design of Supply Chains: a Literature Review

Alessandro Lambiase1,*, Ernesto Mastrocinque1, Salvatore Miranda1 and Alfredo Lambiase

Open Business Models and Closed-Loop Value Chains: Redefining the Firm-Consumer Relationship

Sebastian Kortmann
Frank Piller

California Management Review 58, 3 (May 2016)

REVERSE SUPPLY CHAINS

ISSUES AND ANALYSIS

Surendra M. Gupta

CRC Press

Strategic Closed Loop Supply Chain Management

Baptiste Lebreton

Springer 2007

Closed-Loop Supply Chain Planning Model of Rare Metals

Dongmin Son, Songi Kim, Hyungbin Park and Bongju Jeong

Towards the Circular Economy

Towards the Circular Economy

 

 

Circular Economy in reuse of

  • Metals
  • Plastics
  • Paper and Paper Board
  • Glass
  • Rubber
  • Wood/Timber/Construction Composites
  • Textiles
  • Organic Waste/Food/Agricultural/Biological

 

 

CIRCULAR ECONOMY: THE NEW NORMAL?

Key points

  • Keeping materials longer in the economy through reuse, re-purposing or recycling could reduce 33 per cent of the carbon dioxide emissions embedded in products.
  • Circularity requires a significant bridge between trade in goods and trade in services.
  • Increased recycling could reduce demand for primary resources, leading to both risks and opportunities in developing countries dependent on the extraction of natural resources.

 

CIRCULAR ECONOMY: THE NEW NORMAL?

Linear production is a familiar cycle. Resources are extracted and transformed into goods and services, sold and used, after which they are scrapped. This model has underpinned the expansion of the global economy since the industrial revolution.

It has linked material prosperity to the extraction of resources, yet has often overlooked the undue pressures placed on the environment and has rarely considered the cost of handling, scrapping and disposing of used materials, some of which are hazardous to human health. As the global population increases, incomes rise and nations strive to eradicate poverty, demand for goods and services will necessarily grow. The aim of achieving Sustainable Development Goal 12 on responsible consumption and production requires changing the linear production model. The concept of a circular economy and practice therefore merits close attention, as it can open new opportunities for trade and job creation, contribute to climate change mitigation and help reduce the costs of cleaning and scrapping in both developed and developing countries.

A circular economy entails markets that give incentives to reusing products, rather than scrapping them and then extracting new resources. In such an economy, all forms of waste, such as clothes, scrap metal and obsolete electronics, are returned to the economy or used more efficiently. This can provide a way to not only protect the environment, but use natural resources more wisely, develop new sectors, create jobs and develop new capabilities.

Each year, 1.3 billion tons of garbage are produced by 3 billion urban residents.1 This is the end point of a linear economic flow that starts with manufacturing, which uses 54 per cent of the world’s delivered energy, especially in energy-intensive industries such as petrochemicals, cement, metals and paper.2 Each year, 322 million tons of plastic, 240 million tons of paper and 59 million tons of aluminium are produced in the world, much of which goes to export markets and is not recycled.3

A rusty container or an obsolete mobile telephone are only two examples of the many products that end up being discarded, along with their transistors, metal structures and complex plastics. Each component requires a great deal of energy, time, land and capital to be produced and, even as the products become obsolete, their components often do not. The potential value of metals and plastics currently lost in electronic waste may be €55 billion annually.4

As the supply of recycled, reused and re-manufactured products increases, such products are maintained for longer in the economy, avoiding their loss to landfills. Food losses could be halved through food- sharing and discounting models that reduce fresh food waste. Access to efficient home appliances could be increased through leasing instead of sales. Organic waste could be recovered or transformed into high-value protein through the production of insect larvae.

Benefits such as these could be gained by both developed and developing countries; the potential economic gains are estimated at over $1 trillion per year in material cost savings.5 Several economies are already exploring circular strategies, including Brazil, China, India, Kenya, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Morocco, South Africa, Turkey, Uruguay, VietNam and the European Union.6 India and the European Union stand to gain savings of $624 billion and €320 billion, respectively.7

The effects of increased recycling on global value chains are an important area for research. For example, a circular model for metals implies an increase in the re-purposing, reuse and recycling of such materials. This can transform end points of the value chain, such as junkyards and dumping sites for metals, into new reprocessing hubs that supply metals to markets. This growth trend in recycling markets may be desirable from an environmental perspective, yet could reduce demand for primary resources, requiring an adjustment in employment, logistics and scal structures in countries dependent on the extraction of natural resources.8 At the same time, growth in the recycling, re-purposing and reuse of materials could support the emergence of regional reprocessing and recycling hubs and open new opportunities for the commodities and manufacturing sectors. Greater circularity could reduce the depreciation of physical capital in the economy, increasing overall wealth in societies. The specific benefits that developing countries could obtain by adopting formal circular economy strategies is a new subject for research, and further studies and data are needed.

 

Circularity can change trade patterns and improve the utilization of idle capacity

Circular models could help countries grow with resources already available in their territories. This may imply a reduction in international trade, yet the 140 million people joining the middle class each year guarantee growth in overall trade.9 Such growth may occur not in goods but in services such as access-over-ownership models.10 In addition, increased circularity can change production patterns, improving asset utilization rates and producing value chains based on recycling and re-manufacturing centres close to where products are used. This could lead to fewer transport-related losses, quicker turnarounds between orders and deliveries, lower levels of carbon dioxide emissions and the creation of jobs that cannot be offshored.

Some countries have trade surpluses in physical goods and others in immaterial services. Trade therefore results in a net transfer of materials from one region to another as seen, for example, in trade patterns between China and the United States. The United States imports many goods from China but does not export nearly as many finished goods in return. However, nearly 3,700 containers of recyclables per day are exported to China; in 2016, such exports amounted to 16.2 million tons of scrap metal, paper and plastics worth $5.2 billion.11

 

Key Terms:

  • Circular Economy
  • Cradle to Cradle
  • Closed Supply Chains
  • Industrial Ecology
  • Reverse Ecology
  • Blue Economy
  • Regenerative Design
  • Performance Economy
  • Natural Capitalism
  • Bio-mimicry
  • Doughnut Economics

 

 

From Input to the European Commission from European EPAs about monitoring progress of the transition towards a circular economy in the European Union

circular3

 

 

Circular Economy System Diagram

https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram

System_diagram_cropped

From INTRODUCTION TO THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY Booklet

circular2

From Towards the Circular Economy: Accelerating the scale-up across global supply chains

circular8

 

Comprehensive Concept of Circular Economy

http://bio-based.eu/graphics/

circular1

From Input to the European Commission from European EPAs about monitoring progress of the transition towards a circular economy in the European Union

Circular4

From Taking the Circular Economy to the City Level

cicular5

Please see my related post:

Resource Flows: Material Flow Accounting (MFA), Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Input Output Networks and other methods

Stock Flow Consistent Input Output Models (SFCIO)

Stock Flow Consistent Models for Ecological Economics

Jay W. Forrester and System Dynamics

 

Key Sources of Research:

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION TO THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY

Circular economy booklet

 Ellen MacArthur Foundation

Click to access 5f046f0a12854e0301e8139fce7cddc7f065.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

TOWARDS THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY

Economic and business rationale for an accelerated transition

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

2013

Volume 1

Click to access Ellen-MacArthur-Foundation-Towards-the-Circular-Economy-vol.1.pdf

 

 

TOWARDS THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY

Opportunities for the consumer goods sector

 

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

2013

Volume 2

https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/dotcom/client_service/sustainability/pdfs/towards_the_circular_economy.ashx

https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/towards-the-circular-economy-vol-2-opportunities-for-the-consumer-goods-sector

 

 

 

TOWARDS THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY

Accelerating the scale-up across global supply chains

Volume 3

2014

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

Click to access Towards-the-circular-economy-volume-3.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

Towards the Circular Economy: Accelerating the scale-up across global supply chains

World Economic Forum

Prepared in collaboration with the Ellen MacArthur Foundation and McKinsey & Company

January 2014

 

rethinking value chains to boost resource productivity

Click to access 2._zils_v03.pdf

 

 

 

Circular Economy in Cities

Evolving the model for a sustainable urban future

WEF

 

Click to access White_paper_Circular_Economy_in_Cities_report_2018.pdf

Towards a circular economy: A zero waste programme for Europe

DG Environment

Minsk, 8 October 2014

 

Click to access EC-Circular-econonomy.pdf

 

 

 

 

Transitioning IKEA Towards a Circular Economy: A Backcasting Approach

Claudia Szerakowski

Master’s Thesis in Industrial Ecology

 

Click to access 252505.pdf

 

 

 

 

Circular Economy Industry Roundtable:

Towards a Circular Singapore

1st June, 2017

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Sustainable Supply Chain Management and the transition towards a Circular Economy: Evidence and some Applications.

Genovese, Andrea and Acquaye, Adolf and Figueroa, Alejandro and Koh, S.C. Lenny

(2015)

Omega,

https://kar.kent.ac.uk/49202/

 

 

 

Are you ready for the circular economy? The necessity of an integrated approach.

EY

Click to access EY-brochure-cas-are-you-ready-for-the-circular-economy.pdf

 

 

 

Barriers & Drivers towards a Circular Economy

Literature Review A-140315-R-Final

March 2015

 

Click to access e00e8643951aef8adde612123e824493.pdf

 

The Circular Economy Powered by Cradle to Cradle®

 

Click to access The-Circular-Economy-powered-by-Cradle-to-Cradle.pdf

 

 

 

 Towards a Circular Economy

Venkatachalam Anbumozhi Jootae Kim

Click to access ERIA_RPR_FY2014_44.pdf

 

 

 

Circular Economy

European Commission

Click to access Presentation-circular-economy-EU-kommissionen.pdf

 

 

 

CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN CHINA

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COMPANIES

Business Sweden

 

Click to access circular-economy-in-china.-report-v.1.0_final.pdf

 

 

 

SUPPORTING THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY TRANSITION

THE ROLE OF THE FINANCIAL SECTOR IN THE NETHERLANDS

Oliver Wyman

 

Click to access CircularEconomy_print.pdf

 

 

 

Transition towards a circular economy: The case of the Metropole region Amsterdam

Jacqueline Cramer

Ambassador Circular Economy

 

Click to access jacqueline-cramer-lecture-2016.pdf

 

 

 

 

The Circular Economy – a new sustainability paradigm?

Geissdoerfer, Martin1,2†; Savaget, Paulo1; Bocken, Nancy M.P.1,2; Hultink, Erik Jan2

 

https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1810/261957/The%20Circular%20Economy%20-%20a%20new%20sustainability%20paradigm_accepted%20version.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

 

 

A REVIEW OF THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION

 

Click to access CircularEconomy_webb.pdf

 

SS8: Circular economy and decoupling

https://www.wrforum.org/ss8-circular-economy-and-decoupling/

 

 

 

Input to the European Commission from European EPAs about monitoring progress of the transition towards a circular economy in the European Union

 

May 2017

Click to access PBL-2017-EPA-network-discussion-paper-monitoring-progress-of-the-circular-economy-in-the-EU_2772.pdf

 

 

 

The European Economy: From a Linear to a Circular Economy

Florin Bonciu

 

Click to access RJEA_2014_vol14_no4_art5.pdf

 

 

 

 

THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

A DATA ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF A CIRCULAR ECONOMY ON RESOURCE-DEPENDENT DEVELOPING NATIONS

 

Click to access CEO_The%20Circular%20Economy.pdf

 

 

 

The opportunities of a circular economy for Finland

October, 2015

 

Click to access Selvityksia100.pdf

 

 

 

Circular economy

A review of definitions, processes and impacts

 

Click to access 2809-circular-impacts_0.pdf

 

 

 

CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN INDIA: RETHINKING GROWTH FOR LONG-TERM PROSPERITY

Click to access circular-economy-in-india-2-dec-2016.pdf

 

 

 

 

GROWTH WITHIN: A CIRCULAR ECONOMY VISION FOR A COMPETITIVE EUROPE

 

Click to access Circular%20economy%203.pdf

 

 

 

 

Report on State-of-the-Art Research in the Area of the Circular Economy

 

Sylvie Geisendorf

Felicitas Pietrulla ESCP Europe Campus Berlin

 

Click to access report-on-state-of-the-art-research.pdf

 

 

 

A Wider Circle? The Circular Economy in Developing Countries

 

Click to access 2017-12-05-circular-economy-preston-lehne.pdf

 

 

 

 

A safe and just space for humanity

CAN WE LIVE WITHIN THE DOUGHNUT?

Kate Raworth

OXFAM

 

Click to access dp-a-safe-and-just-space-for-humanity-130212-en.pdf

https://www.kateraworth.com

 

 

Doughnut Economics: seven ways to think like a 21st century economist

Kate Raworth

http://www.lse.ac.uk/website-archive/newsAndMedia/videoAndAudio/channels/publicLecturesAndEvents/player.aspx?id=3938

 

Taking the Circular Economy to the City Level

Click to access ICLEI_Webinar_Circular_Economy_Intro.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

Mapping the Political Economy of Design

Dr. Joanna Boehnert

Research Fellow
Centre for the Evaluation of Complexity Across the Nexus University of Surrey

 

Click to access RSD6-Mapping-the-Political-Economy-of-Design-Boehnert-6.12.17-Final2.pdf

 

 

 

A circular Economy

SITRA

https://www.sitra.fi/en/topics/a-circular-economy/

 

 

 

Rethinking Sustainability in Light of the EU’s New Circular Economy Policy

JULY 03, 2018
HBR

https://hbr.org/2018/07/rethinking-sustainability-in-light-of-the-eus-new-circular-economy-policy

 

 

 

 RE-CIRCLE

Resource Efficiency & Circular Economy Project

OECD

 

Click to access brochure-recircle-resource-efficiency-and-circular-economy.pdf

 

 

ECONOMICS OF THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY TRANSITION: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF MODELLING APPROACHES –

ENVIRONMENT WORKING PAPER No. 130

by Andrew McCarthy, Rob Dellink, and Ruben Bibas

(OECD)

 

https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/af983f9a-en.pdf?expires=1531674000&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=1108F9A93394F591184369F48C2F5D4C

 

 

 

 

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS

A European Strategy for Plastics in a Circular Economy

EU

 

Click to access plastics-strategy.pdf

 

 

 

The New Plastics Economy

Rethinking the future of plastics

WEF

 

Click to access WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf

 

https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/business%20functions/sustainability%20and%20resource%20productivity/our%20insights/rethinking%20future%20of%20plastics/the%20new%20plastics%20economy.ashx

 

Click to access NPEC-Hybrid_English_22-11-17_Digital.pdf

 

 

 

SCALING RECYCLED PLASTICS ACROSS INDUSTRIES

MARCH 2017

RESEARCHED BY JOS VLUGTER,
MSC CANDIDATE, STRATEGIC PRODUCT DESIGN, DELFT UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

 

Click to access Scaling-Recycled-Plastics-across-Industries.pdf

 

 

 

 

CIRCULAR ECONOMY: THE NEW NORMAL?

UNCTAD

May 2018

 

Click to access presspb2017d10_en.pdf

 

 

 

 

The circular economy: Moving from theory to practice

McKinsey Center for Business and Environment Special edition,

October 2016

https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Sustainability%20and%20Resource%20Productivity/Our%20Insights/The%20circular%20economy%20Moving%20from%20theory%20to%20practice/The%20circular%20economy%20Moving%20from%20theory%20to%20practice.ashx

 

 

 

 

Renewable materials in the Circular Economy

April 2018

 

Click to access C296.pdf

 

 

 

A Review of the Circular Economy and its Implementation

Almas Heshmati

Sogang University and IZA

 

Click to access dp9611.pdf

 

 

 

Rethinking finance in Rethinking nance in a circular economy

Financial implications of circular business models

ING

 

Click to access ing-rethinking-finance-in-a-circular-economy-may-2015.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

The Circular Economy in International Trade

UNCTAD

2016

http://unctad.org/en/pages/newsdetails.aspx?OriginalVersionID=1400

 

 

 

 

Circular economy:
a commentary from the perspectives of the natural and social sciences

Click to access EASAC_Circular_Economy_Web.pdf

 

 

 

 

Circular by design

Products in the circular economy

Click to access circular_by_design_-_products_in_the_circular_economy.pdf

 

 

 

GROWTH WITHIN:

A CIRCULAR ECONOMY VISION FOR A COMPETITIVE EUROPE

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

 

Click to access EllenMacArthurFoundation_Growth-Within_July15.pdf

Resource Flows: Material Flow Accounting (MFA), Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Input Output Networks and other methods

Resource Flows: Material Flow Accounting (MFA), Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Input Output Networks and other methods

 

 

 

From Materials Flow and Sustainability

mfa5mfa6

 

Key Terms:

  • MFA (Material Flow Analysis)
  • MFCA (Material Flow Cost Accounting)
  • LCA (Life Cycle Analysis)
  • SFA (Substance Flow Analysis)
  • MF WIO (Material Flow Waste Input Output)
  • IO LCA (Input Output Life Cycle Analysis)
  • KLEM (Capital, Labor, Energy, Materials)
  • PIOT ( Physical Input Output Tables)
  • MIOT (Monetary Input Output Tables)
  • IO MFN (Input Output Material Flow Network)
  • Social Ecology
  • Industrial Ecology
  • Urban Metabolism
  • Industrial Symbiosis
  • Industrial Metabolism
  • M-P Chains (Material Product Chains)
  • Global Value Chains
  • National Footprint Accounts
  • Inter Industry Analysis
  • Input Output Economics
  • End to End Supply Chains
  • Supply and Use Tables
  • Material Balance
  • Mass Balance
  • Biophysical Economics
  • Ecological Economics
  • Environmentally Extended Input Output Analysis (EE-IOA)
  • Stocks and Flows
  • MaTrace
  • Global MaTrace

 

Software for Data Analysis and Visualization:

 

This article lists several other software packages for MFA/SFA

https://www.azavea.com/blog/2017/08/09/six-sankey-diagram-tool/

 

 

Material Flow Analysis

From Practical Handbook of MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS

Material flow analysis (MFA) is a systematic assessment of the flows and stocks of materials within a system defined in space and time. It connects the sources, the pathways, and the intermediate and final sinks of a material. Because of the law of the conservation of matter, the results of an MFA can be controlled by a simple material balance comparing all inputs, stocks, and outputs of a process. It is this distinct characteristic of MFA that makes the method attractive as a decision-support tool in resource management, waste management, and environmental management.

An MFA delivers a complete and consistent set of information about all flows and stocks of a particular material within a system. Through balancing inputs and outputs, the flows of wastes and environmental loadings become visible, and their sources can be identified. The depletion or accumulation of material stocks is identified early enough either to take countermeasures or to promote further buildup and future utilization. Moreover, minor changes that are too small to be measured in short time scales but that could slowly lead to long-term damage also become evident.

Anthropogenic systems consist of more than material flows and stocks (Figure 1.1). Energy, space, information, and socioeconomic issues must also be included if the anthroposphere is to be managed in a responsible way. MFA can be performed without considering these aspects, but in most cases, these other factors are needed to interpret and make use of the MFA results. Thus, MFA is frequently coupled with the analysis of energy, economy, urban planning, and the like.

In the 20th century, MFA concepts have emerged in various fields of study at different times. Before the term MFA had been invented, and before its comprehensive methodology had been developed, many researchers used the law of conservation of matter to balance processes. In process and chemical engineering, it was common practice to analyze and balance inputs and outputs of chemical reactions. In the economics field, Leontief introduced input–output tables in the 1930s, thus laying the base for widespread application of input–output methods to solve economic problems. The first studies in the fields of resource conservation and environmental management appeared in the 1970s. The two original areas of application were (1) the metabolism of cities and (2) the analysis of pollutant pathways in regions such as watersheds or urban areas. In the following decades, MFA became a widespread tool in many fields, including process control, waste and wastewater treatment, agricultural nutrient management, water-quality management, resource conservation and recovery, product design, life cycle assessment (LCA), and others.

 

Substance Flow Analysis

From Feasibility assessment of using the substance flow analysis methodology for chemicals information at macro level

SFA is used for tracing the flow of a selected chemical (or group of substances) through a defined system. SFA is a specific type of MFA tool, dealing only with the analysis of flows of chemicals of special interest (Udo de Haes et al., 1997). SFA can be defined as a detailed level application of the basic MFA concept tracing the flow of selected chemical substances or compounds — e.g. heavy metals (mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), etc.), nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), persistent organic substances, such as PCBs, etc. — through society.

An SFA identifies these entry points and quantifies how much of and where the selected substance is released. Policy measures may address these entry points, e.g. by end‐of‐pipe technologies. Its general aim is to identify the most effective intervention points for policies of pollution prevention. According to Femia and Moll (2005), SFA aims to answer the following questions:

• Where and how much of substance X flows through a given system?

• How much of substance X flows to wastes?
• Where do flows of substance X end up?
• How much of substance X is stored in durable goods?
• Where could substance X be more efficiently utilised in technical processes?
• What are the options for substituting the harmful substance?
• Where do substances end up once they are released into the natural environment?

When an SFA is to be carried out, it involves the identification and collection of data on the one hand, and modelling on the other. According to van der Voet et al. (OECD, 2000), there are three possible ways to ‘model’ the system:

Accounting (or bookkeeping) The input for such a system is the data that can be obtained from trade and production statistics. If necessary, further detailed data can be recovered on the contents of the specific substances in those recorded goods and materials. Emissions and environmental fluxes or concentration monitoring can be used for assessing the environmental flows. The accounting overview may also serve as an identification system for missing or inaccurate data.

Missing amounts can be estimated by applying the mass balance principle. In this way, inflows and outflows are balanced for every node, as well as for the system as a whole, unless accumulation within the system can be proven. This technique is most commonly used in material flow studies, and can be viewed as a form of descriptive statistics. There are, however, some examples of case studies that specifically address societal stocks, and use these as indicator for possible environmental problems in the future (OECD, 2000).

Static modelling is the process whereby the network of flow nodes is translated into a mathematical ‘language’, i.e. a set of linear equations, describing the flows and accumulations as inter‐dependent. Emission factors and distribution factors over the various outputs for the economic processes and partition coefficients for the environmental compartments can be used as variables in the equations. A limited amount of substance flow accounting data is also required for a solution of the linear equations. However, the modelling outcome is determined largely by the substance distribution patterns.

Static modelling can be extended by including a so‐called origin analysis in which the origins of one specific problematic flow can be traced on several levels. Three levels may be distinguished:

• direct causes derived directly from the nodes balance (e.g one of the direct causes of cadmium (Cd) load in soil is atmospheric deposition);

• economic sectors (or environmental policy target groups) directly responsible for the problem. This is identified by following the path back from node to node to the point of emission (e.g. waste incineration is one of the economic sectors responsible for the cadmium load in soil);

• ultimate origins found by following the path back to the system boundaries (e.g. the extraction, transport, processing and trade of zinc (Zn) ore is one of the ultimate origins of the cadmium load in soil).

Furthermore, the effectiveness of abatement measures can be assessed with static modelling by recording timelines on substances (OECD, 2000).

Dynamic modelling is different to the static SFA model, as it includes substance stocks accumulated in society as well as in various materials and products in households and across the built‐up environments.

For SFA, stocks play an important role in the prediction of future emissions and waste flows of products with a long life span. For example, in the case of societal stocks of PVC, policy makers need to be supplied with information about future PVC outflows. Today’s stocks become tomorrow’s emissions and waste flows. Studies have been carried out on the analysis of accumulated stocks of metals and other persistent toxics in the societal system. Such build‐ups can serve as an ‘early warning’ signal for future emissions and their potential effects, as one day these stocks may become obsolete and recognisably dangerous, e.g. as in the case of asbestos, CFCs, PCBs and mercury in chlor‐alkali cells. As the stocks are discarded, they end up as waste, emissions, factors of risks to environment and population. In some cases, this delay between inflow and outflow can be very long indeed.

Stocks of products no longer in use, but not yet discarded, are also important. These stocks could include: old radios, computers and/or other electronic equipment stored in basements or attics, out‐of‐use pipes still in the ground, obsolete stocks of chemicals no longer produced but still stored, such as lead paints and pesticides. These ‘hibernating stocks’ are likely to be very large, according to OECD estimates (2000). Estimating future emissions is a crucial issue if environmental policy makers are to anticipate problems and take timely, effective action. In order to do this, stocks cannot be ignored. Therefore, when using MFA or SFA models for forecasting, stocks should play a vital part. Flows and stocks interact with each other. Stocks grow when the inflows exceed the outflows of a (sub)‐system and certain outflows of a (sub)‐system are disproportional to the stocks.

For this dynamic model, additional information is needed for the time dimension of the variables, e.g. the life span of applications in the economy; the half life of compounds; the retention time in environmental compartments and so forth. Calculations can be made not only on the ‘intrinsic’ effectiveness of packages of measures, but also on their anticipated effects in a specific year in the future. They can also be made on the time
it takes for such measures to become effective. A dynamic model is therefore most suitable for scenario analysis, provided that the required data are available or can be estimated with adequate accuracy (OECD, 2000).

 

Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

 

What is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)?

As environmental awareness increases, industries and businesses are assessing how their activities affect the environment. Society has become concerned about the issues of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation. Many businesses have responded to this awareness by providing “greener” products and using “greener” processes. The environmental performance of products and processes has become a key issue, which is why some companies are investigating ways to minimize their effects on the environment. Many companies have found it advantageous to explore ways of moving beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. One such tool is LCA. This concept considers the entire life cycle of a product (Curran 1996).

Life cycle assessment is a “cradle-to-grave” approach for assessing industrial systems. “Cradle-to-grave” begins with the gathering of raw materials from the earth to create the product and ends at the point when all materials are returned to the earth. LCA evaluates all stages of a product’s life from the perspective that they are interdependent, meaning that one operation leads to the next. LCA enables the estimation of the cumulative environmental impacts resulting from all stages in the product life cycle, often including impacts not considered in more traditional analyses (e.g., raw material extraction, material transportation, ultimate product disposal, etc.). By including the impacts throughout the product life cycle, LCA provides a comprehensive view of the environmental aspects of the product or process and a more accurate picture of the true environmental trade-offs in product and process selection.

The term “life cycle” refers to the major activities in the course of the product’s life-span from its manufacture, use, and maintenance, to its final disposal, including the raw material acquisition required to manufacture the product. Exhibit 1-1 illustrates the possible life cycle stages that can be considered in an LCA and the typical inputs/outputs measured.

 

Methods of LCA

  • Process LCA
  • Economic Input Output LCA
  • Hybrid Approach

 

 

From Life cycle analysis (LCA) and sustainability assessment

 

mfa8

 

 

Material Input Output Network Analysis

  • PIOT (Physical Input Output Tables)
  • MIOT (Monetary Input Output Tables)
  • WIOT (Waste Input Output Tables
  • MRIO (Multi Regional Input Output)
  • SUT (Supply and Use Tables)

 

From Industrial ecology and input-output economics: An introduction

Although it was the pioneering contributions by Duchin (1990, 1992) that explicitly made the link between input–output economics and industrial ecology, developments in input– output economics had previously touched upon the core concept of industrial ecology.

Wassily Leontief himself incorporated key ideas of industrial ecology into an input– output framework. Leontief (1970) and Leontief and Ford (1972) proposed a model where the generation and the abatement of pollution are explicitly dealt with within an extended IO framework. This model, which combines both physical and monetary units in a single coefficient matrix, shows how pollutants generated by industries are treated by so-called ‘pollution abatement sectors.’ Although the model has been a subject of longstanding methodological discussions (Flick, 1974; Leontief, 1974; Lee, 1982), its structure captures the essence of industrial ecology concerns: abatement of environmental problems by exploiting inter-industry interactions. As a general framework, we believe that the model by Leontief (1970) and Leontief and Ford (1972) deserves credit as an archetype of the various models that have become widely referred to in the field of industrial ecology during the last decade, including mixed-unit IO, waste IO and hybrid Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models (Duchin, 1990; Konijn et al., 1997; Joshi, 1999; Nakamura and Kondo, 2002; Kagawa et al., 2004; Suh, 2004b). Notably, Duchin (1990) deals with the conversion of wastes to useful products, which is precisely the aim of industrial ecology, and subsequently, as part of a study funded by the first AT&T industrial ecology fellowship program, with the recovery of plastic wastes in particular (Duchin and Lange, 1998). Duchin (1992) clarifies the quantity-price relationships in an input–output model (a theme to which she has repeatedly returned) and draws its implications for industrial ecology, which has traditionally been concerned exclusively with physical quantities.

Duchin and Lange (1994) evaluated the feasibility of the recommendations of the Brundtland Report for achieving sustainable development. For that, they developed an input–output model of the global economy with multiple regions and analyzed the consequences of the Brundtland assumptions about economic development and technological change for future material use and waste generation. Despite substantial improvements in material efficiency and pollution reduction, they found that these could not offset the impact of population growth and the improved standards of living endorsed by the authors of the Brundtland Report.

Another pioneering study that greatly influenced current industrial ecology research was described by Ayres and Kneese (1969) and Kneese et al. (1970), who applied the massbalance principle to the basic input–output structure, enabling a quantitative analysis of resource use and material flows of an economic system. The contribution by Ayres and Kneese is considered the first attempt to describe the metabolic structure of an economy in terms of mass flows (see Ayres, 1989; Haberl, 2001).

Since the 1990s, new work in the areas of economy-wide research about material flows, sometimes based on Physical Input–Output Tables (PIOTs), has propelled this line of research forward in at least four distinct directions: (1) systems conceptualization (Duchin, 1992; Duchin, 2005a); (2) development of methodology (Konijn et al., 1997; Nakamura and Kondo, 2002; Hoekstra, 2003; Suh, 2004c; Giljum et al., 2004; Giljum and Hubacek, 2004; Dietzenbacher, 2005; Dietzenbacher et al., 2005; Weisz and Duchin, 2005); (3) compilation of data (Kratterl and Kratena, 1990; Kratena et al., 1992; Pedersen, 1999; Ariyoshi and Moriguchi, 2003; Bringezu et al., 2003; Stahmer et al., 2003); and (4) applications (Duchin, 1990; Duchin and Lange, 1994, 1998; Hubacek and Giljum, 2003; Kagawa et al., 2004). PIOTs generally use a single unit of mass to describe physical flows among industrial sectors of a national economy. In principle, such PIOTs are capable of satisfying both column-wise and row-wise mass balances, providing a basis for locating materials within a national economy.3 A notable variation in this tradition, although it had long been used in input–output economic studies starting with the work of Leontief, is the mixed-unit IO table. Konijn et al. (1997) analyzed a number of metal flows in the Netherlands using a mixed-unit IO table, and Hoekstra (2003) further improved both the accounting framework and data. Unlike the original PIOTs, mixed-unit IOTs do not assure the existence of column-wise mass-balance, but they make it possible to address more complex questions. Lennox et al. (2004) present the Australian Stocks and Flows Framework (ASFF), where a dynamic IO model is implemented on the basis of a hybrid input–output table. These studies constitute an important pillar of industrial ecology that is generally referred to as Material Flow Analysis (MFA).4

Although the emphasis in industrial ecology has arguably been more on the materials side, energy issues are without doubt also among its major concerns. In this regard, energy input–output analysis must be considered another important pillar for the conceptual basis of ‘industrial energy metabolism.’ The oil shock in the 1970s stimulated extensive research on the structure of energy use, and various studies quantifying the energy associated with individual products were carried out (Berry and Fels, 1973; Chapman, 1974). Wright (1974) utilized Input–Output Analysis (IOA) for energy analysis, which previously had been dominated by process-based analysis (see also Hannon, 1974; Bullard and Herendeen, 1975; Bullard et al., 1978). The two schools of energy analysis, namely process analysis and IO energy analysis, were merged by Bullard and Pillarti (1976) into hybrid energy analysis (see also van Engelenburg et al., 1994; Wilting,1996). Another notable contribution to the area of energy analysis was made by Cleveland et al. (1984), who present a comprehensive analysis, using the US input–output tables, quantifying the interconnection of energy and economic activities from a biophysical standpoint (see Cleveland, 1999; Haberl, 2001; Kagawa and Inamura, 2004). These studies shed light on how an economy is structured by means of energy flows and informs certain approaches to studying climate change (see for example Proops et al., 1993; Wier et al., 2001).

What generally escapes attention in both input–output economics and industrial ecology, despite its relevance for both, is the field of Ecological Network Analysis (ENA). Since Lotka (1925) and Lindeman (1942), material flows and energy flows have been among the central issues in ecology. It was Hannon (1973) who first introduced concepts from input–output economics to analyze the structure of energy utilization in an ecosystem. Using an input–output framework, the complex interactions between trophic levels or ecosystem compartments can be modeled, taking all direct and indirect relationships between components into account. Hannon’s approach was adopted, modified and re-introduced by various ecologists. Finn (1976, 1977), among others, developed a set of analytical measures to characterize the structure of an ecosystem using a rather extensive reformulation of the approach proposed by Hannon (1973). Another important development in the tradition of ENA is so-called environ analysis. Patten (1982) proposed the term ‘environ’ to refer to the relative interdependency between ecosystem components in terms of nutrient or energy flows. Results of environ analysis are generally presented as a comprehensive network flow diagram, which shows the relative magnitudes of material or energy flows between the ecosystem components through direct and indirect relationships (Levine, 1980; Patten, 1982). Ulanowicz and colleagues have broadened the scope of materials and energy flow analysis both conceptually and empirically (Szyrmer and Ulanowicz, 1987). Recently Bailey et al. (2004a, b) made use of the ENA tradition to analyze the flows of several metals through the US economy. Suh (2005) discusses the relationship between ENA and IOA and shows that Patten’s environ analysis is similar to Structural Path Analysis (SPA), and that the ENA framework tends to converge toward the Ghoshian framework rather than the Leontief framework although using a different formalism (Defourny and Thorbecke, 1984; Ghosh, 1958).

 

 

From Materials and energy flows in industry and ecosystem netwoks : life cycle assessment, input-output analysis, material flow analysis, ecological network flow analysis, and their combinations for industrial ecology

 

MFA

 

From Regional distribution and losses of end-of-life steel throughout
multiple product life cycles—Insights from the global multiregional
MaTrace model

mfa4

From Feasibility assessment of using the substance flow analysis methodology for chemicals information at macro level

 

mfa2MFA3

 

Sankey Diagram

From Hybrid Sankey diagrams: Visual analysis of multidimensional data for understanding resource use

Sankey diagrams are used to visualise flows of energy, materials or other resources in a variety of applications. Schmidt (2008a) reviewed the history and uses of these diagrams. Originally, they were used to show flows of energy, first in steam engines, more recently for modern systems such as power plants (e.g. Giuffrida et al., 2011) and also to give a big-picture view of global energy use (Cullen and Allwood, 2010). As well as energy, Sankey diagrams are widely used to show flows of resources (Schmidt, 2008a). Recent examples in this journal include global flows of tungsten (Leal-Ayala et al., 2015), biomass in Austria (Kalt, 2015), and the life-cycle of car components (Diener and Tillman, 2016). More widely, they have been used to show global production and use of steel and aluminium (Cullen et al., 2012; Cullen and Allwood, 2013), and flows of natural resources such as water (Curmi et al., 2013). In all of these cases, the essential features are: (1) the diagram represents physical flows, related to a given functional unit or period of time; and (2) the magnitude of flows is shown by the link1 widths, which are proportional to an extensive property of the flow such as mass or energy (Schmidt, 2008b). Creating these diagrams is supported by software tools such as e!Sankey (ifu Hamburg, 2017), and several Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Material Flow Analysis (MFA) packages include features to create Sankey diagrams.

 

From Hybrid Sankey diagrams: Visual analysis of multidimensional data for understanding resource use

 

mfa7

 

Please see my related posts:

Wassily Leontief and Input Output Analysis in Economics

Shell Oil’s Scenarios: Strategic Foresight and Scenario Planning for the Future

Water | Food | Energy | Nexus: Mega Trends and Scenarios for the Future

Stock Flow Consistent Input Output Models (SFCIO)

Measuring Globalization: Global Multi Region Input Output Data Bases (G-MRIO)

Production and Distribution Planning : Strategic, Global, and Integrated

Intra Industry Trade and International Production and Distribution Networks

Trends in Intra Firm Trade of USA

Development of Global Trade and Production Accounts: UN SEIGA Initiative

Accounting For Global Carbon Emission Chains

Stock Flow Consistent Models for Ecological Economics

Jay W. Forrester and System Dynamics

Classical roots of Interdependence in Economics

Stock-Flow Consistent Modeling

 

 

 

 

Key Sources of Research:

SPECIAL SESSION ON MATERIAL FLOW ACCOUNTING

OECD

Paris, 24 October 2000

Click to access 4425421.pdf

An Innovative Accounting Framework for the Food-Energy-Water Nexus
Application of the MuSIASEM approach to three case studies

Click to access i3468e.pdf

Creating your own online data visualizations: SankeyMatic, OMAT, CartoDB

https://metabolismofcities.org/blog/4-creating-your-own-online-data-visualizations

Hybrid Sankey diagrams: Visual analysis of multidimensional data for understanding resource use

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344917301167

e!Sankey

Visualization of energy, cash and material flows with a Sankey diagram

https://www.ifu.com/en/e-sankey/sankey-diagrams/

UPIOM: A New Tool of MFA and Its Application to the Flow of Iron and Steel Associated with Car Production

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es1024299

Material flow analysis

WIKIPEDIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Material_flow_analysis

Economy-wide Material Flow Accounting. Introduction and Guide.

Version 1.0

Article · January 2015

Fridolin Krausmann, Helga Weisz, Nina Eisenmenger, Helmut Schütz, Willi Haas
and Anke Schaffartzik

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272885234_Economy-wide_Material_Flow_Accounting_Introduction_and_Guide_Version_10

Society’s Metabolism The Intellectual History of Materials Flow Analysis,

Part II, 1970-1998

Marina Fischer-Kowalski and Walter Huttler

Institute for Intenliscipiimny
Studies of Austrian Universities
University of Vienna
Vienna, Austria

Click to access Fischer-Kowalski_Huttler_1998.pdf

“Society’s Metabolism. The Intellectual History of Material Flow Analysis,

Part I, 1860 – 1970″.

Fischer-Kowalski, M.

1998.

Journal of Industrial Ecology 2(1): 61-78

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249481665_Society%27s_Metabolism_The_Intellectual_History_of_Materials_Flow_Analysis_Part_I_1860-_1970

Analysis on energy–water nexus by Sankey diagram: the case of Beijing

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19443994.2013.768038

Unified Materials Information System (UMIS): An Integrated Material Stocks and Flows Data Structure

First published: 07 February 2018

 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jiec.12730

Material Flow Cost Accounting with Umberto®

Schmidt, A. Hache, B.; Herold, F.; Götze, U.

Click to access 2-05_Material_Flow_Cost_Accounting.pdf

Click to access WEF_Richards.pdf

Study on Data for a Raw Material System Analysis: Roadmap and Test of the Fully Operational MSA for Raw Materials

Final Report

BIO by Deloitte

(2015)

Prepared for the European Commission, DG GROW.

https://www.certifico.com/component/attachments/download/2886

Integrated Analysis of Energy, Material and Time Flows in Manufacturing Systems

 

https://ac.els-cdn.com/S2212827116305479/1-s2.0-S2212827116305479-main.pdf?_tid=90701061-86fc-4c11-b078-cb577d8f8bdf&acdnat=1525719999_9dcee960cd6033d950a583cea379539f

e! Sankey

Visualization of energy, cash and material flows with a Sankey diagram

The most popular software for creating Sankey diagrams. Visualize the cash, material & energy flow or value streams in your company or along the supply chain. Share these appealing diagrams in reports or presentations.

 

https://www.ifu.com/en/e-sankey/?gclid=CjwKCAjw8r_XBRBkEiwAjWGLlIcWq2pRigMmJLKAXP4-ndFXR9ik41MUp9ahFZL2M9Ht5CKtwKIvTRoCdbsQAvD_BwE

MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS WITH SOFTWARE STAN

Oliver Cencic* and Helmut Rechberger
Institute for Water Quality Resources and Waste Management
Vienna University of Technology
Vienna A-1040, Austria

Click to access CENCIC%20and%20RECHBERGER%202008%20Material%20Flow%20Analysis%20with%20Software%20STAN.pdf

Recovery of Key Metals in the Electronics Industry in the
People’s Republic of China: An Opportunity in Circularity
(Initial Findings)

January 2018

Created as Part of the Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy

Click to access 39777_Recovery_Key_Metals_Electronics_Industry_China_Opportunity_Circularity_report_2018.pdf

Sankey diagram

WIKIPEDIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sankey_diagram

MATERIAL FLOWS IN THE UNITED STATES
A PHYSICAL ACCOUNTING OF THE U.S. INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY

DONALD ROGICH
AMY CASSARA
IDDO WERNICK
MARTA MIRANDA

WRI

Click to access material_flows_in_the_united_states.pdf

Industrial ecology and input-output economics: An introduction

Sangwon Suh

2005

Click to access Industrial-ecology-and-input-output-economics-An-introduction.pdf

A Handbook of Industrial Ecology

Robert Ayres

Leslie Ayres

http://pustaka.unp.ac.id/file/abstrak_kki/EBOOKS/A%20Handbook%20of%20Industrial%20Ecology.pdf#page=100

Physical and Monetary Input-Output Analysis:
What Makes the Difference?

Helga Weisz
Klagenfurt University
Faye Duchin
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Click to access ab5b067aacafe555acbc1e077b5b42e1fc92.pdf

Theory of materials and energy flow analysis in ecology and economics

Sangwon Suh

2005

Click to access Materials-and-energy-flows-in-industry-and-ecosystem-networks.pdf

Conceptual Foundations and Applications of Physical Input-Output Tables

Stefan Giljum

Hubacek Klaus

2009

Click to access Conceptual-Foundations-and-Applications-of-Physical-Input-Output-Tables.pdf

Alternative Approaches of Physical Input-Output Analysis to Estimate
Primary Material Inputs of Production and Consumption Activities

Stefan Giljum

Hubacek Klaus

2004

Click to access 00b7d51cc1257aba71000000.pdf

Industrial Ecology: A Critical Review

Click to access IE.pdf

EXIOPOL – development and illustrative analyses of a detailed global
multiregional environmentally-extended supply and use table/input output
table

Article in Economic Systems Research · May 2013

Click to access 561d652a08aecade1acb3bfc.pdf

Developing the Sectoral Environmental Database for Input- Output Analysis: Comprehensive Environmental Data Archive of the U.S.

Article in Economic Systems Research · December 2005

Click to access 0c960531f1d910cda1000000.pdf

The material basis of the global economy

Worldwide patterns of natural resource extraction and their
implications for sustainable resource use policies

Arno Behrens,⁎, Stefan Giljum, Jan Kovanda, Samuel Niza

Click to access Material_Basis.pdf

The Sankey Diagram in Energy and Material Flow Management

Part I: History

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2008.00004.x

The Sankey Diagram in Energy and Material Flow Management

Part II: Methodology and Current Applications

First published: 28 April 2008

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2008.00015.x

Material and Energy Flow Analysis

First published: 23 March 2010

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/ceat.201090015

8. Biophysical economics: from physiocracy to ecological economics and industrial
ecology

Cutler J Cleveland

Article · January 1999

Click to access 0deec51b7274ca0035000000.pdf

The Use of Input-Output Analysis in REAP to allocate Ecological Footprints and Material Flows to Final Consumption Categories

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.457.7453&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Waste Input–Output Material Flow Analysis of Metals in the Japanese Economy

Shinichiro Nakamura1 and Kenichi Nakajima2

Click to access 2550.pdf

A multi-regional environmental input-output model to quantify embodied material flows

Stefan Giljum a, Christian Lutz b,Ariane Jungnitz

Click to access Giljum%20et%20al_IIOA.pdf

Click to access jungnitzgiljumlutz.pdf

Material Flow Accounting and Analysis (MFA)

A Valuable Tool for Analyses of Society-Nature Interrelationships

Entry prepared for the Internet Encyclopedia of Ecological Economics

Friedrich Hinterberger *, Stefan Giljum, Mark Hammer

Sustainable Europe Research Institute (SERI)

Click to access material.pdf

Human Ecology: Industrial Ecology

Faye Duchin
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Stephen H. Levine
Tufts University

Click to access rpi0603.pdf

Development of the Physical Input Monetary Output Model for Understanding Material Flows within Ecological -Economic Systems

XU Ming

2010

Click to access 2010010204.pdf

Accounting for raw material equivalents of traded goods

A comparison of input-output approaches in physical, monetary, and mixed units

Click to access working-paper-87-web.pdf

Material Flow Accounts and Policy. Data for Sweden 2004

by: Annica Carlsson, Anders Wadeskog, Viveka Palm, Fredrik Kanlén Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden,

2006.

Click to access mi1301_2004a01_br_mift0701.pdf

Economy-wide Material Flow Accounts with Hidden Flows for Finland: 1945–2008

Jukka Hoffrén (ed.)

Click to access isbn_978-952-244-233-8.pdf

EXIOBASE
Analysing environmental impacts of the global, interlinked economy

Konstantin Stadler, Richard Wood

Industrial Ecology Programme, NTNU, Norway

2014

http://www.syke.fi/download/noname/%7B3C267869-D6AE-447F-A98D-547C1D2B5819%7D/105511

ESSAYS ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND ENVIRONMENT
An Input-Output Analysis

http://repositorio.conicyt.cl/bitstream/handle/10533/179687/MUNOZ_PABLO_2868D.pdf?sequence=1

Using Material Flow Analysis for Sustainable Materials Management: Part of the Equation for Priority Setting

Frederick W. Allen

Priscilla A. Halloran

Angela H. Leith

M. Clare Lindsay

https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1113&context=usepapapers

“Supply-Extension versus Use-Extension in Environmentally Extended Input-Output Modelling: Analyzing Physical Flows within the Austrian Economy”

Hanspeter Wieland*1, Nina Eisenmenger2, Dominik Wiedenhofer2, Martin Bruckner1

Click to access IO-Workshop-2017_Wieland_abstract.pdf

A Material Flow Analysis of Phosphorus in Japan
The Iron and Steel Industry as a Major Phosphorus Source

Kazuyo Matsubae-Yokoyama, Hironari Kubo, Kenichi Nakajima,
and Tetsuya Nagasaka

Click to access gpa_101_wa.pdf

Material Flows and Economic Development
Material Flow Analysis of the Hungarian Economy

Click to access IR-02-057.pdf

The material footprint of nations

Thomas O. Wiedmanna,b,c,1, Heinz Schandlb,d, Manfred Lenzenc, Daniel Moranc,e, Sangwon Suhf, James Westb, and Keiichiro Kanemotoc

Click to access 6271.full.pdf

Calculation of direct and indirect material inputs by type of raw material and economic activities

Paper presented at the London Group Meeting
19 – 21 June 2006

Karl Schoer

Wiesbaden, July 2006

Click to access Raw_material_Germany.pdf

Waste Input-Output  (WIO) Table

Shinichiro NAKAMURA and Yasushi KONDO,

Waste Input-Output Analysis: Concepts and Application to Industrial Ecology.

In Series: Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science,

Vol. 26, Springer, February 2009.

http://www.f.waseda.jp/nakashin/WIO.html

Economy Wide Material Flow Accounting (EW-MFA)

http://data.geus.dk/MICASheetsEditor/document/21e5c517-53b9-4b00-b7a3-55939829824b

Material flow analyses in technosphere and biosphere
– metals, natural resources and chemical products

Viveka Palm

Click to access FULLTEXT01.pdf

The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

Salemdeeb, R., Al-Tabbaa, A. and Reynolds, C.

Waste Management & Research, 34 (10). pp. 1089-1094.

Click to access Re_Main_Document.pdf

Multiregion input / output tables and material footprint accounts session

Discussion of aspects of of MRIO / material footprinting work, and considerations for developing and resource based economies.

James West | Senior experimental scientist
25 May 2016

Click to access 10_MFand_MRIO_CSIRO_English.pdf

Construction of hybrid Input-Output tables for E3 CGE model calibration and consequences on energy policy analysis

COMBET Emmanuel – CIRED
GHERSI Frédéric – CIRED
LEFEVRE Julien – CIRED
LE TREUT Gaëlle – CIRED

Click to access 6988.pdf

Prospects and Drivers of Future European Resource Requirements
Evidence from a Multi-National Macroeconomic Simulation Study*

Paper prepared for the final WIOD Conference
Groningen, April 2012
by
Martin Distelkamp, Mark Meyer** and Bernd Meyer

GWS mbH Osnabrueck

Click to access Paper_Distelkamp_et_al.pdf

Material Flow Analysis to Evaluate Sustainability in Supply Chains

Haroune Zaghdaoui, Anicia Jaegler, Natacha Gondran, Jairo Montoya-Torres

Click to access 4189.pdf

Physical and monetary input–output analysis: What makes the difference?

Helga Weisz , Faye Duchin

Click to access Physical%20and%20monetary%20input-output.pdf

Recycling and Remanufacturing in Input-Output Models

Randall W Jackson, West Virginia University
Taelim Choi, Georgia Institute of Technology
Nancey Green Leigh, Georgia Institute of Technology

Click to access WP2008-4.pdf

The Water Footprint Assessment Manual

Click to access TheWaterFootprintAssessmentManual_2.pdf

The New Plastics Economy
Rethinking the future of plastics

Click to access WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf

A Comparison of Environmental Extended Input-Output (EEIO) and Process Data in Life Cycle Assessment

Click to access Comparing-Input-Output-and-Process-LCA-Data.CE-form2-LM-edits.pdf

Managing Logistics Flows Through Enterprise Input-Output Models

V. Albino1, A. Messeni Petruzzelli1 and O. G. Okogbaa2

Click to access InTech-Managing_logistics_flows_through_enterprise_input_output_models.pdf

Social Metabolism and Accounting Approaches

Module:ECOLECON

Ecological economics

https://proxy.eplanete.net/galleries/broceliande7/social-metabolism-and-accounting-approaches

Input-Output Analysis in Laptop Computer Manufacturing

https://waset.org/publications/9998422/input-output-analysis-in-laptop-computer-manufacturing

IRON, STEEL AND ALUMINIUM IN THE UK: MATERIAL FLOWS AND THEIR
ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS

Final Project Report, March 2004

Click to access 0304_WP_Biffaward_Steel_Al-Final.pdf

A Framework for Sustainable Materials Management

Joseph Fiksel

Click to access Framework_for_SMM.pdf

Energy and water conservation synergy in China: 2007–2012

Yi Jina, Xu Tanga,⁎, Cuiyang Fenga, Mikael Höökb

Click to access Energy-and-water-conservation-synergy-in-China-2007-2012.pdf

Contributions of Material and Energy Flow Accounting to Urban Ecosystems Analysis: Case Study Singapore

Niels B. Schulz

Click to access IAS-WP136.pdf

A review of recent multi-region input–output models used for consumption-based
emission and resource accounting

Thomas Wiedmann

http://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/19433/a_review.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Physical Input Output (PIOT) Tables:  Developments and Future

Click to access 35_20100427111_Hoekstra-PIOT.pdf

Materials and energy flows in industry and ecosystem netwoks : life cycle assessment, input-output analysis, material flow analysis, ecological network flow analysis, and their combinations for industrial ecology

Suh, S,

2004

https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/8399

Applying Ecological Input‐Output Flow Analysis to Material Flows in Industrial Systems: Part I: Tracing Flows

First published: 08 February 2008

Applying Ecological Input‐Output Flow Analysis to Material Flows in Industrial Systems: Part II: Flow Metrics

First published: 08 February 2008

Local systems, global impacts
Using life cycle assessment to analyse the
potential and constraints of industrial symbioses

rising to global challenges

25 Years of Industrial Ecology

 https://is4ie.org/resources/documents/4/download

Literature study on Industrial Ecology

Gerard Fernandez Gonzalez

 

https://upcommons.upc.edu/bitstream/handle/2117/77035/Final%20version%20-%20Document.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

 

 

 

 

Practical Handbook of MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS

Paul H. Brunner and Helmut Rechberger

Handbook of Input-Output Economics in Industrial Ecology


 
edited by Sangwon Suh

Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology

edited by Roland Clift, Angela Druckman

Ecological Input-Output Analysis-Based Sustainability Analysis of Industrial Systems

 

Cristina Piluso and Yinlun Huang*

 

Helen H. Lou

An Extended Model for Tracking Accumulation Pathways of Materials Using Input–Output Tables: Application to Copper Flows in Japan

Ryosuke Yokoi * ID , Jun Nakatani ID and Yuichi Moriguchi
2008

TRACING MATERIAL FLOWS ON INDUSTRIAL SITES

Kálmán KÓSI and András TORMA
2005

 

 

 

Metabolism of Cities

 

https://metabolismofcities.org

 

 

 

 

 

Feasibility assessment of using the substance flow analysis methodology for chemicals information at macro level

 

https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/technical_report_2007_1/file

 

 

 

Structural Investigation of Aluminum in the US Economy using Network Analysis

Philip Nuss, Wei-Qiang Chen Hajime Ohno, and T.E. Graedel

 

Click to access 2016_SA_Network-Analysis-Aluminum_EST.pdf

 

 

 

 

Economy-wide Material Flow Analysis and Indicators

http://www.umweltgesamtrechnung.at/ms/ugr/ugr_en/ugr_physicalaccounts/ugr_materialflowaccounts/

 

 

 

 

Regional distribution and losses of end-of-life steel throughout
multiple product life cycles—Insights from the global multiregional
MaTrace model

 

Stefan Pauliuka,∗, Yasushi Kondob, Shinichiro Nakamurab, Kenichi Nakajimac

 

https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0921344916302774/1-s2.0-S0921344916302774-main.pdf?_tid=838ffb90-95a9-4f3a-a617-f619f32d4558&acdnat=1531385937_3f722f2c2f71337c47a1024b0c841d16

 

 

 

 

MaTrace: Tracing the Fate of Materials over Time and Across Products in Open-Loop Recycling

Shinichiro Nakamura,*,† Yasushi Kondo,† Shigemi Kagawa,‡ Kazuyo Matsubae,§ Kenichi Nakajima,⊥ and Tetsuya Nagasaka§

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es500820h

 

 

 

 

 

Tracing China’s energy flow and carbon dioxide flow based on Sankey diagrams

 

Feiyin Wang1,2 • Pengtao Wang1,2 • Xiaomeng Xu1,2 • Lihui Dong1,2 • Honglai Xue1,2 • Shuai Fu1,2 • Yingxu Ji

 

Click to access Tracing-Chinas-energy-flow-and-carbon-dioxide-flow-based-on-Sankey-diagrams.pdf

 

 

 

 

Materials Flow and Sustainability

USGS

 

 

 

Life-cycle assessment

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment

 

 

 

 

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

Scientific Applications International Corporation (SAIC) 11251 Roger Bacon Drive
Reston, VA 20190

 

Click to access chapter1_frontmatter_lca101.pdf

 

 

 

 

Life cycle analysis (LCA) and sustainability assessment

 

Click to access IntroductiontoLCAAU32013.pdf

Wassily Leontief and Input Output Analysis in Economics

Wassily Leontief and Input Output Analysis in Economics

 

 

Wassily Leontief: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics | Library of Economics and Liberty

From the time he was a young man growing up in Saint Petersburg, Wassily Leontief devoted his studies to input-output analysis. When he left Russia at the age of nineteen to begin the Ph.D. program at the University of Berlin, he had already shown how leon walras’s abstract equilibrium theory could be quantified. But it was not until many years later, in 1941, while a professor at Harvard, that Leontief calculated an input-output table for the American economy. It was this work, and later refinements of it, that earned Leontief the Nobel Prize in 1973.

Input-output analysis shows the extensive process by which inputs in one industry produce outputs for consumption or for input into another industry. The matrix devised by Leontief is often used to show the effect of a change in production of a final good on the demand for inputs. Take, for example, a 10 percent increase in the production of shoes. With the input-output table, one can estimate how much additional leather, labor, machinery, and other inputs will be required to increase shoe production.

Most economists are cautious in using the table because it assumes, to use the shoe example, that shoe production requires the inputs in the proportion they were used during the time period used to estimate the table. There’s the rub. Although the table is useful as a rough approximation of the inputs required, economists know from mountains of evidence that proportions are not fixed. Specifically, when the cost of one input rises, producers reduce their use of this input and substitute other inputs whose prices have not risen. If wage rates rise, for example, producers can substitute capital for labor and, by accepting more wasted materials, can even substitute raw materials for labor. That the input-output table is inflexible means that, if used literally to make predictions, it will necessarily give wrong answers.

At the time of Leontief’s first work with input-output analysis, all the required matrix algebra was done using hand-held calculators and sheer tenacity. Since then, computers have greatly simplified the process, and input-output analysis, now called “interindustry analysis,” is widely used. Leontief’s tables are commonly used by the World Bank, the United Nations, and the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Early on, input-output analysis was used to estimate the economy-wide impact of converting from war production to civilian production after World War II. It has also been used to understand the flow of trade between countries. Indeed, a 1954 article by Leontief shows, using input-output analysis, that U.S. exports were relatively labor intensive compared with U.S. imports. This was the opposite of what economists expected at the time, given the high level of U.S. wages and the relatively high amount of capital per worker in the United States. Leontief’s finding was termed the Leontief paradox. Since then, the paradox has been resolved. Economists have shown that in a country that produces more than two goods, the abundance of capital relative to labor does not imply that the capital intensity of its exports should exceed that of its imports.

Throughout his life Leontief campaigned against “theoretical assumptions and nonobserved facts” (the title of a speech he delivered while president of the American Economic Association, 1970–1971). According to Leontief too many economists were reluctant to “get their hands dirty” by working with raw empirical facts. To that end Wassily Leontief did much to make quantitative data more accessible, and more indispensable, to the study of economics.


Selected Works

1941. The Structure of American Economy, 1919–1929. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

1966. Essays in Economics: Theories and Theorizing. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

From NY Times

Wassily Leontief, Economist Who Won a Nobel, Dies at 93

 

Wassily Leontief, who won the Nobel prize in economics in 1973 for his analyses of America’s production machinery, showing how changes in one sector of the economy can exact changes all along the line, affecting everything from the price of oil to the price of peanut butter, died Friday night at the New York University Medical Center. He was 93.

His analytic methods, as the Nobel committee observed, were adopted and became a permanent part of production planning and forecasting in scores of industrialized nations and in private corporations all over the world.

Following the model of his so-called input-output analysis, General Electric, for example, was able to load data from 184 sectors of the economy — such as energy, home construction and transportation — into a mammoth computer to help it predict how the energy crisis brought on by the Arab oil boycott in 1973 would affect public demand for its products and services, from light bulbs to turbines.

A well-known academic figure, Mr. Leontief was the director of the Institute for Economic Analysis of New York University from 1975 until 1991; even after his retirement he still taught at the university into his 90’s. Before coming to N.Y.U. he taught economics at Harvard for 44 years and directed large research projects there as well.

Mr. Leontief was a thinker who often complained that too many of his academic colleagues spent too much time staring out their office windows instead of being out in the field, as any good economist ought to be, counting things. ”Facts,” he said. ”You have to have facts. Theories aren’t good unless you have facts to back them.”

When asked how he developed the input-output analysis recognized by his Nobel memorial prize, he would invariably begin, ”Oh, it’s really very simple — what I wanted to do was collect facts.” The facts he sought were those that explained how segments of production were interconnected.

He showed that if you carefully studied changes in the cost and components of one type of product, you could determine the resulting changes in cost and components of others along the production chain.

Suppose you have a sudden rise the price of oil or steel? Mr. Leontief taught government officials and corporate executives to track how this influenced the costs of production in other segments of a local or national economy, both within an industry or more broadly across many industries and many nations.

Wassily Leontief was born Aug. 5, 1905, in St. Petersburg, the son of Wassily W. Leontief, an economist, and the former Eugenia Bekker. A brilliant student, he was allowed to enroll when he was only 15 at the newly renamed University of Leningrad. But he got in trouble by expressing vehement opposition to the lack of intellectual and personal freedom under the country’s Communist regime, which had taken power three years earlier. He was arrested as he was nailing up anti-Communist posters on the wall of a military barracks and placed in solitary confinement. Released after several days, he promptly resumed his anti-Communist activities and was arrested several more times.

Finally, in 1925, he was allowed to leave the country, a turn of fate he attributed to a growth on his neck. He said the authorities believed that the growth was cancerous and that he would die and be of no use to the state. He left Russia to resume his studies in economics at the University of Berlin, and his parents soon followed. The growth was benign and he completed his doctorate in 1929. He spent a year as an economist advising the Government of China, particularly on the planning of a new railroad network.

Then he came to the United States and worked briefly in New York at the National Bureau of Economic Research, where his published work quickly attracted attention, and Harvard invited him to join its economics faculty. He agreed, provided the university help him develop his ideas about production. Harvard gave him a research assistant and a $2,000 grant to develop the system of input-output analysis that the world was to adopt. He and his assistant began constructing a table covering 42 American industries, taking months to compile figures and perform calculations that computers would latter handle in fractions of seconds.

During the war, he helped the United States Government with planning for industrial production, worked as a consultant to the Office of Strategic Services and supervised compilation of a 92-economic-sector table for the Department of Labor. In 1948, Mr. Leontief set up the Harvard Research Project on the Structure of the American Economy with the aid of large grants from the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations and the Air Force to expand and refine his input-output models. Soon he had a staff of 20 — and a 650-punch-card computer from I.B.M., then the state-of-the art.

He did not, however, keep the Air Force grant long once the Eisenhower Administration came to power; some of its officials were critical of his input-output theory as smacking too much of a planned economy. That was precisely what he thought it should smack of.

One of his goals in studying the nature of changes in industrial production was to enable nations to plan in ways that would be economically beneficial and help them avoid periods of economic hardship. But to some economists the idea of national economic planning was ill advised: not only would it not work, they said, but it might make matters worse and also might open the door to excessive Government control. They maintained it would be better to let the private sector and the free market determine the course of future economic events.

To Mr. Leontief, it seemed short-sighted for nations to devote little or no thought to the analysis of the future of the overall economy, especially after what he regarded as the effective work of modern economists in devising projections that are mathematically and statistically sound. He spoke out often on the subject in the 1970’s and 80’s.

He and Leonard Woodcock, then president of the United Auto Workers, proposed that the Federal Government establish an Office of National Economic Planning to help coordinate economic projects and make recommendations on policies they said could avert unnecessary unemployment, inflation, failures in health care, shortages in affordable housing, energy, public transportation and other requirements of a civilized society.

The idea never materialized. If anything, the generation of younger economists who followed him, many of whom he taught, developed less respect for the abilities of national Governments to plan for the long term. It bothered him greatly that toward the end of the century many Americans seemed to have lost broad faith in their Government’s ability to improve the lot of its citizens, particularly through economic programs.

In an Op-Ed article in The New York Times in 1992, he said there was little doubt that the United States Government had played an important role in a generally prosperous economy for more than half the century, from ending the Great Depression in the 30’s to guiding the nation through most of the rest of the century in generally sounder economic health than most of the rest of the world.

Mr. Leontief was always fearful that employment problems would accompany widespread use of the high-speed computers that he himself relied on almost from the moment they first became applicable for nonmilitary purposes after World War II. He warned that computers would be for many workers what the tractor was to the horse — great for the farmer but not great for the horse.

In an interview in 1996, when he was 90, Mr. Leontief, noting the trend toward corporate downsizing, said: ”Individual entrepreneurs will continue to do better and better and better, but significant segments of the work force will do worse and worse. Ultimately, Governments will have to play a role in arbitrating and correcting this.”

Mr. Leontief seemed to grow more liberal with age. During the student protests on the Harvard campus in 1969, he split with most senior faculty members and joined with a younger group more sympathetic to the protesting students. In 1975, he resigned from Harvard, where he was the Henry Lee Professor of Economics and chairman of the university’s Society of Fellows, its most distinguished group of scholars. He left a year ahead of schedule, complaining that too often teachers at the graduate level did not teach and researchers did not do research.

Shortly before he resigned, he joined an internal report criticizing Harvard’s economics department, which had long been regarded as among the world’s best. The report said that the department had failed to adequately recruit minority faculty members, that it took an overly narrow approach in scholarship and that a ”deterioration in attitudes and relationships” had occurred.

At N.Y.U., he continued to expand his work on input-output analysis and helped foreign nations adopt it. China was among the last to do so, as it intensified its industrialization in the late 1980’s.

Wassily Leontief, a balletomane and connoisseur of fine wines, said he also thought of himself as a squire of Willoughby Brook in northern Vermont, where he and his family had a summer home. It was all very well to be an internationally regarded scholar, but landing a beautiful brook trout, he would say with his sly smile, was his passion.

He is survived by his wife, Estelle Helena Marks, a writer, whom he married in 1932, his daughter, Svetlana Alpers, the art historian, author, and professor of fine arts at the University of California at Berkeley, and two grandsons.

 

 

Please see my related posts

Classical roots of Interdependence in Economics

George Dantzig and History of Linear Programming

 

 

 

Key Sources of Research:

 

 

STRUCTURE OF THE WORLD ECONOMY

Outline of a Simple Input-Output Formulation*

Nobel Memorial Lecture, December 11, 1973
WASSILY LEONTIEF

 

Click to access b541e3fec34aa38c09c9eec41a46981e8fb9.pdf

https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/1973/leontief-lecture.html

 

 

 

 

How is the global economy interconnected?

https://www.ubs.com/microsites/together/en/nobel-perspectives/laureates/wassily-leontief.html

 

 

 

 

Wassily Leontief

Concise Encyclopedia of Economics

Wassily Leontief

http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Leontief.html

 

 

 

 

Wassily Leontief and the discovery of the input output approach,

Bjerkholt, Olav

(2016) :

Memorandum, Department of Economics, University of Oslo, No. 18/2016

Click to access 877412162.pdf

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2884686

 

 

 

Wassily Leontief and Léon Walras: The Production as a Circular Flow

 

Amanar AKHABBAR*
Jérôme LALLEMENT

2011

Click to access Wassily-Leontief-and-Leon-Walras-the-Production-as-a-Circular-Flow.pdf

Click to access MPRA_paper_30207.pdf

 

 

 

Wassily Leontief, the Input-Output model, the Soviet National Economic Balance
and the General Equilibrium Theory

Fidel Aroche

 

Click to access Ponencia_Aroche_Fidel_1.pdf

 

 

 

 

Wassily Leontief: In appreciation

William J. Baumol and Thijs ten Raa

Euro. J. History of Economic Thought 16:3 511–522

September 2009

 

Click to access leontief%20ejhet.pdf

Click to access Thijs.pdf

 

 

 

 

Social Technology and Political Economy:  The debate about the Soviet origins of Input Output Analysis

Amanar Akhabbar

2006

Click to access 2006-12-21_Akhabbar.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

The National Accounts as a Tool for Analysis and Policy; History, Economic
Theory and Data Compilation Issues

Frits Bos
2009

Click to access MPRA_paper_23582.pdf

Click to access The-National-Accounts-as-a-Tool-for-Analysis-and-Policy-History-Economic-Theory-and-Compilation-Issues.pdf

 

 

 

 

The national accounts as a tool for analysis and policy; past, present and
future

Frits Bos

CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis
2006

Click to access MPRA_paper_1235.pdf

 

 

 

 

Three centuries of macro-economic statistics

Frits Bos

December 2011

Click to access MPRA_paper_35391.pdf

 

 

 

 

Wassily Leontief and His Contributions to Economic Accounting

BEA

1999

Click to access 0399leon.pdf

 

 

 

 

A Review of Input-Output Analysis

CARL F. CHRiST

Volume Title: Input-Output Analysis: An Appraisal
Volume ISBN: 0-870-14173-2

Click to access c2866.pdf

 

 

STRUCTURE OF THE WORLD ECONOMY
Outline of a Simple Input-Output Formulation

Nobel Memorial Lecture, December 11, 1973
by
WA S S I L Y LE O N T I E F

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Click to access b541e3fec34aa38c09c9eec41a46981e8fb9.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

THE INPUT-OUTPUT MODELING APPROACH TO THE NATIONAL
ECONOMY

Viorel GAFTEA

Click to access rjef2_2013p211-222.pdf

 

 

 

 

“Input-Output Analysis in an Increasingly Globalised World:
Applications of OECD’s Harmonised International Tables”,

 

Wixted, B., N. Yamano and C. Webb

(2006),

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers,
2006/07, OECD Publishing

Click to access input-output-analysis.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

System Dynamics and Input Output Analysis

Charles Braden

Click to access brade166.pdf

 

 

 

 

ECONOMIC INTERDEPENDENCE AND INPUT-OUTPUT THEORY

Ángel Luis Ruiz
Inter American University of Puerto Rico
Pedro F. Pellet
Nova Southeastern University

 

Click to access archivo5_vol5_no2.pdf

 

 

 

Leontief and the Future of the World Economy

Emilio Fontela

Catedrático Emérito

Universidad de Ginebra

2002

Click to access FIIRS006.PDF

 

 

 

Classical’ Roots of Input-Output Analysis: A Short Account of its Long Prehistory

By Heinz D. Kurz and Neri Salvadori

 

Click to access Kurz&Salvarodi_IOsClassicalRoots.pdf

 

 

 

 

EDITORIAL: CARBON FOOTPRINT AND INPUT–OUTPUT ANALYSIS – AN INTRODUCTION,

Thomas Wiedmann

(2009)

Economic Systems Research, 21:3, 175-186

Click to access Wiedman2009_Carbon_footprint_MRIO_introduction_ESR.pdf

 

 

 

Introduction: the History of Input–Output Analysis, Leontief’s Path and
Alternative Tracks

OLAV BJERKHOLT & HEINZ D. KURZ

Economic Systems Research
Vol. 18, No. 4, 331–333, December 2006

Click to access 2006_The_History_of_Input_Output_Analysis__Leonthiefs_Path_and_Alternative_Tracks__in_Economic_Systems_Research_.pdf

 

 

 

 

Sraffa, Leontief, Lange: The political economy of input–output economics

 

2017

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1517758016301035

 

 

 

 

 

USA and China: What are Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Balances

USA and China: What are Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Balances

 

Changes in Global Trade

  • Global Value Chains
  • Production Fragmentation
  • Vertical Specialization
  • Value added content of Trade

 

FROM INTERCONNECTED ECONOMIES : BENEFITING FROM INDUSTRY GLOBALISATION

TIVA4TIVA5

 

From Domestic Value Added in Chinese Exports

 

TIVA12

 

From Measurement and Determinants of Trade in Value Added

 

TIVA11

 

From OECD WTO TIVA

TIVA13

 

Ongoing TiVA Projects

  • OECD TIVA Initiative
  • EU FIGARO Initiative
  • NA TIVA Initiative
  • APEC TiVA Initiative

 

There is also OECD TiVA – MNE Project which incorporates Intra Firm trade of MNEs.

 

From An Overview on the Construction of North American Regional Supply-Use and Input-Output Tables and their Applications in Policy Analysis

Introduction

Trade-in-Value Added (TiVA) is a statistical approach used to measure the interconnectivity and marginal contribution in production of participating economies in global value chains (GVCs) (Degain and Maurer, 2015). The advantage of TiVA over traditional trade statistics is that TiVA measures trade flows consistent with internationally, vertically integrated global production networks, often called GVCs. TiVA statistics allow us to better analyze three aspects of international trade: measuring the contribution of domestic versus foreign intermediates in the exports, tracing production across countries to their final destination, and finally quantifying how individual industries contribute to producing exports (Lewis, 2013).

TiVA statistics allow us to map and quantify the interdependencies between industries and economies, and help us develop better estimates of the contribution from each country in the production processes and, consequently, better measure the impact from GVC engagement for domestic economies. However, it is necessary to highlight the underlying compilation methodology of TiVA in order to better understand the characteristics, scope and interpretation of TiVA. Hence, it is important to remember that TiVA statistics are estimated statistics that are derived, in part, from official statistics. TiVA statistics are meant to complement but not to replace official statistics.

Measuring trade flows in value added as opposed to gross value of trade flows has become increasingly important as the influence that GVCs has on international trade continues to rise. (Johnson, 2014; Ahmad and Ribarsky, 2014). The proliferation of GVCs means that production has become increasingly fragmented and vertically integrated across countries (Jones and Kierzkowski, 1988; Hummels, Ishii, and Yi, 2001; OECD, 2013). At the micro level, this means that many firms in disparate countries are interconnected. Across international borders, these firms take part in particular stages of the production process, together forming a global supply chain. As a result, intermediate inputs may cross international borders several times before being used to produce final consumable goods. This matters for several reasons. First, when goods cross multiple borders multiple times, they are exposed to more trade costs, which accumulate and compound before the goods are sold for final consumption. Additionally, traditional gross trade flows are overstated because gross trade flows may count intermediates multiple times. Relatedly, gross trade flows obscure the marginal contributions of countries along GVCs. TiVA measures the flows related to the value that is added at each stage of production by each country and maps from where value is created, where it is exported, and how it is used, as final consumption or as an input for future exports. How we understand gains from trade from trade flows is fundamental, and value-added approaches lead to better understanding of GVCs and their role in international trade.

There are two ways to capture TiVA. The first method is a direct approach, which decomposes existing data on trade statistics. Johnson (2012) introduce a TiVA indicator using value-added to output ratios from the source country to compute the value-added associated with the implicit output transfer to each destination. Koopman, Wang, and Wei (2014) build on the literature in vertical specialization (e.g. Hummels, Ishii, and Yi 2001) and the literature on TiVA (e.g. Johnson and Noguera, 2012; Daudin, Rifflart, and Schweisguth, 2011) to implement a complete decomposition of a country’s gross exports by value added components. This work has evolved into a second, indirect method of capturing TiVA. The indirect method is employed in the regional North American supply-use table (NASUT) and the regional North American inter-country input-output table (NAIOT). Estimating TiVA this way relies on national and international input-output tables as well as bilateral trade statistics to derive the international intermediate and final supply-demand matrices. These matrices reveal the origin and use of goods and services produced and exchanged among the countries and industries within the table domain. Other major international input-output tables include the Asian International Input-Output (AIO) Tables published by the Institute of Developing Economies Japan External Trade Organization (IDE-JETRO), the Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) Tables published by the OECD, the World Input-Output Tables (WIOT) published by the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) project, and the Eora Multi-region Input-Output Database (Eora MRIO).

The studies based on the above two approaches have revealed a trend of rising foreign value-added content in international trade flows and the resulting implications for trade policies. Johnson and Noguera (2016) find that value-added exports are falling relative to gross exports, which means that double-counting is increasingly more common in trade flows. This is consistent with increased GVC activity. Hummels, Ishii, and Yi (2001) show that vertical specialization has grown about 30 percent and accounts for about one-third of the growth in trade from about 1970 to 1990.

In recent years, more than half of global manufacturing imports are intermediate goods and more than 70 percent of global services imports are intermediate services (OECD, 2013). This is relevant because tariffs (and other trade costs) have a higher impact on the cost of GVC activity. Each time an intermediate input crosses an international border as part of the production process, the input incurs trade costs. As first observed by Yi (2003), trade costs are compounded when intermediate goods cross borders multiple times to complete the production process. Rouzet and Miroudot (2013) demonstrate that small tariffs can add up to a significant sum by the time a finished product reaches its consumers. Other trade costs such as non-tariff measures also have such accumulative effect on downstream products.

What the literature indicates the trends in GVCs mean for trade flows, generally, are two-fold. First, with the growth of GVC activity, gross value of trade flows will continue to be larger than the value of final goods that cross borders. Second, trade policy designed with respect to gross trade flows could have the potential to be overly restrictive or even impose costs indirectly on domestic production. Trade-in-Value Added thus provides a supplementary, relevant reference for evaluating the economic effect of trade policies.

In this paper, we introduce the North American Trade-in-Value Added (NA-TiVA) project, a trilateral, multiyear initiative that aims to produce a regional TiVA database that maps the value chains connecting Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Furthermore, we introduce and discuss the project’s deliverables, the agencies involved, how the NA-TiVA project complements other ongoing TiVA initiatives around the world, the technical framework for producing a regional inter-country input-output table for the NA region, and the value of this work to resolving open policy questions within international trade.

Ongoing TiVA Initiatives

Currently there are three major ongoing global and regional TiVA projects that are related to the North America TiVA project. They are the World Input-Output database (WIOD), OECD-WTO TiVA, and APEC TiVA initiatives.

The World Input-Output database (WIOD): The official WIOD project ran from May 1, 2009 to May 1, 2012, as a joint effort of eleven European research institutions. It was funded by the European Commission. Under the official WIOD project, the accounting framework and methodologies of constructing the TiVA databases, as well as the first version of the World Input-Output database were developed. The database was officially launched in April 2012. Since then, two additional versions of WIOD databases, namely the 2013 and 2016 Releases, were published. The 2016 Released database covers 28 EU countries and 15 other major economies in the world for years 2000-2014 with 56 industries.

The OECD-WTO TiVA database: The Organization for Economic Cooperate and Development (OECD) and World Trade Organization (WTO) undertook a joint initiative on TiVA in 2013. Since then, two versions of TiVA databases have been released (2013 and 2015 release). The 2015 release of OECD-WTO TiVA database covers 61 countries and 13 regions, with 34 industries, for years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2008-2011.

APEC TiVA initiative: In 2014, APEC economic leaders endorsed the APEC TiVA database initiative, a four-year project co-led by China and the United States. Under this project, an APEC TiVA database would be constructed by the end of 2018, covering 21 APEC economies.

Each of these three major global and regional TiVA initiatives include Canada, Mexico, and the United States. In the light of this, why is there still a need for constructing the NA TiVA database? What kind of additional value can the NA TiVA project bring to this global and regional network of TiVA initiatives?

The NA-TiVA project was motivated by regional statistical developments and continuous improvements in compiling TiVA databases. The 2003 Mexican input-output table distinguishes trade flows by domestic producers and production undertaken in Maquiladoras, a tax-free, tariff-free special processing zone, which allowed the estimates of separate production coefficients and thus TiVA measures for these two distinctive zones in Mexico (Koopman, Powers, Wang, and Wei, 2010; De la Cruz, Koopman, Wang, and Wei, 2011). The government of Canada further highlighted the importance and relevance of global value chains in the publication of a book assessing the impact and implication of GVCs (Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, 2011); and as of the 2015 edition of the OECD’s ICIO tables, Mexico is broken out as Mexico Global Manufacturers and Mexico Non-Global Manufacturers. This NA TiVA project builds off of these developments.

Constructing inter-country input-output tables, or so called TiVA databases, requires the harmonization of national supply-use tables (SUTs) or input-output tables (IOTs) as well as bilateral trade statistics from different countries. However, the data produced by countries often vary greatly in the level of detail and differ in industry and product classifications. Thus, the more countries are included in a global or regional TiVA project, the higher level of aggregation would be required for the purpose of harmonization. With only three countries involved, it is feasible for the NA TiVA database to include more products and sectors than other global and regional TiVA projects.

Moreover, other factors, such as all three countries adopt the same industry and product classifications (e.g. using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)), and produce SUTS at similarly detailed levels, would ensure the compatibility of data components, and thus lead to better quality of the resulting NA TiVA database.

Finally, the NA TiVA project could synthesize the ongoing trilateral trade statistics reconciliation effort and produce better-quality balanced bilateral trade data to feed into other global and regional TiVA initiatives. One of the key inputs for constructing TiVA databases is balanced bilateral trade statistics. However, countries rarely report symmetric bilateral trade statisticsone country’s reported exports rarely equals its trading partner’s reported imports, and vice versa. To reconcile such asymmetries to produce balanced bilateral trade statistics, joint effort by both trading countries is warranted, including investigating the causes of asymmetries at detailed product level and making corresponding adjustment mechanically. However, global and regional TiVA initiatives often have to consider an incredible number of country pairs, making such an elaborate reconciliation practice rather infeasible. Thus, global and regional TiVA initiatives often turn to economic modelling to balance bilateral trade statistics which could be applied in a systematic way to all countries. Although such approach can be mathematically sound, the resulting data often require additional scrutiny, validation, and adjustment, as they do not always reflect the reality accurately. Canada, Mexico, and the United States have ongoing bilateral trade reconciliation. This NA TiVA project provides additional motivation and framework for this effort.

The History, Scope, and Major Objectives of the NA TiVA Initiative

In October 2014, the representatives from the United States, Canada, and Mexico met and kicked off the idea of constructing the NA TiVA database at a UN conference in Mexico. The main objective of this project is to construct the NA TiVA database by 2021 covering three NA countries with more detailed industry and firm information, and to improve the quality of TiVA measures for the value chains in the NA region.

The NA-TiVA project involves eight government agencies across the three NA countries: for Canada, Statistics Canada (STATCAN) and Global Affairs Canada; for Mexico, Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) and Banco de Mexico; and for the United States, the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), the U.S. Census Bureau (CENSUS), the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC), and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR).

In addition, because the resulting NA-TiVA database would be eventually integrated into the OECD-WTO TiVA database to improve the quality of information on the North American region, participants of the NA-TiVA project regularly meet with OECD representatives to harmonize TiVA database compilation methodologies, exchange data to synthesize the effort and ensure consistency across countries, and discuss best practices. Other international organizations, such as United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), and WTO, are often consulted as well for national account and trade statistics related issues.

Under the NA-TiVA initiative, three parallel work streams have been established: The trade in goods and services reconciliation team, which is tasked to produce balanced bilateral trade statistics for goods and services; the SUT team, whose goal is to harmonize the national SUTs and compile the regional NASUTs and NAIOTs; and the White Paper team, the goal of which is to produce documentation that outlines the conceptual methodology, identifies major technical issues, describes policy applications of a NA-TiVA initiative, and details project outputs as well as future work.

FROM INTERCONNECTED ECONOMIES :BENEFITING FROM INDUSTRY GLOBALISATION

 

TIVA6

 

 

From Supply-Use Tables, Trade-in-Value-Added Initiatives, and their Applications

TIVATIVA2TIVA3

Please see my related posts:

Understanding Global Value Chains – G20/OECD/WB Initiative

The Collapse of Global Trade during Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009

Development of Global Trade and Production Accounts: UN SEIGA Initiative

Trends in Intra Firm Trade of USA

Understanding Trade in Intermediate Goods

Intra Industry Trade and International Production and Distribution Networks

Production Chain Length and Boundary Crossings in Global Value Chains

 

Key Sources of Research:

The U.S.-China Bilateral Balance In Trade In Value Added

2017

https://seekingalpha.com/article/4048166-u-s-china-bilateral-balance-trade-value-added

 

 

 

 

Understanding the US-China Trade Relationship

Prepared for the US-China Business Council By Oxford Economics

January 2017

 

Click to access OE%20US%20Jobs%20and%20China%20Trade%20Report.pdf

 

 

 

Implications and Interpretations of Value-Added Trade Balances

John B. Benedetto

2012

 

Click to access implicationsand.pdf

 

 

The U.S.–China trade deficit—a value-added perspective

Demetrio Scopelliti

BLS

2013

Click to access u-s-china-trade-deficit.pdf

 

 

 

The value-added content of trade

Robert Johnson, Guillermo Noguera

07 June 2011

 

https://voxeu.org/article/value-added-content-trade-new-insights-us-china-imbalance

 

 

 

Trade in Value-Added

December 3, 2013

Logan Lewis

 

https://www.federalreserve.gov/econresdata/notes/ifdp-notes/2013/trade-in-value-added-20131203.html

 

 

 

 

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Wayne M. Morrison

Specialist in Asian Trade and Finance
April 2, 2018

FAS

Click to access RL33536.pdf

 

 

 

The China Shock revisited: Insights from value added trade flows

Adam Jakubiky Victor Kummritzz

June 30, 2017

Click to access jk_draft.pdf

 

 

 

 

Measurement and Determinants of Trade in Value Added

Nakgyoon Choi

2013

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2317706

 

 

 

 

OECD-WTO: Statistics on Trade in Value Added

OECD

https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/trade/data/oecd-wto-statistics-on-trade-in-value-added_data-00648-en

 

 

 

 

NAFTA, VALUE ADDED AND TRADE-IN-TASKS

Antonio Rodriguez-Lopez

Click to access nafta-essays-rodriguez-lopez.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added and the Value Added in Trade

Robert Stehrer

Click to access Stehrer_background_2.pdf

 

 

 

 

US Trade Wars with Emerging Countries in the 21st Century: Make America and Its Partners Lose Again

Antoine Bouët (International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C., and Groupe de Recherche en Économie Théorique et Appliquée [GREThA], University of Bordeaux, France)
David Laborde (International Food Policy Research Institute)

2017

Click to access article_us_tradewars_bouet_laborde_2017.pdf

 

 

 

Measuring Value Added in the People’s Republic of China’s Exports: A Direct Approach.

Xing, Y.

2014.

ADBI Working Paper 493. Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute

Click to access adbi-wp493.pdf

 

 

 

 

International Trade Costs, Global Supply Chains and Value-added Trade in
Australia

Gerard Kelly and Gianni La Cava
RDP 2014-07

 

Click to access rdp2014-07.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added Revisited: A Comment on R. Johnson and G. Noguera,
Accounting for Intermediates: Production Sharing and Trade in Value Added

 

Masaaki Kuboniwa
January, 2014

 

Click to access DP598.pdf

 

 

 

 

How iPhone Widens the US Trade Deficits with PRC

Yuqing Xing
And
Neal Detert

Nov 2010

Click to access 10-21.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in value added (TIVA)

2012

Click to access trade-in-value-added-2012.pdf

 

 

Global Value Chains (GVCs)

OECD

http://www.oecd.org/sti/ind/global-value-chains.htm

 

 

 

INTERCONNECTED ECONOMIES: BENEFITING FROM GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS

SYNTHESIS REPORT

OECD

Click to access interconnected-economies-GVCs-synthesis.pdf

 

 

 

TRACING THE VALUE ADDED IN GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS:
PRODUCT-LEVEL CASE STUDIES IN CHINA

UNCTAD

Click to access ditctncd2015d1_en.pdf

 

 

 

 

The Growth of Chinese Exports:
An Examination of the Detailed Trade Data

Brett Berger
Robert F. Martin

US Federal Reserve

Click to access ifdp1033.pdf

 

 

 

 

Comparing Trade Performance of China and India

Sarah Y TONG

Click to access Vol1No1_SarahTong.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added : China

OECD WTO

2015

Click to access CN_2015_China.pdf

 

 

 

Value-Added Trade and Its Implications for International Trade Policy

Kemal Derviş, Joshua P. Meltzer, and Karim Foda

https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/value-added-trade-and-its-implications-for-international-trade-policy/

 

 

 

 

Bilateral Trade Balances with China: A Matter of Accounting

Submitted by Dana Vorisek

co-authors: Tianli Zhao

On Thu, 02/05/2015

http://blogs.worldbank.org/prospects/bilateral-trade-balances-china-matter-accounting

 

 

 

Value-Added Exports and U.S. Local Labor Markets:
Does China Really Matter?

Leilei Sheny
Peri Silvaz

WTO

August 2017

Click to access silva_e.pdf

 

 

 

HOW MUCH OF CHINESE EXPORTS IS REALLY MADE IN CHINA? ASSESSING
DOMESTIC VALUE-ADDED WHEN PROCESSING TRADE IS PERVASIVE

 

Robert Koopman
Zhi Wang
Shang-Jin Wei

NBER

June 2008

Click to access w14109.pdf

 

 

 

 

GIVE CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE:
TRACING VALUE ADDED IN GLOBAL PRODUCTION CHAINS

Robert Koopman
William Powers
Zhi Wang
Shang-Jin Wei

September 2010

Click to access w16426.pdf

 

 

 

SPIDERS AND SNAKES:
OFFSHORING AND AGGLOMERATION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

Richard Baldwin
Anthony Venables

December 2010

Click to access w16611.pdf

 

 

 

TRADING TASKS: A SIMPLE THEORY OF OFFSHORING

Gene M. Grossman
Esteban Rossi-Hansberg

December 2006

http://www.nber.org/papers/w12721

 

 

 

 

PRODUCTION CHAINS

David K. Levine

December 2010

Click to access w16571.pdf

 

 

 

AN ELEMENTARY THEORY OF GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAINS

Arnaud Costinot
Jonathan Vogel
Su Wang

April 2011

Click to access w16936.pdf

 

 

 

TRADE-IN-GOODS AND TRADE-IN-TASKS:
AN INTEGRATING FRAMEWORK

Richard Baldwin
Frédéric Robert-Nicoud

April 2010

Click to access w15882.pdf

 

 

Measurement of Trade in Value-Added: using Chinese Input-output Tables
Capturing Processing Trade

Yang Cuihong1, Chen Xikang1, Duan Yuwan1, Jiang Xuemei1, Pei Jiansuo3, Xu Jian2,
Yang Lianling1, Zhu Kunfu1

 

Click to access STS024-P3-S.pdf

 

 

 

Adjusted China-US Trade Balance

Lawrence J. Lau, Xikang Chen and Yanyan Xiong

March 2017

Click to access igef%20working%20paper%20no.%2054%20english%20version.pdf

 

 

 

Domestic Value Added in Chinese Exports

Hiau Looi Kee and Heiwai Tang

World Bank and Tufts University
December 2011

Click to access session2-tang-presentation.pdf

 

 

 

NETWORKS OF VALUE ADDED TRADE

2015
João Amador | Sónia Cabral

Bank of Portugal

Click to access wp201516.pdf

 

 

 

 

Processing Trade, Exchange Rates and China’s Bilateral Trade Balances

Yuqing Xing

Jan 2011

 

Click to access 10-30.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added
WTO TiVA Profiles

Regional Workshop on
International Merchandise Trade Statistics
11-13 September 2017
Suzhou, China

UNSD

Click to access Agenda%20item%2019%20(c)%20-%20WTO.pdf

 

 

 

 

FRAGMENTATION AND TRADE IN VALUE ADDED OVER FOUR DECADES

Robert C. Johnson
Guillermo Noguera

June 2012

Click to access w18186.pdf

 

 

 

 

TRACING VALUE-ADDED AND DOUBLE COUNTING IN GROSS EXPORTS

Robert Koopman
Zhi Wang
Shang-Jin Wei

November 2012

Click to access w18579.pdf

 

 

 

 

ORGANIZING THE GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN

Pol Antràs
Davin Chor

June 2012

 

Click to access w18163.pdf

 

 

 

 

OFFSHORING: GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM EFFECTS ON WAGES, PRODUCTION
AND TRADE

Richard Baldwin
Frederic Robert-Nicoud

March 2007

 

Click to access w12991.pdf

 

 

 

 

TRADING TASKS: A SIMPLE THEORY OF OFFSHORING

Gene M. Grossman
Esteban Rossi-Hansberg

December 2006

Click to access w12721.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added: Developing New Measures of Cross-Border Trade

World Bank

2013

Click to access 786210PUB0REPL00Box377348B00PUBLIC0.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added

Maria Borga Jiemin Guo

BEA Advisory Committee

May 10, 2013

 

Click to access 0613_borga_guo_trade_in_value.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in value added Concepts, applications and challenges

Training Workshop on Trade in Services Negotiations for AU-CFTA Negotiators
Nairobi, Kenya

WTO

Click to access ditc-ted-Nairobi-24082015-WTO-liberatore-2.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value-Added: I-O approach and the domestic content of exports

UNSD

 

https://unstats.un.org/unsd/trade/globalforum/trade-value-added.asp

 

 

 

 

TRADE IN VALUE-ADDED: WTO-OECD DATABASE

Courtesy of Sébastien Miroudot (OECD)

UNESCAP

Click to access cbtr9-sebastien.pdf

 

 

 

 

TRADE IN VALUE-ADDED: CONCEPTS, METHODOLOGIES AND CHALLENGES
(JOINT OECD-WTO NOTE)

OECD WTO

Click to access 49894138.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added and the Value Added in Trade

WIOD

Working Paper Number: 8
Author: Robert Stehrer

Click to access wiod8.pdf

 

 

 

Measuring Trade in Value-Added

Draft Chapter 9

Meeting of Group of Experts on National Accounts –
Interim meeting on Global Production
Geneva, 3-4 April 2013

Click to access Working_Paper_9.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added: The Challenge of International Trade Statistics
With an Empirical Study on Trade in Norway and the Netherlands 2000-2012

Ida Helene Berg

https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/40975/BergIdaHelene.pdf?sequence=9

 

 

 

Trade in Value-Added and Comparative Advantage

DrRadford Schantz

25thINFORUM Conference
Riga

August 28-September 2, 2017

Click to access usa_schantz_2017_slides.pdf

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added: An East Asian Perspective.

Inomata, S.

2013.

ADBI Working Paper 451. Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute.

Click to access adbi-wp451.pdf

 

 

 

 

Global Value Chains and Trade in Value-Added: New Insights, Better Policies

Ken Ash

March 2013

 

https://www.worldeconomics.com/papers/Global%20Value%20Chains%20and%20Trade%20in%20ValueAdded_f7fe83a3-ec02-4180-9b02-04d1d85bb59a.paper

 

 

 

OECD WORK ON GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS AND TRADE IN VALUE ADDED

Koen De Backer

2013

Click to access 130627_de_backer.pdf

 

 

 

 

The Value-added Structure of Gross Exports and Global Production Network

Robert Koopman and Zhi Wang
United States International Trade Commission

Shang-Jin Wei, Columbia University, CEPR and NBER

Click to access 5839.pdf

 

 

 

Singapore’s Trade in Value Added:
Importance and Implication of Information from the OCED-WTO TiVA Database

Mun–Heng TOH

 

Click to access 2582_20160412091_Singapore_TiVA.pdf

 

 

 

 

Value added and participation in Global Value Chains:
the case of Spain

Marta Solaz
Universitat de Valencia

Fourth World KLEMS Conference, 23-24 May 2016

Click to access worldklems2016_Solaz_slides.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in Value Added (TiVA): December 2016

OECD

https://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?queryid=75537

 

 

 

 

An Overview on the Construction of North American Regional Supply-Use and Input-Output Tables and their Applications in Policy Analysis

Statistics Canada
Anthony Peluso
U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
Gabriel Medeiros
Jeffrey Young
U.S. International Trade Commission
Ross J. Hallren
Lin Jones
Richard Nugent
Heather Wickramarachi

ECONOMICS WORKING PAPER SERIES
Working Paper 2017-12-A

Click to access ecwp-2017-12-a-12-12-17-as-pdf_0.pdf

 

 

 

 

C. The rise of global value chains

World Trade Report

2014

Click to access wtr14-2c_e.pdf

 

 

 

 

MEASURING VALUE IN GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS

Rashmi Banga

UNCTAD
May 2013

Click to access ecidc2013misc1_bp8.pdf

 

 

 

 

Highlights and Challenges of Measuring Global Production

Tom Howells
Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee
Suitland Federal Center

June 9, 2017

Click to access Howells-Presentation.pdf

 

 

 

 

Value added trade: A tale of two concepts

Robert Stehrer

The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw)
Version: 2012-12-09

December 10-11, 2012 – CompNet workshop
ECB Frankfurt, Germany.

 

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.361.9428&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

 

 

Summary Report of the Fifth Meeting of
APEC Technical Group of Measurement on TiVA under GVCs

August 2017

Click to access 20170901142536597.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in value added: do we need new measures of competitiveness?

Kirsten Lommatzsch, Maria Silgoner and Paul Ramskogler

2016

https://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp1936.en.pdf?54d5d8210e9e26ed5bf65d4279223622

 

 

 

 

Who Faces the Risk of Collateral Damage from U.S. Tariffs?

wells Fargo

March 2018

Click to access collateral-damage-20180326.pdf

 

 

 

 

Supply-Use Tables, Trade-in-Value-Added Initiatives, and their Applications

William Powers

ADB Supply and Use Tables Validation Workshop

Bangkok, Thailand
30 June, 2016

https://wpqr4.adb.org/dm/atom/library/_Psut_RMain/document/_Psut_RPageLibrary48257E1F0010578E_D0819CE5DCD76117148257FE2002C81CC_ATiVA_5f2016_5fPowers.pdf/media

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 13. APPLICATIONS OF EXTENDED SUPPLY AND USE TABLES:
CONSTRUCTING GLOBAL SUPPLY AND USE AND INPUT-OUTPUT TABLES

UNSD

 

Click to access Chapter%2013%20-%20Applications%20for%20Global%20Tables.pdf

 

 

 

 

APEC: Trade in Value Added under Global Value Chains

Erich H. Strassner

2ndStatistics Conference “Measuring the Economy in a Globalized World”
Santiago, Chile
3-4 October 2017

http://www.bcentral.cl/documents/20143/926189/4.2.%28Strassner%29.pdf/d18bab8d-2331-3af2-fcc5-e877c1722880

 

 

 

CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE EXPANSIONS OF
TRADE IN VALUE-ADDED PROJECT IN OECD

Norihiko YAMANO

2016

Click to access current_developments_trade_valueadded_yamano.pdf

 

 

 

 

Estimating Extended Supply-Use Tables in Basic Prices with Firm Heterogeneity for the United States:A Proof of Concept

Lin Z. Jones and ZhiWang (USITC)
James J. Fetzer, Thomas F. Howells III, Erich H. Strassner (BEA)

The Fourth World KLEMS Conference
Madrid, Spain
May 23-24, 2016

Click to access worldklems2016_Strassner_slides.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

Work Plan for the Technical Group for the Measurement of APEC TiVA Under GVCs
Purpose: Information

Submitted by: China, United States
First Committee on Trade and Investment Meeting
Clark, Philippines
3-4 February 2015

Click to access CONTENT50694276526.pdf

 

 

 

 

APEC in 2014

Click to access NewDirections-05apec.pdf

 

 

 

Global value chains and trade in value added

EUROSTAT

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Global_value_chains_and_trade_in_value_added

 

 

 

Services and Manufacturing : Patterns of Linkages

Expert Group Meeting on “Global Value Chains, Regional Integration and Sustainable Development: Asia-Pacific Perspectives”

12 Dec 2014 – UNESCAP, Bangkok

Click to access EGM-Session%203-Andre%20Wirjo.pdf

 

 

 

The 3rd Capacity Building Workshop on Strategic Framework on Measurement of APEC TiVA under GVCs and its Action Plan

APEC

2017

https://aimp2.apec.org/sites/PDB/Lists/Proposals/DispForm.aspx?ID=2012

 

 

 

 

Capacity Building Workshop on Strategic Framework on Measurement of APEC TiVA under GVCs and its Action Plan

APEC

2016

https://aimp2.apec.org/sites/PDB/Lists/Proposals/DispForm.aspx?ID=1831

 

 

 

 

Enhancing Value Chains An Agenda for APEC

CSIS

2013

Click to access EnhancingValueChains%20Report.pdf

 

 

 

Changing Patterns of Trade and Global Value Chains in Postcrisis Asia

Ganeshan Wignaraja

Juzhong Zhuang

Mahinthan J. Mariasingham

Madeline Dumaua-Cabauatan

2017

Click to access changing-patterns-trade-gvc.pdf

 

 

 

Global value chains in a changing world

Edited by Deborah K. Elms and Patrick Low

WTO

Click to access aid4tradeglobalvalue13_e.pdf

 

 

 

 

Trade in value added: Concepts, estimation and analysis,

Javorsek, Marko; Camacho, Ignacio

(2015) :

ARTNeT Working Paper Series, No. 150

Click to access 826594735.pdf

 

 

 

India’s Future in Asia: The APEC Opportunity

By Harsha V. Singh and Anubhav Gupta

 

Click to access ASPI_APEC_fullreport_online.pdf

 

 

 

Update on New Measurements of the Impacts of Globalization

James J. Fetzer and Thomas F. Howells III

Advisory Committee Meeting
Washington, DC
November 13, 2015

 

Click to access update-on-new-measurements-of-the-impacts-of-globalization.pdf

 

 

 

 

ASIA-PACIFIC
TRADE AND INVESTMENT REPORT 2016
Recent Trends and Developments

Shamshad Akhtar

Hongjoo Hahm

Susan F. Stone

Copyright © United Nations 2016

Click to access aptir-2016-full.pdf

 

 

 

 

Asia’s Rise in the
New World Trade Order
The Effects of Mega-Regional Trade Agreements on Asian Countries
Part 2 of the GED Study Series:
Effects of Mega-Regional Trade Agreements

 

Click to access NW_Asia_s_Rise_in_the_New_World_Trade_Order.pdf

 

 

 

The role of different types of firms in GVCs

GGDC 25th Anniversary Conference

 

Stephen Chong, Rutger Hoekstra, Oscar Lemmers, Ilke Van Beveren, Marcel van den Berg, Ron van der Wal, Piet Verbiest

Click to access presentation_lemmers.pdf

 

 

 

GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS AND SOUTH-SOUTH TRADE

UNCTAD

Click to access gdsecidc2015d1_en.pdf

 

 

 

 

Annex 5: Strategic Framework on Measurement of
APEC TiVA Under GVCs

APEC

Click to access 14_som2_049anx05.pdf

 

 

 

 

Estimating Extended Supply-Use Tables in Basic Prices with Firm Heterogeneity for the United States: A Proof of Concept

James J. Fetzer, Thomas F. Howells III, Lin Z. Jones, Erich H. Strassner, and Zhi Wang1

The Fourth World KLEMS Conference
Madrid, Spain
May 23-24, 2016

Click to access worldklems2016_Strassner.pdf

 

 

 

 “Participation of Developing Countries in Global Value Chains: Implications for Trade and Trade-Related Policies”

Kowalski, P. et al.

(2015),

OECD Trade Policy Papers, No. 179,
OECD Publishing, Paris

Click to access OECD_Trade_Policy_Papers_179.pdf

 

 

 

 

Complex Network Analysis for Characterizing Global Value Chains in Equipment Manufacturing.

Xiao H, Sun T, Meng B, Cheng L

(2017)

PLoS ONE 12(1):

Click to access pone.0169549.pdf

 

 

 

A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

Maluck J, Donner RV

(2015)

PLoS ONE 10(7)

Click to access pone.0133310.pdf

 

 

 

Trends of the World Input and Output Network of Global Trade.

del RõÂo-Chanona RM, Grujić J, Jeldtoft Jensen H

(2017)

PLoS ONE 12(1):

Click to access pone.0170817.pdf

 

 

 

World Input-Output Network.

Cerina F, Zhu Z, Chessa A, Riccaboni M

(2015)

PLoS ONE 10(7):

Click to access pone.0134025.pdf

 

 

 

FAQ on GVCs: some answers from the Global I-O tables approach

Rita Cappariello,

 

Click to access Rita-Cappariello.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

A Markovian model of evolving world input-output network.

Moosavi V, Isacchini G

(2017)

PLoS ONE 12(10):

Click to access pone.0186746.pdf

 

 

 

 

Hierarchicality of Trade Flow Networks Reveals Complexity of Products.

Shi P, Zhang J, Yang B, Luo J

(2014)

PLoS ONE 9(6):

Click to access pone.0098247.pdf

 

 

 

International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

Shen B, Zhang J, Li Y, Zheng Q, Li X
(2015)

PLoS ONE 10(11):

Click to access pone.0142936.pdf

 

 

 

THE EVOLVING GEOGRAPHY OF PRODUCTION HUBS AND REGIONAL VALUE CHAINS ACROSS EAST ASIA: TRADE IN VALUE-ADDED

G. Suder (Melbourne Business School), P. Liesch (UQ), S. Inomata (JETRO- IDE), I. Jormanainen (Aalto University) and B. Meng (JETRO- IDE and OECD),

For: Journal of World Business

 

https://minerva-access.unimelb.edu.au/bitstream/handle/11343/159095/The%20evolving%20geography%20of%20production%20hubs%20and%20regional%20value%20chains%20across%20East%20Asia-%20Trade%20in%20value-added.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

 

 

 

AN ICIO SPLIT ACCORDING TO DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN OWNERSHIP:
THE OECD TIVA-MNE PROJECT

Charles Cadestin, Koen De Backer, Isabelle Desnoyers-James,
Sébastien Miroudot, Davide Rigo and Ming Ye

OECD

2017

Click to access 2757_20170515071_Cadestin_et_al_2017_ICIO_split_ownership.pdf

 

 

 

 

THE FIGARO PROJECT: THE EU INTER-COUNTRY SUPPLY, USE AND INPUT-OUTPUT TABLES

 

Click to access 2504_20160519071_Item10-12_FIGAROproject.pdf

 

 

Identifying Heterogeneity in the Production Components of Globally Engaged Business Enterprises in the United States

James Fetzer and Erich H. Strassner

June 10, 2015

US BEA

 

Click to access identifying-heterogeneity-in-the-production-components-of-globally-engaged-business-enterprises-in-the-united-states.pdf

 

 

The EU Inter-country Supply, Use and Input-Output Tables (FIGARO Project): Recent progress

Prepared by Eurostat

2017

Click to access 3_-_FIGARO_project.pdf

 

 

Tracing value-added and double counting in sales of foreign affiliates and domestic-owned companies

Sebastien Miroudot and ming ye

Trade and Agriculture Directorate, OECD, Trade and Agriculture Directorate, OECD

14 March 2018

Click to access MPRA_paper_85723.pdf

 

Identifying Heterogeneity in the Production Components of Globally Engaged Business Enterprises in the United States

Prepared by Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce

2015

 

Click to access 11_Identifying_Heterogeneity__US_.pdf

 

 

 

 

Estimating Extended Supply-Use Tables in Basic Prices with Firm Heterogeneity for the United States: A Proof of Concept (Draft)

Prepared by the United States

2017

 

Click to access 7_-_Estimating_Extended_Supply-Use_Tables_in_Basic_Prices.pdf

 

 

TIVA: CONSTRUCTING THE ICIO TABLE AND FUTURE WORK

 

Fabienne Fortanier (Head of Trade Statistics, OECD) Christophe Degain (Senior Statistician, WTO)

OECD

Click to access Session%2012_WTO-OECD%20SUT%20and%20ICIOT%20-%20Training%20module%20(ECA)%20-%20English%20Final.pdf

 

 

 

 

FIGARO
Full International and Global Accounts for Research in Input-
Output analysis
The EU Inter-country Supply, Use and Input-Output Tables

José M. Rueda-Cantuche

Isabelle Rémond-Tiedrez

Item 4, NAWG Meeting, Luxembourg, 11 May 2016

Click to access Item_4d_FIGARO_UNECE_new.pdf

 

 

 

OECD-WTO Trade in Value Added (TiVA) data: introduction

OECD

 

Click to access Session%2011_WTO-OECD%20TiVA%20intro%20-%20Training%20module%20(ECA)%20-%20English%20FINAL.pdf

 

 

 

Trade and Investment Linkages in Global Value Chains: Insights from the new TiVA-MNE Dataset

OECD

2016

 

Click to access trade-investment-linkages-in-gvc.pdf

 

 

INTERCONNECTED ECONOMIES:
BENEFITING FROM INDUSTRY GLOBALISATION

Dirk Pilat,

Global Industry and Economy Forum 2013:
Fostering Industrial Innovation through
Creativity
Seoul, 24 June 2013

 

 

Calculating Trade in Value Added

Prepared by Aqib Aslam, Natalija Novta, and Fabiano Rodrigues-Bastos1

July 2017

IMF

https://www.imf.org/~/media/Files/Publications/WP/2017/wp17178.ashx

 

Credit Chains and Production Networks

Credit Chains and Production Networks

There are three kind of flows in a Supply Chain

  • Goods
  • Information
  • Financial

 

Credit Terms in a Supplier Buyer contracts determine payment delays which accumulate in current accounts of a Firm.

  • Account Receivables
  • Account Payables

 

Credit Relations

  • Bank to Bank
  • Bank to Firm
  • Firm to Firm

Dyad of Credit Relations

  • Supplier – Buyer

 

Triad of Credit Relations

  • Supplier – Bank – Buyer

Sources of Systemic Risk

  • Failure of a Firm and its impact on Suppliers and Customers (Flow of Goods)
  • Failure of a Bank and its impact on Trade Credit
  • Credit Contraction due to de-risking by the Banks
  • Decline in Correspondent Banking relations and its impact on Trade Finance

 

From Credit Chains and Sectoral Co-movement: Does the Use of Trade
Credit Amplify Sectoral Shocks?

Trade credit is an important source of short-term financing for firms, not only in the U.S., as documented by Petersen and Rajan (1997), but also around the World. For instance, accounts payables are larger than short-term debt in 60 percent of the countries covered by Worldscope. Also, across the world most firms simultaneously receive credit from their suppliers and grant it to their customers, which tend to be concentrated on specific sectors.  These characteristics of trade credit financing have led some authors to propose it as a mechanism for the propagation and amplification of idiosyncratic shocks. The intuition behind the mechanism is straightforward; a firm that faces a default by its customers may run into liquidity problems that force it to default to its own suppliers. Therefore, in a network of firms that borrow from each other, a temporary shock to the liquidity of some firms may cause a chain reaction in which other firms also get in financial difficulties, thus resulting in a large and persistent decline in aggregate activity. This idea was first formalized by Kiyotaki and Moore (1997) in a partial equilibrium setting, and has been recently extended to a general equilibrium environment by Cardoso-Lecourtois (2004), and Boissay (2006) who have also provided evidence of the potential quantitative importance of the mechanism by calibrating their models to the cases of Mexico and the U.S., respectively.

From Ontology of Bankruptcy Diffusion through Trade Credit
Channel

A supply network is a network of entities interacting to transform raw material into finished product for customers. Since interdependencies among supply network members on material, information, and finance are becoming increasingly intensive, financial status of one firm not only depends on its own management, but also on the performance and behaviours of other members. Therefore, understanding the financial flows variability and the material interactions is a key to quantify the risk of a firm. Due to the complex structure and dynamic interactions of modern supply networks, there are some difficulties faced by pure analysis approaches in analyzing financial status of the supply network members and the high degree of nonlinear interactions between them. Mathematical and operation research models usually do not function very well for this kind of financial decision making. These models always start with many assumptions and have difficulties modeling such complex systems that include many entities, relationships, features, parameters, and constraints. In addition, traditional modeling and analysis tools lack the ability to predict the impact of a specific event on the performance of the entire supply network.  Current financial data analysis with large volumes of structure data cannot offer the full picture and intrinsic insights into the risk nature of a company. Motivated by the literature gap in risk monitoring in investment background and limitations of analysis approaches for handling bankruptcy contagion phenomenon, we propose an ontological approach to present a formal, shared conceptualization of this domain knowledge.

From Inter-Firm Trade Finance in Times of Crisis

The severe recession that is hitting the global economy, with very low or even negative growth rates, has caused widespread contractions in international trade, both in developed and developing countries. World Trade Organization (WTO) has forecast that exports will decline by roughly 9% in volume terms in 2009 due to the collapse in global demand brought on by the biggest economic downturn in decades. The contraction in developed countries will be particularly severe with exports falling by 10%. In developing countries, which account for one-third of world trade, exports will shrink by some 2% to 3% in 2009.

The contraction in international trade has been accompanied by a sharp decline in the availability of trade finance. This decline is only partly explained by the contraction in demand: according to a BAFT (Banker’s Association for Trade and Finance) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) joint survey (2009), flows of trade finance to developed countries have fallen by 6% relative to the previous year, more than the reduction in trade flows, suggesting that part of the fall reflects a disruption of financial intermediation. The contraction in value of trade finance has also been accompanied by a sharp increase in its price. Fear that the decline in trade finance and the increase in its cost would accelerate the slowdown of world trade has triggered a number of government initiatives in support of trade finance (Chauffour and Farole,2009).

The situation is especially worrisome for firms operating in developing countries which rely heavily on trade finance to support both their exports and imports.1 With a restricted access to financing and an increased cost of financing, these firms may find difficulties in maintaining their production and trade activities.

 

Please see my related posts:

Supply Chain Finance (SCF) / Financial Supply Chain Management (F-SCM)

Production Chain Length and Boundary Crossings in Global Value Chains

Intra Industry Trade and International Production and Distribution Networks

Understanding Trade in Intermediate Goods

Trends in Intra Firm Trade of USA

Production and Distribution Planning : Strategic, Global, and Integrated

Development of Global Trade and Production Accounts: UN SEIGA Initiative

The Dollar Shortage, Again! in International Wholesale Money Markets

FDI vs Outsourcing: Extending Boundaries or Extending Network Chains of Firms

The Collapse of Global Trade during Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009

Understanding Global Value Chains – G20/OECD/WB Initiative

Economics of Trade Finance

Balance Sheets, Financial Interconnectedness, and Financial Stability – G20 Data Gaps Initiative

Oscillations and Amplifications in Demand-Supply Network Chains

Contagion in Financial (Balance sheets) Networks

 

Key Sources of Research:

 

LIQUIDITY, BUSINESS CYCLES, AND MONETARY POLICY

Nobuhiro Kiyotaki
London School of Economics

John Moore
Edinburgh University and London School of Economics

27 November 2001

Click to access kimo.pdf

 

 

Credit Cycles

Nobuhiro Kiyotaki; John Moore

The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 105, No. 2.

(Apr., 1997),

Click to access km.pdf

 

Credit chains

Nobuhiro Kiyotaki (Princeton University)

John Moore (University of Edinburgh)

Date January 1997

Click to access id118_esedps.pdf

Click to access Kiyotaki_CreditChains.pdf

 

 

Credit and Business Cycles

N Kiyotaki

1998

Click to access Credit-and-BusinessCycles.pdf

 

 

Inter-Enterprise Credit and Adjustment  During Financial Crises: The Role of Firm Size

Fabrizio Coricelli

Marco Frigerio

July, 2 2016

Click to access Coricelli%2C%20Fabrizio%20paper.pdf

 

 

Credit chains and bankruptcy propagation in production networks

Stefano Battiston, Domenico Delli Gatti, Mauro Gallegati,
Bruce Greenwald, Joseph E. Stiglitz

2007

Click to access 2007_Credit_Chains.pdf

 

 

Trade Finance in Crisis : Market Adjustment or Market Failure ?

Jean-Pierre Chauffour

Thomas Farole

Date Written: July 1, 2009

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1437955

Resaleable debt and systemic risk

Jason Roderick Donaldson , Eva Micheler

2018

Click to access Donaldson-Micheler-Resaleable_Debt.pdf

 

Supply chains and credit-market shocks: Some implications for emerging markets,

Jinjarak, Yothin (2013)

ADBI Working Paper Series, No. 443

Click to access 770887406.pdf

 

 

Financial Amplification Mechanisms and the Federal Reserve’s Supply of Liquidity during the Crisis

Asani Sarkar
Jeffrey Shrader

Staff Report no. 431
February 2010

Click to access sr431.pdf

 

 

Aggregate Fluctuations and the Role of Trade Credit

Lin Shao

2017

Click to access swp2017-37.pdf

 

 

Supply Chain Disruptions and Trade Credit

LU Yi OGURA Yoshiaki

TODO Yasuyuki ZHU Lianming

2017

Click to access 17e054.pdf

 

 

Credit Shocks and Aggregate Fluctuations in  an Economy with Production Heterogeneity

Aubhik Khan

Julia K. Thomas

September 2013

Click to access KhanThomasDCTsept2013.pdf

 

 

Financial Frictions in Production Networks

Saki Bigio

Jennifer La’O

February 7, 2013

Click to access FinancialFrictionsNetworks.pdf

 

Working Paper No. 67, April 2016

Click to access WP-67.pdf

 

 

The Origins of Aggregate Fluctuations in a Credit Network Economy

Levent Altinoglu

October 16, 2016

Click to access Altinoglu_JMP_CurrentVersion.pdf

September 30, 2015

Click to access fcb800d01a5b8dce9ed13a4a200bf51f6fed.pdf

 

Consolidated Bibliography

WTO

Click to access aid4tradesupplychain13_biblio_e.pdf

 

 

Propagation of Financial Shocks in an Input-Output Economy with Trade and Financial Linkages of Firms

Shaowen Luo

December 4, 2015

Click to access Luo.pdf

 

FDI, Trade Credit, and Transmission of Global Liquidity Shocks:
Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms

Shu Lin and Haichun Ye

Click to access Lin–Ye_paper.pdf

 

 

Trade Credit, Financing Structure and Growth

Junjie Xia

October 27, 2016

Click to access jmp_oct16.pdf

 

The impact of corporate distress along the supply chain: evidences from United
States

Lucia Gibilaro

Gianluca Mattarocci

Click to access EFMA2017_0526_fullpaper.pdf

 

 

Does credit crunch investments down?
New evidence on the real eects of the bank-lending channel

Federico Cinganoz Francesco Manaresix Enrico Settex

December 2013

Click to access Credit_crunch_investments.pdf

 

Interwoven Lending, Uncertainty, and Liquidity Hoarding

Adam Zawadowski

December 13, 2017

Click to access credit.pdf

 

 

Trade credit: Elusive insurance of rm growth

DENNIS BAMS, JAAP BOS and MAGDALENA PISA*

October 5, 2016

Click to access Trade%20credit%20Elusive%20insurance%20of%20firm%20growth%202016.pdf

 

 

Chain Reactions, Trade Credit and the Business Cycle

Miguel Cardoso-Lecourtois

Click to access up.4593.1075462930.pdf

 

From production networks to geographical economics.

Gérard Weisbuch, Stefano Battiston.

Journal ofEconomic Behavior and Organization, Elsevier, 2007, 64 (3- 4), pp.448

https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00531863/document

 

 

Production networks and failure avalanches

Gerard Weisbuch
Stefano Battiston

March 5, 2018

Click to access 0507101.pdf

 

 

Self-organised patterns in production networks

Gerard Weisbuch

October 10, 2005

Click to access gwcomplexus.pdf

 

 

Networks : Propagation of Shocks over Economic Networks

Daron Acemoglu

July 22, 2014.

https://economics.mit.edu/files/9790

 

 

Debt-Rank Analysis of Financial Distress Propagation on a Production Network in Japan

FUJIWARA Yoshi
University of Hyogo
TERAI Masaaki
RIKEN
FUJITA Yuji
Turnstone Research Institute, Inc.
SOUMA Wataru
Nihon University

Click to access 16e046.pdf

 

 

Operational causes of bankruptcy propagation in supply chain

Zhongsheng Hua ⁎, Yanhong Sun 1, Xiaoyan Xu

2011

Click to access 48280.pdf

 

 

Propagation of Financial Shocks in an Input-Output Economy with Trade and Financial Linkages of Firms

Shaowen Luo
September 20, 2015

Click to access 10-02-15Luo.pdf

 

 

From Micro to Macro via Production Networks

Vasco M. Carvalho

Click to access carvalho_from_micro.pdf

 

 

Trade Credit and the  Propagation of Corporate Failure: An Empirical
Analysis

Tor Jacobson and Erik von Schedvin
August 2012

Click to access 723939764.pdf

 

CREDIT MARKET DISRUPTIONS AND LIQUIDITY SPILLOVER EFFECTS IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN

Anna M. Costello

August 8, 2017

Click to access costello-anna-acctgcamp2017_0.pdf

 

Modeling defaults of companies in multi-stage supply chain networks

Kamil J.Mizgier, StephanM.Wagner,, JanuszA.Holyst

2010

Click to access Mizgier_etal_InPress_Modeling_defaults_of.pdf

 

 

 

The origins of scale-free production networks

Stanislao Gualdizand Antoine Mandelx

June 28, 2015

Click to access Gualdi.pdf

 

 

Optimization of order policies in supply networks

S. GÄottlich¤ M. Hertyy C. Ringhoferz

August 18, 2008

Click to access FRG-2008-Ringhofer-Christian.FRG_Ringhofer_Orders080814.pdf

 

Financial Instability after Minsky: Heterogeneity, Agent Based Models and Credit
Networks

Domenico Delli Gatti

April 10, 2012

Click to access delli-gatti-domenico-berlin-paper.pdf

 

Measuring the Systemic Risk in Inter firm Transaction Networks

Makoto Hazama
And
Iichiro Uesugi

Click to access wp066.pdf

 

Systemic Risk Assessment in Complex Supply Networks

Anna Ledwoch, Alexandra Brintrup, J¨orn Mehnen, Ashutosh Tiwari

Click to access Ledwoch_etal_SJ_2016_Systemic_risk_assessment_in_complex_supply_networks.pdf

 

TRADE CREDIT DEFAULTS AND LIQUIDITY PROVISION BY FIRMS

Reint Gropp
Frédéric Boissay

2007

Click to access ecbwp753.pdf

 

The future of agent-based modelling.

Matteo Richiardi

Institute for New Economic Thinking and Nuffield College, Oxford, United Kingdom
Collegio Carlo Alberto, Moncalieri, Italy

This draft: June 2015

Click to access abmfuture-v12.pdf

 

 

Financially Constrained Fluctuations in an Evolving Network Economy

Domenico Delli Gatti
Mauro Gallegati
Bruce Greenwald
Alberto Russo
Joseph E. Stiglitz

Click to access DelliGatti%28presentation%29_ABM.pdf

 

 

Credit Chains and Sectoral Comovement: Does the Use of Trade Credit Amplify Sectoral Shocks?

Claudio Raddatz

The World Bank
March, 2007

Click to access Credit_chains_051707_withtables.pdf

 

 

Linkages and spillovers in global production networks: firm-level analysis of the Czech automotive industry

Petr Pavlinek

Pavla Žížalová

https://digitalcommons.unomaha.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1039&context=geoggeolfacpub

 

Ontology of Bankruptcy Diffusion through Trade Credit
Channel

Lin Cheng

Huaiqing Wang

Huaping Chen

Click to access JRPIT44.4.401.pdf

 

OPTIMAL ORDER AND DISTRIBUTION STRATEGIES IN PRODUCTION NETWORKS

Simone Gottlich, Michael Herty, and Christian Ringhofer

Click to access SpringerOpt10.pdf

 

Profitability, Trade Credit and Institutional Structure of Production

Michael Gofman
December 9, 2013

Click to access Supplier-Customer%20Network.pdf

 

The Economics of Information and Financial
Networks

Stefano Battiston
July 22, 2016

Click to access battiston2016information.pdf

 

Supply Chain Perspectives and Issues: A Literature Review

Albert Park
Gaurav Nayyar
Patrick Low

Click to access supply-chain-perspectives-and-issues.pdf

 

 

LIAISONS DANGEREUSES: INCREASING CONNECTIVITY, RISK SHARING, AND SYSTEMIC RISK

Stefano Battiston
Domenico Delli Gatti
Mauro Gallegati
Bruce C. Greenwald
Joseph E. Stiglitz

Click to access w15611.pdf

 

 

Inter-Firm Trade Finance in Times of Crisis

Anna Maria C. Menichini

Click to access WPS5112.pdf

 

 

Reducing the Probability of Bankruptcy Through Supply Chain Coordination

Xiaoyan Xu, Yanhong Sun, and Zhongsheng Hua

2010

Click to access 573eac9d08ae298602e6e77a.pdf

 

 

Pathways towards instability in financial networks

Marco Bardoscia, Stefano Battiston Fabio Caccioli & Guido Caldarelli

2017

Click to access bardoscia2017pathways-1.pdf

 

 

International Credit Supply Shocks

Ambrogio Cesa-Bianchiy Andrea Ferreroz Alessandro Rebuccix

June 16, 2017

https://www.bostonfed.org/-/media/Documents/events/2017/boston-policy-workshop/AlessandroRebucci.pdf?la=en

 

Risk Propagation through Payment Distortion in Supply Chains

Alejandro Serrano

Rogelio Oliva

Santiago Kraiselburd

Click to access 0e6d7dc9d4b4f6bcada884b71562791404ed.pdf

 

 

Payment Defaults and Interfirm Liquidity Provision

https://academic.oup.com/rof/article-abstract/17/6/1853/1591419

 

SYSTEMIC RISK: A SURVEY

BY OLIVIER DE BANDT
AND PHILIPP HARTMANN

November 2000

Click to access ecbwp0035.pdf

 

 

Risk Propagation in Supply Chains

Alejandro Serrano

Rogelio Oliva

Santiago Kraiselburd

Click to access f3278ab2a75ff11b0142fba19a4cf223805a.pdf

 

 

How Inventory Is (Should Be) Financed: Trade Credit in Supply Chains with Demand
Uncertainty and Costs of Financial Distress

Song (Alex) Yang, John R. Birge

Click to access YangBirge_trade%20credit.pdf

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2746645

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1734682

 

 

The Supply Chain Effects of Bankruptcy

S. Alex Yang

John R. Birge, Rodney P. Parker

Click to access 86a8667f24af2c6a5cd7eb52bbd12b39697b.pdf

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.715.5812&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

Supply Chain Management: Supplier Financing Schemes and Inventory Strategies

Min Wang

Click to access Min_Wang_Dissertation.pdf

 

Foreign Investment and Supply Chains in Emerging Markets: Recurring Problems and Demonstrated Solutions

Theodore H. Moran

PIIE

2014

Click to access wp14-12.pdf

 

Improving cash flow using credit management
The outline case

Click to access cid_improving_cashflow_using_credit_mgm_Apr09.pdf.pdf

 

CREDIT CHAINS AND THE PROPAGATION OF
FINANCIAL DISTRESS

2006

by Frederic Boissay

Click to access ecbwp573.pdf

 

Exposure to international crises: trade vs. financial contagion

Everett Grant

2016

https://www.esrb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/wp/esrbwp30.en.pdf?7b7cc950c1a2286d395ed8489bfde5c7

 

 

Credit Contagion and Trade Credit Supply:
Evidence from Small Business Data in Japan

TSURUTA Daisuke

Click to access 07e043.pdf

 

 

The Price of Complexity in Financial Networks

Joseph Stiglitz

2017

Click to access The%20Price%20of%20Complexity%20in%20Financial%20Networks.pdf

 

 

The Price of Complexity in Financial Networks

S. Battiston

2017

Click to access 160913_slides_battison.pdf

 

 

 

Supply Chain Finance (SCF) / Financial Supply Chain Management (F-SCM)

Supply Chain Finance (SCF) / Financial Supply Chain Management (F-SCM)

 

 

From STANDARD DEFINITIONS FOR TECHNIQUES OF SUPPLY CHAIN FINANCE

fscm8

There are two Areas where FSCM/SCF names are used but in different contexts.

  • Inter firm FSCM
  • Intra firm FSCM

 

Inter firm F-SCM

  • Trade Finance
  • Supply Chain Finance (SCF)
  • Value Chain Finance
  • Supplier Finance
  • Inter firm Finance
  • Reverse Factoring
  • Collaborative  Cash to Cash Cycles Management

During 2008 global financial crisis, the trade financing dried up resulting in decline in trade of goods and services.

Since the crisis, Financial De-globalization and Decline of Correspondent Banking has also made availability of financial credit harder.

Cash flow and working capital management is helped by inter firm collaboration among Suppliers and Buyers.

Financial Institutions which provide trade credit also benefit from inter firm collaboration.

 From SUPPLY CHAIN FINANCE FUNDAMENTALS: What It Is, What It’s Not and How it Works

What Supply Chain Finance is Not

The world of trade finance is complex and varied. There are numerous ways to increase business capital on hand and, in many cases, the differences are slightly nuanced. Given this landscape, it’s not just important to understand what supply chain finance is; it’s also important to understand what it is not.

It is not a loan. Supply chain finance is an extension of the buyer’s accounts payable and is not considered financial debt. For the supplier, it represents a non-recourse, true sale of receivables. There is no lending on either side of the buyer/supplier equation, which means there is no impact to balance sheets.

It is not dynamic discounting or an early payment program. Early payment programs, such as dynamic discounting, are buyer-initiated programs where buyers offer suppliers earlier payments in return for discounts on their invoices. Unlike supply chain finance, buyers are seeking to lower their cost of goods, not to improve their cash flow. Dynamic discounting and early payment programs often turn out to be expensive for both suppliers (who are getting paid less than agreed upon) and buyers who tie up their own cash to fund the programs.

It is not factoring. Factoring enables a supplier to sell its invoices to a factoring agent (in most cases, a financial institution) in return for earlier, but partial, payment. Suppliers initiate the arrangement without the buyer’s involvement. Thus factoring is typically much more expensive than buyer-initiated supply chain finance. Also, suppliers trade “all or nothing” meaning they have no choice to participate from month-to-month to the degree that their cash flow needs dictate. Finally, most factoring programs are recourse loans, meaning if a supplier has received payment against an invoice that the buyer subsequently does not pay, the lender has recourse to claw back the funds.

 

From Mckinsey on Payments

fscm10

 

From Financial Supply Chain Management

financial-supply-chain-management-4-728

 

From Best Practices in Cash Flow Management and Reporting

46_-3571_20

 

From STANDARD DEFINITIONS FOR TECHNIQUES OF SUPPLY CHAIN FINANCE

fscm9

 

From Financing GPNs through inter-firm collaboration?
Insights from the automotive industry in Germany and Brazil

fscm 3

 

Intra Firm F-SCM

  • Working Capital Management
  • Cash Flow Management
  • Liquidity Management
  • Cash to Cash Conversion Cycle Management (C2C Cycle/CCC)
  • Financial Supply Chain Management (F-SCM) in Manufacturing companies
  • Financial Supply chain management in financial institutions
  • Supply Chain Finance
  • Accounts Payable Optimization
  • Accounts Receivable Optimization
  • Operations and Finance Interfaces
  • Current Asset Management (Current Ratio Analysis)

This is not a new subject.  Corporate Finance, Financial Controls, and working capital management have been active business issues.  Benefits of Supply chain management include increase in inventory turnover and decline in current assets.

There are many world class companies who manage their supply chains well and work with minimal working capital.  Lean Manufacturing, Agile Manufacturing, JIT manufacturing are related concepts.  Just-In-Time manufacturing developed in Toyota Corp. reduces inventory portion of C2C cycle.  Other examples include

  • Apple
  • Walmart
  • Dell

Currently, most of the Supply Chain analytics efforts unfortunately do not integrate analysis of financial benefits of operating decisions.

There are many studies recently which suggest that Cash to Cash Conversion Cycle is a better determinant of corporate liquidity.  C2C Cycle is a dynamic liquidity indicator and Current Assets is a static indicator of liquidity.  I would like to point out that none of the studies relate C2C cycle with Current Ratio.  Current Ratio is based on balance sheet positions of current assets and current liabilities.  C2C cycle is based on flows in supply chains.  Accumulation of flow results in Current assets (Stock).  To make it Stock-Flow Consistent, more work is required.

 

From Supply Chain Finance: some conceptual insights.

fscm2

From Financial Supply Chain Management

financial-supply-chain-management-5-728

 

From The Interface of Operations and Finance in Global Supply Chains

fscm4

 

From SUPPLY CHAIN-ORIENTED APPROACH OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

ifscm5

 

From IMPROVING FIRM PERFORMANCE THROUGH VALUE-DRIVEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: A CASH CONVERSION CYCLE APPROACH

fscm6

 

From IMPROVING FIRM PERFORMANCE THROUGH VALUE-DRIVEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: A CASH CONVERSION CYCLE APPROACH

fscm7

 

From THE CYCLE TIMES OF WORKING CAPITAL: FINANCIAL VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS METHOD

fscm12

 

Call for papers: Supply Chain Finance

Call for papers for Special Topic Forum in Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management (Manuscript Submission:  March 31, 2017)

Supply chain finance is a concept that lacks definition and conceptual foundation.  However, the recent economic downturn forced corporates to face a series of financial and economic difficulties that strongly increased supply chain financial risk, including bankruptcy or over-leveraging of debt.  The mitigation and management of supply chain financial risk is becoming an increasingly important topic for both practitioners and academics leading to a developing area of study known as supply chain finance.  There are two major perspectives related to the idea of managing finance across the supply chain.  The first is a relatively short-term solution that serves as more of a “bridge” and that is provided by financial institutions, focused on accounts payables and receivables.  The second is more of a supply chain oriented perspective – which may or may not involve a financial institution, focused on working capital optimization in terms of accounts payable, receivable, inventory, and asset management.  These longer-term solutions focus on strategically managing financial implications across the supply chain.

Recent years have seen a considerable reduction in the granting of new loans, with a significant increase in the cost of corporate borrowing (Ivashina and Scharfstein, 2010). Such collapse of the asset and mortgage-backed markets dried up liquidity from industries (Cornett et al., 2011). In such difficult times, firms (especially those with stronger bargaining power) forced suppliers to extend trade credit in order to supplement the reduction in other forms of financing (Coulibaly et al., 2013; Garcia-Appendini and Montoriol-Garriga, 2013). The general lack of liquidity, in particular for SMEs, has directly affected companies’ ability to stay in the market, reflecting on the stability of entire supply chains. There are many other factors influencing liquidity and financial health that are critical to assess.

These trends and the continued growth of outsourced spend have contributed considerably to the need for and spread of solutions and programs that help to mitigate and better manage financial risk within and across the supply chain.  One of the most important approaches is what is being termed Supply Chain Finance (SCF) (Gelsomino et al., 2016; Pfohl and Gomm, 2009; Wuttke et al., 2013a). SCF is an approach for two or more organizations in a supply chain, including external service provides, to jointly create value through means of planning, steering, and controlling the flow of financial resources on an inter-organizational level (Hofmann, 2005; Wuttke et al., 2013b).  It involves the inter-company optimization of financial flows with customers, suppliers and service providers to increase the value of the supply chain members  (Pfohl and Gomm, 2009).  According to Lamoureux and Evans (2011) supply chain financial solutions, processes, methods are designed to improve the effectiveness of financial supply chains by preventing detrimental cost shifting and improving the visibility, availability, delivery and cost of cash for all global value chain partners.  The benefits of the SCF approach include reduction of working capital, access to more funding at lower costs, risk reduction, as well as increase of trust, commitment, and profitability through the chain (Randall and Farris II, 2009).

Literature on SCF is still underdeveloped and a multidisciplinary approach to research is needed in this area. In order to better harmonize contributions of a more financial nature with ones coming from the perspective of purchasing & supply chain, there is a need of developing theory on SCF, starting with a comprehensive definition of those instruments or solutions that constitute the SCF landscape. SCF has been neglected in the Purchasing & Supply Management (PSM) literature, although PSM plays a critical role in managing finance within the supply chain.  PSM uses many of the processes and tools that are part of a comprehensive supply chain financial program to better manage the supply base, in terms of relationships, total cost of ownership, cost strategies and pricing volatility (see for example Shank and Govindarajan 1992). Reverse factoring is a technique which is also widely used to manage the supply base (Wuttke et al, 2013a) as is supplier development and investment in suppliers.

Research on SCF from a PSM perspective needs further development. In particular, empirical evidence would prove useful for testing existing models and hypotheses, addressing the more innovative schemes and investigating the adoption level and the state of the art of different solutions. Research is also needed for the development of a general theory of supply chain finance.  There is also limited research that focuses on the link between supply chain financial tools and supply chain financial performance.  Finally, considering the plurality of solutions that shape the SCF landscape, literature should move towards the definition of holistic instruments to choose the best SCF strategy for a supply chain, considering its financial performance and the contextual variables (e.g. structure, bargaining power) that characterize it.

Potential topics

The purpose of this special topic forum is to publish high-quality, theoretical and empirical papers addressing advances on Supply Chain Finance. Original, high quality contributions that are neither published nor currently under review by any other journals are sought. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Theory development, concept and definition of SCF
  • Taxonomy of SCF solutions
  • Strategic cost management across the supply chain
  • Total cost of ownership
  • Life cycle assessment and analysis
  • Commodity risk and pricing volatility
  • Supply chain financial metrics and measures
  • Cost-benefit analysis
  • Relationship implications of supply chain finance
  • Tax and transfer pricing in the supply chain
  • Foreign exchange and global currency and financing risk
  • Financial network design and financial supply chain flows
  • The organizational perspective on SCF and the implementation process
  • Role of innovative technologies to support SCF ( (e.g. block chain, internet of things)
  • Supply chain collaboration for improved supply chain financial solutions
  • SCF adoption models, enablers and barriers
  • SCF from different party perspectives (especially suppliers and providers)
  • SCF and risk mitigation and management

Manuscript preparation and submission

Before submission, authors should carefully read the Journal’s “Instructions for Authors”. The review process will follow the Journal’s normal practice. Prospective authors should submit an electronic copy of their complete manuscript via Elsevier’s manuscript submission system (https://ees.elsevier.com/jpsm) selecting “STF Supply Chain Finance” as submission category and specifying the Supply Chain Finance topic in the accompanying letter. Manuscripts are due March 31, 2017 with expected publication in June of 2018.

FOR COMMENTS OR QUESTIONS PLEASE CONTACT THE GUEST EDITORS:

Federico Caniato, Politecnico di Milano, School of Management, federico.caniato@polimi.it

Michael Henke, TU Dortmund and Fraunhofer IML, Michael.Henke@iml.fraunhofer.de

George A. Zsidisin, Virginia Commonwealth University, gazsidisin@vcu.edu

References

Cornett, M.M., McNutt, J.J., Strahan, P.E., Tehranian, H., 2011. Liquidity risk management and credit supply in the financial crisis. J. financ. econ. 101, 297–312.

Coulibaly, B., Sapriza, H., Zlate, A., 2013. Financial frictions, trade credit, and the 2008–09 global financial crisis. Int. Rev. Econ. Financ. 26, 25–38.

Garcia-Appendini, E., Montoriol-Garriga, J., 2013. Firms as liquidity providers: Evidence from the 2007–2008 financial crisis. J. financ. econ. 109, 272–291.

Gelsomino, L.M., Mangiaracina, R., Perego, A., Tumino, A., 2016. Supply Chain Finance: a literature review. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logist. Manag. 46, 1–19.

Govindarajan, Vijay, and John K. Shank. “Strategic cost management: tailoring controls to strategies.” Journal of Cost Management 6.3 (1992): 14-25.

Wuttke, D. A., Blome, C., Foerstl, K., & Henke, M. (2013a). Managing the innovation adoption of supply chain finance—Empirical evidence from six European case studies. Journal of Business Logistics, 34(2), 148-166.

Wuttke, D. A., Blome, C., & Henke, M. (2013b). Focusing the financial flow of supply chains: An empirical investigation of financial supply chain management. International journal of production economics, 145(2), 773-789.

Hofmann, E., 2005. Supply Chain Finance: some conceptual insights. Logistik Manag. Innov. Logistikkonzepte. Wiesbad. Dtsch. Univ. 203–214.

Ivashina, V., Scharfstein, D., 2010. Bank lending during the financial crisis of 2008. J. financ. econ. 97, 319–338.

Lamoureux, J.-F., Evans, T.A., 2011. Supply Chain Finance: A New Means to Support the Competitiveness and Resilience of Global Value Chains. Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY.

Lekkakos, S.D., Serrano, A., 2016. Supply chain finance for small and medium sized enterprises: the case of reverse factoring. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logist. Manag.

Pfohl, H.C., Gomm, M., 2009. Supply chain finance: optimizing financial flows in supply chains. Logist. Res. 1, 149–161.

Randall, W., Farris II, T., 2009. Supply chain financing: using cash-to-cash variables to strengthen the supply chain. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logist. Manag. 39, 669–689.

 

 

Please see my Related Posts.

The Collapse of Global Trade during Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009

The Dollar Shortage, Again! in International Wholesale Money Markets

Economics of Trade Finance

Hierarchical Planning: Integration of Strategy, Planning, Scheduling, and Execution

Production and Distribution Planning : Strategic, Global, and Integrated

Integrated Macroeconomic Accounts, NIPAs, and Financial Accounts

Key Sources of Research:

 

SUPPLY CHAIN FINANCE FUNDAMENTALS: What It Is, What It’s Not and How it Works

Click to access supplychainFundamentals.pdf

Call for papers: Supply Chain Finance

Call for papers for Special Topic Forum in Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management (Manuscript Submission:  March 31, 2017)

https://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-purchasing-and-supply-management/call-for-papers/call-for-papers-supply-chain-finance

 

FINANCIAL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – CHALLENGES AND OBSTACLES

Peter Kristofik, Jenny Kok, Sybren de Vries, Jenny van Sten-van’t Hoff

2012

Click to access 201202h.pdf

 

 

Supply chain finance: optimizing financial flows in supply chains

Hans-Christian Pfohl • Moritz Gomm

2009

Click to access 5576960408ae75363751afb1.pdf

 

 

Supply Chain Finance: some conceptual insights.

Hofmann, E. (2005)

In: Lasch, R./ Janker, C.G. (Hrsg.): Logistik Management – Innovative Logistikkonzepte, Wiesbaden
2005, S. 203-214.

Click to access Supply%20Chain%20Finance.pdf

 

 

Financial Supply Chain Management – A review

Georgios Vousinas

2017

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320196808_Financial_Supply_Chain_Management_-_A_review

 

 

Basic areas of management of finance flow in supply chains

Marlena Grabowska1

Częstochowa University of Technology

https://www.czasopismologistyka.pl/artykuly-naukowe/send/301-artykuly-drukowane/4621-artykul

 

THE FLOW OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES:AN INEVITABLE PART OF SUPPLY CHAIN
DESIGN ACTIVITIES

ERIK HOFMANN

Click to access Hofmann_The%20flow%20of%20financial%20resources%20-%20An%20inevitable%20part%20of%20supply%20chain%20design%20activities.pdf

 

Motorola’s global financial supply chain strategy

Ian D. Blackman

Christopher P. Holland

Timothy Westcott

Click to access Motorolas-global-financial-supply-chain-strategy.pdf

A SUPPLY CHAIN-ORIENTED APPROACH OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

 

Erik Hofmann

Herbert Kotzab

2010

 

Click to access Hofmann_et_al-2010-Journal_of_Business_Logistics.pdf

Financial Supply Chain Management – Neue Herausforderungen für die Finanz- und Logistikwelt.

Pfohl, H.-Chr./ Hofmann, E./ Elbert, R. (2003):

In: Logistik Management 5 (2003) 4, S. 10-26

Click to access Financial%20Supply%20Chain%20Management.pdf

 

Financing GPNs through inter-firm collaboration?
Insights from the automotive industry in Germany and Brazil

Christian Baumeister
Hans-Martin Zademach

Click to access MDW_21__2013__Financing_GPNs.pdf

 

 

Die Financial Chain im Supply Chain Management: Konzeptionelle Einordnung und Identifikation von Werttreibern.

Franke, J./ Pfaff, D./ Elbert, R./ Gomm, M./ Hofmann, E. (2005):

In: Ferstel, O. K./ Sinz, E. J./ Eckert, S./ Isselhorst, T. (Hrsg.): Wirtschaftsinformatik 2005. eEcono‐my, eGovernment, eSociety. Heidelberg 2005, S. 567‐584

Click to access 8858fcdb171db931b3c033bb1cdf55ea7683.pdf

 

 

Financial-Chain-Management
Ein generisches Modell zur Identifikation von Verbesserungspotenzialen

Donovan Pfaff
Bernd Skiera
TimWeitzel

Click to access wi2004_2_107-117.pdf

 

 

The Effects of Cross-Functional Integration on Profitability, Process
Efficiency, and Asset Productivity

Morgan Swink and Tobias Schoenherr

Click to access 2016%20-%20Research%20-%20JBL%20-%20The%20Effects%20of%20Cross-Functional%20Integration%20on%20Profitability,%20Process%20Efficiency.pdf

 

 

Quantifying and setting off network performance

Erik Hofmann

2006

Click to access Quantifying%20Network%20Performance_final%20version.pdf

 

 

Developing and discussing a supply chain-oriented model of collaborative working capital management

by
Erik Hofmann, University of St.Gallen, Switzerland
& Herbert Kotzab, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark

2006

 

Click to access Developing_and_discussing_a_supply_chain20151106-23047-gve831.pdf

 

 

The link between Purchasing and Supply Management maturity
models and the financial performance of international firms

Fábio Pollice
Afonso Fleury

 

Click to access The%20link%20between%20purchasing%20and%20supply%20management%20maturity%20models%20and%20the%20financial%20performance%20of%20international%20firms.pdf

 

 

SUPPLY CHAIN FINANCE
A Buyer-Centric Supplier Payables Financing Initiative

Martin Jemdahl
Lund, 2015

http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=8870575&fileOId=8870576

 

 

Supply Chain Finance: Optimal Introduction and Adoption Decisions

David A. Wuttke, Constantin Blome, H. Sebastian Heese and Margarita
Protopappa-Sieke

Click to access __smbhome.uscs.susx.ac.uk_qlfd7_Desktop_Supply%20Chain%20Finance%20Blome.pdf

 

 

The Value of Supply Chain Finance

Xiangfeng Chen and Chenxi Hu

Click to access 17676.pdf

 

Supply Chain Finance “Is SCF ready to be applied in SMEs?”

Jan H Jansen

Click to access 578cb87508ae5c86c9a6355b.pdf

 

 

Win-win and no-win situations in supply chain finance: The case of accounts receivable programs

Erik Hoffman

Click to access Triple-win-situations%20in%20supply%20chain%20finance_final.pdf

 

Introducing a financial perspective in Supply Chain Management: a literature review on Supply Chain Finance

Luca M. Gelsomino, Riccardo Mangiaracina,
Alessandro Perego, Angela Tumino

Click to access gelsomino_et_al.pdf

 

 

Towards A Theory Of Supply Chain And Finance Using Evidence From A Scottish Focus Group

R. de Boer, R. Dekkers, L. M. Gelsomino, C. de Goeij, M. Steeman Q. Zhou,
S. Sinclair, V. Souter

2017

Click to access Towards-A-Theory-Of-Supply-Chain-And-Finance-Using-Evidence-From-A-Scottish-Focus-Group.pdf

 

 

WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN SUPPLY CHAINS

Nataliia G. Silaeva

2016

Click to access Master_thesis_Silaeva_Nataliya.pdf

 

 

Blockchain-driven supply chain finance: Towards a conceptual framework from a buyer perspective

Yaghoob Omrana, Michael Henkeb, Roger Heinesc, Erik Hofmann

Click to access WP29-Blockchain-driven%20supply%20chain%20finance%20Towards%20a%20conceptual%20framework%20from%20a%20buyer%20perspective.pdf

 

 

Selecting financial service providers for supply chains: How cross-functional collaboration can improve effectiveness and efficiency

Judith Martin

Prof. Dr. Erik Hofmann

Click to access Paper%20Full%20Version_Selecting%20financial%20service%20providers%20for%20supply%20chains.pdf

 

 

Supply chain finance as a value added service offered by a lead logistics provider

Careaga Franco, V.G.
Award date:
2016

Click to access 840401-1.pdf

 

 

B2B PAYMENTS, SUPPLY CHAIN FINANCE & E-INVOICING MARKET

Mirela Amariei
Tiberiu Avram
Ionela Barbuta
Simona Cristea
Sebastian Lupu
Mihaela Mihaila
Andreea Nita
Adriana Screpnic

2015

Click to access B2B_Payments_Supply_Chain_Finance__E-invoicing_Market_Guide_2015.pdf

 

 

Linking corporate strategy and supply chain management

Erik Hofmann

Click to access 1860230.pdf

 

 

Concepts and Trade-Offs in Supply Chain Finance

Kasper van der Vliet

Click to access 792140.pdf

 

 

Supply Chain Finance as a Value Added Service offered by a Lead Logistics Provider

by
Victor Gerardo Careaga Franco

Click to access Careaga_Franco_2016.pdf

 

Value Chain Finance: How Banks can Leverage Growth Opportunities for SME Banking Customers

Qamar Saleem, Global SME Banking and Value Chain Specialist, IFC

Dr. Eugenio Cavenaghi, Managing Director -Trade, Export & Supply Chain Finance, Banco Santander

Click to access Value%20Chain%20Finance_Qamar%20Saleem.pdf

 

 

 

Supply-chain finance: The emergence of a new competitive landscape

McKinsey

https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Industries/Financial%20Services/Our%20Insights/Supply%20chain%20finance%20The%20emergence%20of%20a%20new%20competitive%20landscape/MoP22_Supply_chain_finance_Emergence_of_a_new_competitive_landscape_2015.ashx

 

 

Fintechs and the Financial Side of Global Value Chains— The Changing Trade-Financing Environment

IMF

2017

Click to access 17-21.pdf

 

 

Global Supply Chain Management: Front and Center for Treasurers
Delivering Innovative Solutions that Integrate Financial and Physical Supply Chains

JP Morgan

https://www.jpmorgan.com/pdfdoc/jpmorgan/cash/pdf/global_supply_chain_front_and_center_for_treasurers

 

 

 

Supply Chain Finance

Aberdeen Group

2011

Click to access SCF%20Gaining%20Control%200258-6833-RA-SCFinance-SP-10-NSP.pdf

 

 

 

Supply chain financing: Using cash-to-cash variables to strengthen the supply chain

Wesley S. Randall

M. Theodore Farris II

2009

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235317652_Supply_chain_financing_Using_cash-to-cash_variables_to_strengthen_the_supply_chain

 

 

 

Supply Chain Finance: ANew Means to Support the Competitiveness and Resilience of Global Value Chains

Jean-François Lamoureux and Todd Evans

Click to access 12_Lamoureux_and_Evans_e_FINAL.pdf

 

 

 

Maximising the value of supply chain finance

van der Vliet, K.; Reindorp, M.J.; Fransoo, J.C.

2013

Click to access 387399093290135.pdf

 

 

 

The Interface of Operations and Finance in Global Supply Chains

by
Lima Zhao

2014

Click to access Zhao_Lima_WHU_Diss_2014.pdf

 

 

 

Supply Chain Finance A conceptual framework to advance research

Kasper van der Vliet, Matthew J. Reindorp, Jan C. Fransoo
Beta Working Paper series 418

Click to access 23232338094103.pdf

 

 

COORDINATING WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT MODEL IN COLLABORATIVE
SUPPLY CHAINS

A. Ivakina, N. Zenkevich

# 9 (E) – 2017

Click to access WP_9%28E%29-2017_Ivakina_Zenkevich.pdf

 

 

A conceptual model for supply chain finance for SMEs at operational level ‘An essay on the Supply Chain Finance paradigm ….

Jan H Jansen

2017

Click to access A-conceptual-model-for-supply-chain-finance-for-SMEs-at-operational-level-An-essay-on-the-Supply-Chain-Finance-paradigm-Vestnik-Chelyabinsk-State-University-Version-2-18-April-2017.pdf

 

 

Cash Flow Management and Manufacturing Firm Financial Performance: A Longitudinal Perspective

James R. Kroes

Andrew S. Manikas

http://scholarworks.boisestate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1040&context=itscm_facpubs

 

 

 

TOWARDS INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

Sari Monto

2013

https://www.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/90028/isbn9789522653840.pdf?sequence=2

 

 

 

THE CYCLE TIMES OF WORKING CAPITAL: FINANCIAL VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS METHOD

Miia Pirttilä

2014

https://www.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/102180/Pirttilä_A4.pdf?sequence=2

 

 

Impact of Cash Conversion Cycle on Working Capital through Profitability: Evidence from Cement Industry of Pakistan

Afaq Ahmed Khan1, Mohsin Ayaz2, Raja Muhammad Waseem3, Sardar Osama

Bin Haseeb Abbasi4, Moazzam Ijaz

2016

Click to access Q1803021124131.pdf

 

 

Cash Conversion Cycle and Firms’ Profitability – A Study of Listed Manufacturing Companies of Pakistan

1Raheem Anser, 2Qaisar Ali Malik

2013

Click to access 2a7cb44463d9b8d3b77e2b36e23466cde4ec.pdf

 

 

The Power of Supply Chain Finance

How companies can apply collaborative finance models in their supply chain to
mitigate risks and reduce costs

M. Steeman

Click to access thepowerofsupplychainfinance.pdf

 

 

Supply Chain Finance Payable and Receivable Solutions Guide

2012

JP Morgan

A Conceptual Model of Supply Chain Finance for SMEs at Operational Level

 Jan H Jansen

21 November 2017

 

Click to access A-conceptual-model-for-supply-chain-finance-for-SMEs-at-operational-level-An-essay-on-the-Supply-Chain-Finance-paradigm-Vestnik-Chelyabinsk-State-University-Version-2-18-April-2017.pdf

 

 

Cash-to-cash: The new supply chain management metric

M Theodore Farris II; Paul D Hutchison

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management; 2002

Click to access 02e7e5312767de88df000000.pdf

 

 

 

Integrating financial and physical supply chains: the role of banks in enabling supply chain integration

Rhian Silvestro

Paola Lustrato

2012

 

Click to access 552f9c840cf21cb2faf005c0.pdf

 

 

 

Integration of Finance and Supply Chain: Emerging Frontier in Growing Economies

(A Case Study of Exporting Companies)

Muhammad Ahmar Saeed

Xiaonan Lv

 

Click to access FULLTEXT01.pdf

 

Research at the Interface of Finance, Operations, and Risk Management (iFORM): Recent Contributions and Future Directions

Volodymyr Babich

Panos Kouvelis

2017

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3054711

 

 

 

PROCEEDINGS

Interface of Finance, Operations, and Risk Management (iFORM) SIG

2011

Click to access 947ccbd42b1fe0e90f298ab96cfcef8f0448.pdf

 

 

 

Cash to Cash Cycle with a Supply Chain Perspective

Can Duman
Sawanee Sawathanon

2009

 

Click to access FULLTEXT01.pdf

 

DYNAMIC AND STATIC LIQUIDITY MEASURES IN WORKING CAPITAL STRATEGIES

Monika Bolek, PhD

 

http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/viewFile/764/798

 

 

 

Does working capital management affect cost of capital?
A first empirical attempt to build up a theory for supply chain finance

Erik Hofmann, Judith Martin

2016

 

Click to access Final%20paper_working%20capital%20management.pdf

 

 

 

Principle of Accounting System Dynamics – Modeling Corporate Financial Statements –

Kaoru Yamaguchi

 

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.615.6514&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

 

 

Money and Macroeconomic Dynamics

Accounting System Dynamics Approach

Edition 3.2

 

Kaoru Yamaguchi Ph.D.

Japan Futures Research Center

 

Click to access Macro%20Dynamics.pdf

 

 

 

Working Capital Management Model in value chains

Timo Eskelinen

2014

 

http://www.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/96733/Working%20Capital%20Management%20Model%20in%20value%20chains_Timo%20Eskelinen.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y

 

 

 

STANDARD DEFINITIONS FOR TECHNIQUES OF SUPPLY CHAIN FINANCE

Global Supply Chain Finance Forum

2016

 

Click to access ICC-Standard-Definitions-for-Techniques-of-Supply-Chain-Finance-Global-SCF-Forum-2016.pdf

Click to access download-the-scf-definitions.pdf

 

 

IMPROVING FIRM PERFORMANCE THROUGH VALUE-DRIVEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: A CASH CONVERSION CYCLE APPROACH

Pan Theo Große-Ruyken
Stephan M. Wagner
Wen-Fong Lee

Baltic Management Review

Volume 3 No 1

2008

 

 

 

Best Practices in Cash Flow Management and Reporting

Hans-Dieter Scheuermann

http://www.financepractitioner.com/cash-flow-management-best-practice/best-practices-in-cash-flow-management-and-reporting?full

Financial Supply Chain Management