Luminosity and Chromaticity: On Light and Color

Luminosity and Chromaticity: On Light and Color

Key Terms and Ideas

  • Luminosity and Chromaticity
  • Light and Color
  • Diwali (Festival of Light) and Holi (Festival of Colors)
  • Rama and Krishna
  • Non Dual Vedanta and Trika Philosophy
  • 1 and 3
  • Verticalism and Horizontalism
  • Vedic and Tantric
  • Flute of Krishna and Shiva Jyotir Linga
  • Bow and Arrow of Ram
  • Ram Parivar and Shiv Parivar
  • Shiv Ratri
  • Plato and Aristotle
  • Sun, Moon, Earth and Mars
  • Rods and Cones in Retina
  • Color Temperature
  • Lok and Kosh
  • Seven Chakra
  • Trishool
  • Ram, Lakshman, Sita, Hanuman
  • Achromatic and Chromatic
  • Grey scale and Color Primaries
  • Mind and Moon
  • Moon and Emotions
  • Tone Circle
  • Color Circle
  • Pythagoras
  • 3 and 7
  • 137
  • 007
  • Prism
  • Seven Colors
  • 4 + 3 = 7
  • 4 x 3 = 12
  • Pentatonic
  • Heptatonic
  • Diatonic Scale
  • Chromatic Scale

Newton’s Color Circle

Source: http://winlab.rutgers.edu/~trappe/Courses/ImageVideoS06/MollonColorScience.pdf

Color Circle in Opticks of I.Newton

Source: Reprint of Opticks by Project Gutenberg

Color Sensation

Source: Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Source: Notes for the course of Color Digital Image Processing

Color Temperature

Source: Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

Color Temperatures of the Stars

Luminosity Function

Source: Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

CIE 1931 XYZ

Source: Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

Luminance

Source: Human Vision and Color

Brightness, Lightness,Hue, Saturation, and Luminosity

Source: The Brightness of Colour

Brightness has been defined as the perceived intensity of a visual stimulus, irrespective of its source. Lightness, on the other hand, is defined as the apparent brightness of an object relative to the object’s reflectance. Thus increasing the intensity of light falling on an object will increase its apparent brightness but not necessarily its apparent lightness, other things being equal [1]. Saturation is a measure of the spectral ‘‘purity’’ of a colour, and thus how different it is from a neutral, achromatic stimulus. Hue is the perception of how similar a stimulus is to red, green, blue etc. Luminous efficiency, or luminosity, measures the effect that light of different wavelengths has on the human visual system. It is a function of wavelength, usually written as V(l) [2], and is typically measured by rapidly alternating a pair of stimuli falling on the same area of the retina; the subject alters the physical radiance of one stimulus until the apparent flickering is minimised. Thus luminance is a measure of the intensity of a stimulus given the sensitivity of the human visual system, and so is integrated over wavelength [3]. Luminance is thought to be used by the brain to process motion, form and texture [4].

Clearly, brightness is monotonically related to luminance in the simplest case: the more luminant the stimulus is, the brighter it appears to be. However, the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK) effect shows that the brightness of a stimulus is not a simple representation of luminance, since the brightness of equally luminant stimuli changes with their relative saturation (i.e. strongly coloured stimuli appear brighter than grey stimuli), and with shifts in the spectral distribution of the stimulus (e.g. ‘blues’ and ‘reds’ appear brighter than ‘greens’ and ‘yellows’ at equiluminance) [1; 5–6].

The HK effect has been measured in a variety of psychophysical studies [7–8] and is often expressed in terms of the (variable) ratio between brightness and luminance. 

Chromaticity

Source: Human Vision and Color

Human Eye

Source: Human Vision and Color

Human Retina

Source: Human Vision and Color

Rods and Cones Photoreceptors

Source: Human Vision and Color

Color Receptors

Source: Human Vision and Color

Tristimulus Color

Source: Color/CMU

Visual Sensitivity

Source: Human Vision https://people.cs.umass.edu/~elm/Teaching/ppt/691a/CV%20UNIT%20Light/691A_UNIT_Light_1.ppt.pdf

Light and Color (Photometry and Colorimetry) I

Source: Interactive Computer Graphics/UOMichigan

Light and Color (Photometry and Colorimetry) II

Source: Interactive Computer Graphics/UOMichigan

Two Types of Light Sensitive Cells

Source: Interactive Computer Graphics/UOMichigan

Cones and Rod Sensitivity

Source: Interactive Computer Graphics/UOMichigan

Distribution of Cones in Retina

Source: DIVERSE CELL TYPES, CIRCUITS, AND MECHANISMS FOR COLOR VISION IN THE VERTEBRATE RETINA

Types of Color Stimuli

Source: Perceiving Color. https://www.ics.uci.edu/~majumder/vispercep/chap5notes.pdf

Color Perception

Source: Perceiving Color. https://www.ics.uci.edu/~majumder/vispercep/chap5notes.pdf

CIE XYZ Model

Source: Human Vision and Color

Luminance and Chromaticity Space

Source: Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

1931 CIE Chromaticity Chart

CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram

Source: Human Vision and Color

Source: Notes for the course of Color Digital Image Processing

Additive Colors

Source: Human Vision and Color

Subtractive Colors

Source: Human Vision and Color

Color Mixing

Source: Human Vision and Color

Color Appearance Models
  • RGB
  • CMY
  • CIE XYZ
  • CIE xyY
  • CIE LAB
  • Hunter LAB
  • CIE LUV
  • CIE LCH
  • HSB
  • HSV
  • HSL
  • HSI
  • YIQ for NTSC TVs in USA
  • YUV for PAL TVs in EU
  • YCbCr for digital TVs
  • Munsell Color System

Color Models are device independent. For discussion of device dependent color spaces, please see my post Digital Color and Imaging.

LMS, RGB, and CIE XYZ Color Spaces

Source: Color/CMU

HSV Color Space

My Related Posts

Reflective Display Technology: Using Pigments and Structural Colors

Color Science and Technology in LCD and LED Displays

Color Science of Gem Stones

Nature’s Fantastical Palette: Color From Structure

Optics of Metallic and Pearlescent Colors

Color Change: In Biology and Smart Pigments Technology

Color and Imaging in Digital Video and Cinema

Digital Color and Imaging

On Luminescence: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Bioluminescence

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Understanding Rasa: Yoga of Nine Emotions

Shapes and Patterns in Nature

Key Sources of Research

What Are The Characteristics Of Color?

https://www.pantone.com/articles/color-fundamentals/what-are-the-characteristics-of-color

Birren Color Theory

by ADMIN on MARCH 11, 2012

http://www.wonderfulcolors.org/blog/birren-color-theory/

Light, Color, Perception, and Color Space Theory

Professor Brian A. Barsky

barsky@cs.berkeley.edu

Computer Science Division
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California, Berkeley

Understanding Color Spaces and Color Space Conversion

https://www.mathworks.com/help/images/understanding-color-spaces-and-color-space-conversion.html

The Human Visual System and Color Models

Click to access Carmody_Visual&ColorModels.pdf

Defining and Communicating Color: The CIELAB System

Color Vision and Arts

http://www.webexhibits.org/colorart/index.html

PRECISE COLOR COMMUNICATION: COLOR CONTROL FROM PERCEPTION TO INSTRUMENTATION

KonicaMinolta

A short history of color theory

https://programmingdesignsystems.com/color/a-short-history-of-color-theory/index.html

Let’s Colormath

Understanding the formulas of color conversion

https://donatbalipapp.medium.com/colours-maths-90346fb5abda

A History of Human Color Vision—from Newton to Maxwell

Barry R. Masters

Optics and Photonics January 2011

https://www.osa-opn.org/home/articles/volume_22/issue_1/features/a_history_of_human_color_vision—from_newton_to_max/

The Difference Between Chroma and Saturation

Munsell Color

Charles S. Peirce’s Phenomenology: Analysis and Consciousness

By Richard Kenneth Atkins

The Evolution of Human Color Vision/ Jeremy Nathans

Jeremy Nathans Lecture on Color Vision

JEREMY NATHANS LECTURE ON COLOR VISION

JEREMY NATHANS LECTURE ON COLOR VISION

JEREMY NATHANS LECTURE ON COLOR VISION

The Genes for Color Vision

Jeremy Nathans

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN FEBRUARY 1989

A Short History of Color Photography

Photography  |  Angie Kordic

https://www.widewalls.ch/magazine/color-photography

Blue: The History of a Color (2001)

followed by Black: The History of a Color (2009) and then Green: The History of a Color (2014), all produced by the same publisher. A fifth, devoted to yellow, should come next. 

Historic Look on Color Theory 

Steele R. Stokley

The evolution of colour in design from the 1950s to today

Francesca Valan

Journal of the International Colour Association (2012): 8, 55-60

Greek Color Theory and the Four Elements

J.L. Benson

University of Massachusetts Amherst

A SHORT HISTORY OF COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY

https://blog.scienceandmediamuseum.org.uk/a-short-history-of-colour-photography/

History of Color System

The Origins of Modern Color Science

J D Mollon

Click to access MollonColorScience.pdf

The History of Colors

Tobias Kiefer

Click to access Assignment_History_of_Colors.PDF

Notes for the course of Color Digital Image Processing

Edoardo Provenzi

Understanding color & the in-camera image processing pipeline for computer vision

Dr. Michael S. Brown

Canada Research Chair Professor York University – Toronto

ICCV 2019 Tutorial – Seoul, Korea

Chapter 2
Basic Color Theory

Click to access t3.pdf

Color Science

CS 4620 Lecture 26

Click to access 26color.pdf

Color Image Perception, Representation and Contrast Enhancement

Yao Wang
Tandon School of Engineering, New York University

A GUIDE TO LIGHT AND COLOUR DEMONSTRATIONS

Arne Valberg, Bjørg Helene Andorsen, Kine Angelo, Barbara Szybinska Matusiak and Claudia Moscoso

Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim, Norway

https://www.ntnu.edu/documents/1272527942/1272817015/2015-09-08+DEMO+web.pdf/f1695ca5-b834-4d05-a011-a185f6562e32

A Primer to Colors in Digital Design

Archit Jha

Jul 16, 2017

https://uxdesign.cc/a-primer-to-colors-in-digital-design-7d16bb33399e

Chapter 7 ADDITIVE COLOR MIXING

Click to access 07_additive-color.pdf

Computergrafik

Matthias Zwicker Universität Bern Herbst 2016

Color

Click to access ColorPerception.pdf

Introduction to Computer Vision

The Perception of Color

In: Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System [Internet]. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995–.2005 May 1 [updated 2007 Jul 9]

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21413396/

Visual Pigment Gene Structure and Expression in Human Retinae 

Tomohiko Yamaguchi,  Arno G. Motulsky,  Samir S. Deeb

Human Molecular Genetics, Volume 6, Issue 7, July 1997, Pages 981–990, https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/6.7.981

https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article/6/7/981/572151

The Difference Between Chroma and Saturation

LUMINANCE AND CHROMATICITY

https://colorusage.arc.nasa.gov/lum_and_chrom.php

Number by Colors

A Guide to Using Color to Understand Technical Data
  • Brand Fortner
  • Theodore E. Meyer

Chapter 5 Perceiving Color

The Practical Guide To Color Theory For Photographers

History of the Bauhaus

https://bauhaus.netlify.app/form_color/color/

The Digital Artist’s Complete Guide To Mastering Color Theory

byLeigh G

BASIC COLOR THEORY

Anthony Holdsworth

Molecular Genetics of Color Vision and Color Vision Defects

Maureen Neitz, PhDJay Neitz, PhD

Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(5):691-700. doi:10.1001/archopht.118.5.691

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/fullarticle/413200

Color Theory: Introduction to Color Theory and the Color Wheel

https://blog.thepapermillstore.com/color-theory-introduction-color-wheel/

Color Spaces and Color Temperature

https://tigoe.github.io/LightProjects/color-spaces-color-temp.html

The Brightness of Colour

David Corney1, John-Dylan Haynes2, Geraint Rees3,4, R. Beau Lotto1*

EECS 487: Interactive Computer Graphics

Colorimetry

KonicaMinolta

Basics of Color Theory

THE BASICS OF COLOR PERCEPTION AND MEASUREMENT

Hunterlab

https://www.hunterlab.com/color-measurement-learning/glossary/

Color Matching and Color Discrimination

The Science of Color

2003

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.457.9467&rep=rep1&type=pdf

1.3 Color Temperature

https://www.mat.univie.ac.at/~kriegl/Skripten/CG/CG.html

https://www.mat.univie.ac.at/~kriegl/Skripten/CG/node10.html

Color Spaces and Color Temperature

https://tigoe.github.io/LightProjects/color-spaces-color-temp.html

Digital Camera Sensor Colorimetry

Douglas A. Kerr

Click to access Sensor_Colorimetry.pdf

Chromatic luminance, colorimetric purity, and optimal aperture‐color stimuli

DOI: 10.1002/col.20356

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230164581_Chromatic_luminance_colorimetric_purity_and_optimal_aperture-color_stimuli

Title: A Review of RGB Color Spaces …from xyY to R’G’B’

The CIE XYZ and xyY Color Spaces

Douglas A. Kerr

Click to access CIE_XYZ.pdf

DIVERSE CELL TYPES, CIRCUITS, AND MECHANISMS FOR COLOR VISION IN THE VERTEBRATE RETINA

Wallace B. Thoreson and Dennis M. Dacey

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska; and Department of Biological Structure, Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Physiol Rev 99: 1527–1573, 2019 Published May 29, 2019; doi:10.1152/physrev.00027.2018

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/physrev.00027.2018

Human Vision

Introduction to color theory

https://graphics.stanford.edu/courses/cs178-10/applets/locus.html

COLOR WHEELS

https://www2.bellevuecollege.edu/artshum/materials/art/tanzi/Winter04/111/111CLRWHLSW04.htm

Human Vision and Color

UT

Click to access 121.pdf

COLOR VISION MECHANISMS

Andrew Stockman

Department of Visual Neuroscience UCL Institute of Opthalmology London, United KIngdom

David H. Brainard

Department of Psychology University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Color

CMU

Click to access lecture15.pdf

What Are The Characteristics Of Color?

Pantone

https://www.pantone.com/articles/color-fundamentals/what-are-the-characteristics-of-color

A Guide to Color


Guide C-316
Revised by Jennah McKinley

https://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_c/C316/welcome.html

A History of Color

The Evolution of Theories of Lights and Color
  • Robert A. Crone

https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-94-007-0870-9

The Brilliant History of Color in Art

Victoria Finlay

A History of Light and Colour Measurement
Science in the Shadows

Sean F Johnston

University of Glasgow, Crichton Campus, UK

Color codes: modern theories of color in philosophy, painting and architecture, literature, music and psychology

Charles Riley

Chapter 6 Colour

History of Color Systems

Nature’s Fantastical Palette: Color From Structure

Nature’s Fantastical Palette: Color From Structure

Peacock Feathers

Source: STRUCTURAL COLORATION IN NATURE

Key Terms

  • Iridescence
  • Nanostructures
  • Color from Pigments
  • Color from Structures
  • Smart Pigments
  • Material Science
  • Color from Bioluminescence
  • Color Change
  • Photonics
  • Biomimicry
  • Non Iridescent Colors
  • Iridescent Colors
  • Photonic Crystals (PhC)
  • Diffraction Grating
  • Specular Reflection
  • Braggs Diffraction
  • 1D Grating
  • 2D and 3D Photonic Crystals
  • Optical Nanotechnology
  • Multilayer Filters
  • Biomimetics
  • Peacock
  • Morpho Butterflies
  • Interference
  • Colloidal Crystals
  • Colloidal Amorphous Array
  • Microfluidics
  • Photonic Pigments
  • Reflective Displays (E-Ink)
  • Colloidal Assembly
  • Photonic Glass (PG)
  • Plasmonic Films
  • Inverse-Opals
  • Braggs Stacks
  • Dielectric Structural Colors
  • Plasmonic Structural Colors
  • Amorphous Photonic Structures
  • Melanin
  • Dopamine
  • Poly Dopamine
  • Plasmonic Metasurfaces

Source: GOLD BUGS AND BEYOND: A REVIEW OF IRIDESCENCE AND STRUCTURAL COLOUR MECHANISMS IN BEETLES (COLEOPTERA)

Source: GOLD BUGS AND BEYOND: A REVIEW OF IRIDESCENCE AND STRUCTURAL COLOUR MECHANISMS IN BEETLES (COLEOPTERA)

Source: Structural color and its interaction with other color-producing elements: perspectives from spiders

Color Vision

Source: Structural Color and Odors: Towards a Photonic Crystal Nose Platform

Color Sources

  • From Pigments
  • From Bioluminescenece
  • From Structure

Source: Chromic Phenomena: Technological Applications of Colour Chemistry

Source: Chromic Phenomena: Technological Applications of Colour Chemistry

Structural Color in Nature

  • Peacock
  • Butterflies
  • Beetles
  • Parrots
  • Birds
  • Moth

Peacock Colors

Feathers of Peacock

Source: Structural colors: from natural to artificial systems

Colors of Marpho Butterfly

Closeup of Marpho Butterfly

Structure and Color

  • Iridescent – (Colloidal Crystals)- Angle Dependent – Regular Structure
  • Non Iridescent – (Colloidal Amorphous Arrays) – Angle Independent – Irregular Structure

Optics of Structural Colors

  • Interference
  • Diffraction Gratings
  • Scattering
  • Reflection

Nano Structures Responsible for Colors

Source: Structural color and its interaction with other color-producing elements: perspectives from spiders

  • Christmas Tree
  • Multilayer – 1 D Periodicity
  • Photonic Crystals – 2 D and 3 D
  • Diffraction Grating
  • Quasi Ordered Photonic Crystal
  • Disorder Structure

Source: BIO-INSPIRED VARIABLE STRUCTURAL COLOR MATERIALS

  • 1 D Gratings
  • 1 D Periodicity Multilayers
  • 1 D Discrete Periodicity
  • 2 D Gratings
  • 2 D Periodicity
  • Closed Packed Spheres of Solid Materials
  • Inverse Opal Analogoues

Source: STRUCTURAL COLORATION IN NATURE

  • Thin Film Interference
  • Multi Film Interference
  • Diffraction Gratings
  • Coherent Scattering
  • Incoherent Scattering
  • 1 D Photonic Crystals
  • 2 D Photonic Crystals
  • 3 D Photonic Crystals

Source: Structural Color and Odors: Towards a Photonic Crystal Nose Platform

Source: PHYSICS OF STRUCTURAL COLORS

Source: PHOTOPHYSICS OF STRUCTURAL COLOR IN THE MORPHO BUTTERFLIES

Source: Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

  • Cuticular Multilayer Reflector
  • Epicuticular Reflector
  • Exocuticular Reflector
  • Endocuticular Reflector

Source: Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

  • Multilayer Reflectors
  • Diffraction Gratings
  • 3 D Photonic Crystals

Multilayer reflectors in beetles have also been described as ‘thin-layer stacks’, ‘one-dimensional photonic crystals’ and ‘thin-film reflectors’ (e.g. Parker 1998, 2002; Vigneron et al. 2006). The vocabulary used to describe these structures is somewhat dispersive, as the variously intersecting disciplines of entomology, physics and applied optics (e.g. laser technology, fibre-optic data transmission, telescopes and microscopy) have all developed slightly different suites of terminology. Other synonyms for ‘multilayer reflector’ include multilayer stack, quarter wave stack, interference reflector and dielectric mirror.

We propose that the term multilayer reflector be applied to such structures in Coleoptera; this describes the multilayered nature of cuticular chitin lamellae (which are not true films) and the reflective mechanism by which colour is produced.

The terms ‘metallic colours’ or ‘metallic iridescence’ can be used to distinguish multilayer effects from those produced by other optical structures. Multilayer reflectance can typically be diagnosed as such by its limited palette (usually one or two apparent hues per reflector), blue shift with decreased observation angle and fixed position on the cuticle surface.

Source: Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

Three-dimensional crystalline structures producing scintillating, gem-like reflectance were described by Parker et al. (2003) in the entimine weevil Metapocyrtus sp. (initially misidentified as Pachyrrhynchus argus); by Welch et al. (2007) in Pachyrrhynchus congestus, and recently in another entimine weevil, Lamprocyphus augustus, by Galusha et al. (2008). The photonic crystals found in the scales of pachyrrhynchine weevils (Pachyrrhynchus and Metapocyrtus) have a close-packed hexagonal arrangement analogous to (mineral) opal, while the photonic crystal of Lamprocyphus has a diamond-based lattice (i.e. a face-centred cubic system rather than a hexagonal one).

Although the term ‘photonic crystal’ applies to any ordered subwavelength structure that affects the propagation of specific wavelengths of light (Parker & Townley 2007), it is the three-dimensionally ordered structures to which the term is most commonly applied. We recommend use of the term ‘three-dimensional photonic crystal’, which distinguishes these structures from the one-dimensional periodicity of multilayer reflectors or Bragg gratings. The terms ‘opal’ and ‘diamond based’ have been used to describe iridescence in weevil scales, but refer to phenomena that are relatively similar from an organismal perspective; it is important to note that these terms refer to crystalline lattice morphology and not the appearance of the scales themselves. Maldovan & Thomas (2004) provided an excellent overview of diamond-based lattice morphology (as observed in Lamprocyphus) in photonic crystals; Yablonovitch (1993) provided a thorough introduction to the photonic band-gap mechanism by which colours are produced in three-dimensional photonic crystals.

Source: Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

A diffraction grating is any nanoscale array of parallel ridges or slits that disperses white light into its constituent wavelengths (figure 8a shows a grating in cross section). Because white light consists of many different wavelengths, it diffracts into full spectra, creating the rainbow-like reflectance shown in figures 1a,b, 8c and 9b,d. While man-made diffraction gratings can disperse light via reflection or transmission, all beetle gratings are strictly reflection mechanisms.

Source: Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

http://photobiology.info/Ball.html

Nature’s Fantastical Palette: Color from Structure

Philip Ball
18 Hillcourt Road
East Dulwich
London SE22 0PE, UK
p.ball@btinternet.com

The changing hues of a peacock’s splendid tail feathers have always captivated the curious mind (Figure 1). The seventeenth-century English scientist Robert Hooke called them ‘fantastical’ because the colors could be made to disappear by wetting the feathers (Hooke, 1665). Using the newly invented microscope, Hooke looked at peacock feathers and saw that they were covered with tiny ridges, which he figured might be the origin of the colors. 

Figure 1

Figure 1. The shifting colors of the peacock’s tail have had metaphorical interpretations for centuries.

Hooke was on the right track. The bright, often iridescent colors of bird plumage, insect cuticle and butterfly wings are ‘structural’; produced not by light absorption by pigments, but light scattering from a regular array of objects just a few hundreds of nanometers (millionths of a millimeter) in size (Vukusic & Sambles, 2003; Vukusic, 2004; Wolpert, 2009). This scattering favors particular wavelengths depending on the size and spacing of the scatterers, and so it picks out specific colors from the full spectrum of sunlight. Because the precise hue may depend also on the viewing angle, structural colors are often iridescent, changing from blue to green or orange to yellow. And because they involve reflection rather than absorption, these colors can be startlingly brilliant. The Blue Morpho butterflies of South and Central America are visible from a quarter of a mile away, seeming almost to shine when sunlight penetrates the tropical forest canopy and bounces off their wings. 

Structural colors are just one example of how living organisms manipulate and channel light using delicately arranged micro- and nanostructures. These biological designs offer inspiration to engineers seeking to control light in optical technologies, and could lead to more brilliant visual displays, new chemical sensors, and better storage, transmission and processing of information. To make effective use of such tricks, we need to understand how nature creates and deploys these tiny optical structures; indeed, we must learn a new language of color production and mixing. 

Rather little is known about how many of these biological structures are put together, how they evolved, and how evolution has made creative use of the color and light effects they offer. But one thing is clear; nature doesn’t have the sophisticated patterning technologies, such as drilling with electron beams, that microengineers can use to laboriously carve such structures from solid blocks. Ingenuity is used instead of finesse; these biological structures must make themselves from the component parts. 

If we can master that art, we might develop new, cheap technologies to make such things as materials that change color or appearance, like the camouflage skins of some fish and squid, or fibres that guide and channel light with virtually no leakage, or chemically controlled light shutters. Here I look at some of nature’s tricks for turning structure into color; and the ways they are being exploited in artificial materials and devices (Ball, 2012). 

Layers

Although the ridges seen by Hooke on butterfly wing scales do scatter light, the bright colors of the reflected light generally come from invisible structures beneath the surface. In the natural world, they offer a robust way of generating color that is not hostage to the fate of delicate, light-sensitive organic pigments. 

The colored scales and feathers of birds, fish and butterflies typically contain organized microscopic layers or rods of a dense light-scattering material embedded in a matrix of a different substance. Because the distance between the scatterers is roughly the same as the wavelengths of visible light, the stacks cause the wave phenomenon of diffraction, in which reflected waves interfere with one another. Depending on the angle of reflection, light rays of a certain wavelength interfere constructively when they bounce off successive layers in the stack, boosting the corresponding color in the reflected light (Vukusic and Sambles, 2003; Vukusic, 2004; Wolpert, 2009). It is much the same process that elicits the chromatic spectrum in light glancing off a tilted CD. 

In butterfly wing scales the reflecting stacks are made of cuticle; a hard material containing the natural polymer chitin, separated by air-filled voids. In bird feathers, the stacks are platelets or rods of the dark pigment melanin; sometimes hollow, as in the Black Inca hummingbird, Coeligena prunellei, embedded in keratin, the protein from which our hair and fingernails are made (Figure 2). Analogous diffraction gratings made from alternating ultrathin layers of two materials are widely used in optical technologies to select and reflect light of a single color. For example, mirrors made from multiple layers of semiconductors are used as reflectors and color filters in devices ranging from astronomical telescopes to solid-state lasers and spectrometers. 

Figure 2

Figure 2. The iridescent blues and greens in the feathers of hummingbirds such as this Black Inca (left; part of blue iridescence highlighted with white box) are created by platelets of melanin pigment punctuated with air holes (right), which act as a photonic crystal to reflect light of a particular wavelength. K=keratin, A=air, M=melanin. (From Shawkey et al., 2009)

The male bird of paradise Lawes’ parotia (Parotia lawesii) has a particularly neat twist on this trick (Figure 3). The barbules (hair-like structures on the feather barbs) of its breast feathers contain layers of melanin spaced at a distance that creates bright orange-yellow reflection. But, as Stavenga and colleagues have recently discovered, each barbule has a V-shaped or boomerang cross-section, with sloping surfaces that also act as reflectors of blue light (Stavenga et al., 2011). Slight movements of the feathers during the bird’s courtship ritual can switch the color abruptly between yellow-orange and blue-green; guaranteed to catch a female’s eye. Stavenga suspects that technologists will want to use this trick for producing dramatic chromatic shifts. “I suspect the fashion or automobile industries will in due time make bent structures or flakes that will exploit these angular color changes”, he says. 

Figure 3a
Figure 3b

Figure 3. A striking color change in the feathers of the male Lawes’ parotia, from yellow-orange (a) to blue-green (b), is caused by the presence of two mirror-like reflectors in the feather barbules (c): layers of melanin rods reflect yellow light, while the sloping faces of the boomerang-shaped barbule cross-section reflect blue at oblique angles. Scale bar in b: 1 cm. (From Stavenga et al., 2011)

Christmas Trees

The butterflies Morpho didius and Morpho rhetenor obtain their dazzling blue color not from simple multilayer’s but from more complex nanostructures in the wing scales: arrays of ornate chitin ‘Christmas Trees’ that sprout at the surface (Vukusic & Sambles, 2003) (Figure 4). Each ‘tree’ presents a stack of disk-like layers to the incoming light, which acts as another kind of diffraction grating. These arrays may reflect up to 80 percent of the incident blue light. And because they are not flat, they can reflect a single color over a range of viewing angles, somewhat reducing the iridescence; organisms don’t always want to change color or get dimmer when seen from different directions. 

Figure 4

Figure 4. The butterfly Morpho didius (left) obtains its dazzling blue color from delicate ‘Christmas Tree’ light-scattering structures (right), made from chitin, that sprout within the wing scales. (Left, courtesy of Peter Vukusic. Right (micrograph) from Vukusic and Sambles, 2003.)

The precise color reflected depends on the refractive index contrast between the nanostructures and the surrounding medium. This is usually air, but as Robert Hooke observed, wetting such surfaces alters the refractive index contrast, and changes the color in a way that is closely linked to the wetting liquid’s refractive index. For that reason, artificial Morpho-like structures carved into solids using microlithographic techniques are being developed by researchers at GE Global Research in New York, in collaboration with others at the State University of New York at Albany and butterfly-wing expert Pete Vukusic at the University of Exeter in England, as color-change chemical sensors that can identify a range of different liquids (Potyrailo, 2011). These might find applications for sensing emissions at power plants, monitoring of food safety, and testing of water purity. 

Reflecting Bowls

The bright green color of the Emerald Swallowtail butterfly (Papilio palinurus), found widely in southeast Asia, is not produced by green light at all. The wing scales are covered with a honeycomb array of tiny bowl-shaped depressions just a few micrometers across, lined with alternating layers of chitin cuticle and air which act as reflective mirrors. Light bouncing off the bottoms of the bowls is preferentially reflected in the yellow part of the spectrum. But from the sides it is reflected twice before bouncing back, and this selects blue. Our eyes can’t resolve these yellow spots and blue rings, which merge to create the perception of green (Vukusic & Sambles, 2003). 

Figure 5

Figure 5. The green of the Emerald Swallowtail butterfly (left) comes from the optical mixing of blue and yellow reflections from tiny bowl-like depressions in the wing scales (right). (Right figure, courtesy of Christopher Summers, Georgia Institute of Technology) 

This way of making color has been copied by Summers and coworkers (Crne et al., 2011). To create the tiny bowls, they let water vapour condense as microscopic droplets, called breath figures, on the surface of a polymer dissolved in a volatile solvent. The solvent gradually evaporates to form a solid polymer film, while the water droplets pack together on the surface of the drying solution much like greengrocers’ oranges and apples in crates, sinking into the setting film to imprint an array of holes. By pulling off the top part of the film, Summers and colleagues were left with a surface with hemispherical bowl-like dimples. They then used this structure as a template on which they deposited alternating thin layers of titania and alumina to make a multilayer reflector, like that lining the bowls of the butterfly wing scales (Figure 6). 

Figure 6

Figure 6. An artificial micro-structured surface that mimics the green color of the Emerald Swallowtail. Scale bar: 5 µm. (Courtesy of Christopher Summers, Georgia Institute of Technology)

Because each reflection changes the polarization of the light, under crossed polarizing filters the yellow light bouncing back from a single reflection at the bowl centers disappears, while the twice-reflected blue-green light from the rims remains. This could offer a distinctive authentification mark on bank and credit cards. Apparently just a simple green reflective coating, such a material would in fact carry a hidden polarized signature in the reflected blue and yellow light that would be hard to counterfeit. But Summers’ collaborator Mohan Srinivasarao admits that the main reason for seeking to replicate the butterfly’s green color was that “it’s beautiful in its own right”. 

Ordered Nanosponges

Scattering by regular arrays of microscopic objects can, for some arrangements, totally exclude light within a particular band of wavelengths, called the photonic band gap (Vukusic, 2004). These so-called photonic crystals occur naturally, for example, in opal, a biogenic form of silica in which the scatterers are tiny mineral spheres. Artificial photonic crystals can be used to confine light within narrow channels, creating waveguides that might be deployed to guide light around on silicon chips for optical information technology. 

Nature has already got there first. Under the electron microscope, the wing scales the Emerald Patched Cattleheart Butterfly (Parides sesostris) display zigzagging, herring-bone arrays: patches of an orderly sponge made from chitin with holes a hundred nanometers or so across. Each patch is a photonic crystal seen from a different alignment. Stavenga and Michielsen have found that these labyrinths in the wing-scales of P. sesostris and some species of papilionid and lycaenid butterflies have a structure known to mathematicians as a gyroid (Michielsen & Stavenga, 2008). In P. sesostris the structure has a photonic band gap that enables it to reflect light within the green part of the spectrum over a wide range of incident angles (Figure 7). Some weevils and other beetles also derive their iridescent color from three-dimensional photonic crystals made of chitin. 

Figure 7

Figure 7. The wing scales of P. sesostris (top left, and close-up, top right) contain photonic crystals of chitin (bottom, middle and right) Scale bars: left, 100 µm; middle, 2 µm; right, 2 µm. (Bottom figure, from Saranathan et al., 2010)

Richard Prum and coworkers have figured out how these photonic crystals grow (Saranathan et al., 2010). The molecules in the soft membranes that template the deposition of chitin during wing-scale growth become spontaneously organized into the ‘crystalline sponge’. Biological membranes are made up of long, tadpole-like molecules called lipids, which have a water-soluble head and an oily tail. To shield the tails from water, they cluster side by side into sheets with the heads pointing outwards; the sheets then sit back to back in bilayer membranes. Pores in these membrane induce curvature, partly exposing the lipid tails and therefore incurring a cost in energy. For this reason, the pores in effect repel one another, and this can force them to become arranged in a regular way, an equal distance apart. Periodic membrane structures have been found in the cells of many different organisms, from bacteria to rats (Hyde et al., 1997). 

In P. sesostris wing-scale progenitor cells, the outer ‘plasma membrane’ and the folded membrane of the inner compartments called the endoplasmic reticulum, where lipids and other molecules are made, come together to form a so-called double-gyroid structure (Figure 8, left), in which two interweaving sets of channels divide up space into three networks that interpenetrate, but are isolated from one another. One of these is then filled with chitin, which hardens into a robust form while the cell dies and the rest of the material is degraded, leaving behind the single gyroid phase (Saranathan et al., 2010). 

It has been suggested that these natural nanostructures might be used as the templates for making artificial ones, for example, by filling the empty space around the chitin with a polymer or an inorganic solid, and then dissolving away the chitin (Saranathan et al., 2010). But it is also possible to mimic the structures from scratch. For instance, artificial bilayer membranes made from lipid-like molecules called surfactants will also form orderly sponges, and so will so-called block copolymers, in which the chain-like molecules consist of two stretches with different chemical composition (Hyde et al., 1997). Ulrich Wiesner and coworkers (Stefik et al., 2012) have mixed liquid block copolymers with nanoparticles of niobium and titanium oxide, and let the polymers form into gyroid and other ordered ‘nanosponge’ structures that usher the nanoparticles into the same arrays. When this composite is heated, the polymer is burnt away while the mineral nanoparticles coalesce into continuous networks (Figure 8, center). 

These porous solids could find a wide range of uses. Thin porous films of titanium dioxide nanoparticles coated in light-absorbing dyes are already used in low-cost solar cells. These orderly gyroid networks can offer improvements, partly because the solid material through which light-excited electrons are harvested is continuously connected rather than relying on random electrical contacts between nanoparticles. And the researchers have calculated that double-gyroid nanosponges made from metals such as silver or aluminum, which might similarly be assembled from nanoparticles guided by block copolymers, could have the weird property of a negative refractive index, meaning that they would bend light ‘the wrong way’ (Hur et al., 2011). Such materials could be used to make so-called superlenses for optical microscopes that can image objects smaller than the wavelength of light; something that isn’t possible with conventional lenses. 

Inspired by the butterfly structures, Mark Turner and colleagues (Turner et al., 2011) have used laser beams to ‘write’ these intricate three-dimensional photonic crystals directly into a commercial light-polymerizable ‘photoresist’ material (Figure 8, right). Being somewhat ‘scaled-up’ versions of the natural nanostructures, these had photonic band gaps in the infrared part of the spectrum. Current telecommunications operates mostly at infrared wavelengths, and these structures could find uses there; some, for example, have a corkscrew lattice that make them respond differently to circularly polarized light with a left- or right-handed twist. 

Figure 8

Figure 8. The gyroid phase (left), and structures mimicking the ‘butterfly gyroid’: (middle) a network of titania organized by self-assembly of a block copolymer, and (right) a larger-scale lattice made by setting a light-sensitive polymer with laser beams (scale bar: 10 µm). (Left figure, courtesy of Matthias Weber, Indiana University. Middle figure, from Stefik et al., 2012. Right figure, from Turner et al., 2011)

Photonic Crystal Fibers

The spines of some marine polychaete worms, such as Aphrodita (the sea mouse) and Pherusa, are tubular structures containing hexagonally packed hollow cylindrical channels a few hundred nanometers across and made from chitin. These arrays act as two-dimensional photonic crystals that reflect light strongly in the long-wavelength part of the spectrum, which gives the Aphrodite spine a deep, iridescent red color (Figure 9) (Parker et al., 2001; Trzeciak & Vukusic, 2009). 

Figure 9a
Figure 9b
Figure 9c

Figure 9. The tiny spines of polychaete worms such as the sea mouse (Polychaeta: Aphroditidae; top left) are natural photonic crystals. Seen close up in cross section, they consist of regularly packed hollow channels with walls of chitin. Middle left: cross-section from Pherusa (scale bar: 2 µm); center: side view of channels from Aphrodita; right: the red color of light passing through a spine of Aphrodita. Artificial photonic fibres like this can easily be made by heating and drawing out bundles of glass capillaries (bottom). They can confine light within the ‘solid’ channels even around tight bends. (Note the solid ‘defect’ in the central channel.) (Top, middle center and middle right, courtesy of Andrew Parker, University of Oxford. Middle left, from Trzeciak & Vukusic, 2009. Bottom, from Russell, 2003)

It is not clear if the optical properties of the polychaete spines have any biological function. But there are certainly uses for such light-manipulating fibres in optical technology. For example, Philip Russell and collaborators (Russell, 2003) have made them by stacking glass capillaries into hexagonally packed bundles and drawing them out under heat into narrow fibers laced through with holes. If ‘defects’ are introduced into the array of tubular channels, either by including a wider capillary or a solid rod in the bundle, light can pass along the defect while being excluded from the photonic crystal, creating an optical fiber with a cladding that is essentially impermeable to light of wavelengths within the band gap. Photonic crystal fibers like this can guide light around tighter bends than is usually possible with conventional fibers, where the light is confined less reliably by internal reflection at the fibre surface. As a result, these fibers would work better for guiding light in tightly confined spaces, such as on optical microchips. And because photonic crystal fibers are in general less ‘leaky’ than conventional ones, they could be replace them in optical telecommunications networks, requiring less power, and obviating the need for amplifiers to boost signals sent over long distances.  

Disordered Nanosponges

The splendid blue and green plumage of many birds, while also being physical rather than pigmented colors, lacks the iridescence of the hummingbird or the peacock. Instead, they have the same color viewed from any angle. They scatter light from sponge-like keratin nanostructures; but because these structures are disordered, the scattering is diffuse, like the blue of the sky, rather than mirror-like and iridescent (Dufresne et al., 2009). 

In the blue-and-yellow macaw, Ara ararauna, (Figure 10), and the black-capped kingfisher Halcyon pileata, the empty spaces in the keratin matrix of the feather barbs form tortuous channels about 100 nm wide. A similar random network of filaments in the cuticle of the Cyphochilus beetle gives it a dazzlingly bright white shell. In some other birds, such as the blue-crowned manakin, Lepidothrix coronata, the air holes are instead little spherical bubbles connected by tiny cavities. 

Figure 10a
Figure 10b

Figure 10. The blue feathers of the blue-and-yellow macaw contain sponge-like labyrinths of air and keratin (bottom left), which scatter blue light strongly in all directions. Some other feathers derive similar colors from spherical ‘bubble-like’ air holes in the keratin matrix (bottom right). Scale bars: 500 nm. (Bottom figure, from Dufresne et al., 2009)

It is believed that both of these structures are formed as keratin separates out spontaneously from the fluid cytoplasm of feather-forming cells, like oil from water (Dufresne et al., 2009). In liquid mixtures, such as solidifying molten metal alloys or polymers, such phase separation creates different structures in different conditions. If the mixture is intrinsically unstable, the components separate into disorderly, interwoven channels in a process called spinodal decomposition. But if the mixture is metastable (provisionally stable), like water supersaturated with dissolved gas, then the separating phase will form discrete blobs or bubbles that grow from very tiny ‘seeds’ or nuclei. Prum thinks that either of these processes may happen as bird feathers develop, and that birds have evolved a way of controlling the rate of keratin phase separation so that they can arrest the nanostructure at a certain size. Once the cells have died and dried, this size determines the wavelength of scattered light, and thus the feather’s color. 

This kind of diffuse light-scattering has been used for centuries as a way of making colors in technology. In milk, microscopic droplets of fat with a wide range of sizes cause scattering of all visible wavelengths, and give the liquid its opaque whiteness. Michael Faraday discovered in the nineteenth century that light scattering from nanoscale particles of gold suspended in water can create a deep reddish-purple color with a precise hue that depends on the size of the particles. Glassmakers had been using alchemical recipes to precipitate nanoscale gold particles in molten silica to make ruby glass ever since ancient times. 

Today, engineers are looking at how these random networks and particle arrays can give rise to strongly colored and high-opacity materials. Pete Vukusic and colleagues (Hallam et al., 2009) have mimicked the cuticle of Cyphochilus beetles in random porous networks made from interconnected filaments of the minerals calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide mixed with a polymer and oil liquid binders and left to dry. Guided by the size and density of filaments in the beetle shell, they were able to make thin coatings with brilliant whiteness. Meanwhile Prum, his colleague Eric Dufresne and their coworkers at Yale University (Forster et al., 2010) have mimicked the disordered sponges of bird feathers by creating films of randomly packed microscopic polymer beads, which have blue-green colors (Figure 11). 

Figure 11

Figure 11. This thin film of randomly arrayed polymer microspheres mimics the keratin matrix in the blue feathers of the blue-crowned manakin. (From Forster et al., 2010)

Color Change

One of the most enviable optical tricks in nature is to produce reversible color changes. The reflective, protean colors in the skins of squid such as the Loligidinae family are produced by a protein called reflectin, arranged into plate-like stacks in cells called iridophores, which again act as color-selective reflectors (Figure 12). The color changes are thought to be involved in both camouflage and communication between squid for mating and displays of aggression. 

Figure 12

Figure 12. Stacked plates of the reflectin protein (left) in iridophore cells (center) create tunable reflective colors in squid (right). (Center figure, courtesy of Daniel Morse, University of California at Santa Barbara)

Daniel Morse and colleagues have recently figured out how the color changes of iridophores are achieved (Tao et al., 2010). The reflectin proteins crumple up into nanoparticles, which pack together into dense arrays that make up the flat layers. These layers are sandwiched between deep folds of the cell membrane. The color change can be triggered by neurotransmitter lipid molecules called acetylcholine, which activate a biochemical process that fixes electrically charged phosphate chemical groups onto the reflectin protein. These groups largely neutralize the proteins’ intrinsic charge and allow them to pack more closely together, increasing the reflectivity of the layers. At the same time, this compaction squeezes water from between the protein particles and out of the cell, and enables the reflectin layers to sit closer together. 

Morse and colleagues (Holt et al., 2010) think that it should be possible to copy some of these tricks in optical devices, perhaps even using reflectins themselves. They have inserted the gene encoding a reflectin protein from the long-finned squid Loligo pealeii into Escherichia colibacteria. When expressed, the protein spontaneously collapses into nanoparticles (Tao et al., 2010). The size of these particles can be tuned by controlling the interactions between charged groups on the proteins using salt. Held between stacks of permeable membranes, these materials might therefore swell and contract, altering the reflected wavelengths, in response to chemical triggers. Morse and colleagues have also taken inspiration from reflectins to develop a light switch based on a wholly synthetic light-sensitive polymer. They use an electric field both to change the refractive index of the polymer and to pull salt into the polymer film to swell it. As with iridophores, this combination of effects alters the material’s response to light dramatically, switching it from transparent to opaque; all without moving parts or high-tech manufacturing methods. The team are currently working with Raytheon Vision Systems, an optics company in Goleta, California, to use this system in fast shutters for infrared cameras. 

The Art and Science of Natural Color Mixing

Many of the optical effects found in nature are not purely due to structural colors, but arise from their combination with absorbing pigments (Shawkey et al., 2009). In squid, a thin pigment layer above the reflective layer acts as a filter that can modify the appearance, for example, making it mottled; reflective and absorbing to different degrees in different places. In bird feathers, the physical colors resulting from melanin nanostructures embedded in a keratin protein matrix can be tuned by light-absorbing filters of pigments, such as carotenoids, which absorb red and yellow light. The characteristic green plumage of parrots seems to be produced by laying a yellow pigment over a blue reflective layer of melanin and keratin (Figure 13). And the purple wing tips of Purple Tip butterflies come from red pigments beneath a blue iridescent surface. 

Figure 13

Figure 13. Green is a characteristic color of parrots, but their plumage contains no green pigment, nor is it purely a structural color. Rather, it results from ‘structural blue’ overlaid with a filter of yellow pigment.

Chameleons display perhaps the most advanced mastery of these mixing tricks. Their spectacular color changes are produced by three separate systems for modifying the reflected light, stacked one atop the other. The first layer consists of cells containing red and yellow light-absorbing pigment particles, the location of which within the cell determines the color intensity. Below these are iridophores like those of squid, from which blue and white light may be selectively reflected by crystalline layers of the molecule guanine (also a component of DNA). Finally there is a layer of cells containing the dark pigment melanin, which act like the colored ‘ground’ layers of Old Master paintings to modify the reflection of light that penetrates through the first two layers. This combination of reflection and absorption enables the chameleon to adapt its skin color across a wide, albeit species-specific, range to signal warning, for mating displays, and for camouflage (Forbes, 2009). 

How pigments alter and adjust the reflected light in such cases is still imperfectly understood. One problem is that the combinations are so diverse; more than 20 different arrangements of melanin, keratin and air have been identified in the plumage of birds. Moreover, melanin is itself a light absorber, creating colors ranging from yellow to black. The bright white markings on the blue wings of the Morpho cypris butterfly are produced by simply removing the melanin from reflective multilayer structures; the mirrors remain, but the pigments do not. 

In such ways, evolution has made creative use of the limited range of materials at its disposal to generate a riot of profuse coloration and markings. A better understanding of how this is achieved could give painters and visual artists access to entirely new ways of making colors based on iridescent and pearlescent pigments, whose use has so far been largely restricted to less sophisticated applications in the automobile and cosmetic industries (Schenk & Parker, 2011). 

Painter Franziska Schenk has been exploring the mixing of structural and pigmented color during her stay as artist-in-residence in the Department of Biosciences at the University of Birmingham in the UK (Schenk, 2009). With iridescent particles, says Schenk, “the established methods of easel painting no longer apply. Their conversion to painting requires something truly innovative.” 

Schenk used iridescent particles to reproduce the starting blue of the Morpho wing in a series of paintings that change color when lit or viewed from different angles (Figure 14). The background color on which the particles are placed is central to the effect. On white, the light not reflected from the blue particles passes through and bounces off the base. This means that when not seen face-on, the blue quickly fades and is replaced by a muted yellow. But on a black background, all non-blue light is absorbed, and the blue is more pure and intense. 

Figure 14

Figure 14. Painting of a Morpho butterfly wing by Franziska Schenk, using blue pearlescent pigments. The color changes depending on the angle of illumination, as well as on the nature of the background color. (Courtesy of Franziska Schenk)

Although the brilliance of these colors doesn’t approach that of butterfly wings, it takes advantage of recent improvements in synthetic pearlescent particles. The first of these were made by coating mica flakes with multilayers of metal oxides to generate the diffraction grating. But because the mica surfaces were not perfectly smooth and the grain sizes varied, there was always a range in the precise colors and intensities of the particles. Schenk has used pigments in which the mica substrate is replaced by a transparent borosilicate glass, which is smoother and gives a purer hue. She believes that “iridescent technology is destined to introduce a previously unimaginable level of intensity and depth, thus adding beauty, luster and a dynamic dimension to art”. Schenk’s Studies of Cuttlefish (Figure 15) is a painting that uses iridescent flakes mixed with beads and wax. 

Figure 15

Figure 15. “Studies of Cuttlefish” by Franziska Schenk, using iridescent flakes mixed with beads and wax. (Courtesy of Franziska Schenk)

Another series of cuttlefish, “Mantle of Many Colours” (Figure 16), was made with iridescent paint that differs in appearance depending on the conditions and angle of lighting, which results in a compelling chameleon effect that traditional paints simply cannot create. The colors change from greens to purples as the viewing angle shifts. “Still images, together with any attempt to verbally describe the effect, are pretty limiting”, Schenk admits; you have to see these things in the flesh to appreciate their full impact. 

Figure 16

Figure 16. “Mantle of Many Colours” by Franziska Schenk, which uses iridescent paint, as seen from different angles. (Courtesy of Franziska Schenk)

Conclusion

“Every day you play with the light of the universe”, wrote the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda, but he had no idea how literally true this would become. Our technologies for transmitting, manipulating and displaying information, whether for work or play, depend increasingly on our ability to control light; to harness and transform color. Some of nature’s most stunning sights depend on such a facility too, and often they show us that beauty can be inextricably linked to utility. We are impressed by plumage, by markings and animal displays, that are specifically designed by evolution to make such an impression. And nature has found ways to make this chromatic exuberance robust, changeable, responsive, and cheap and reliable to manufacture. In shaping color without the chemical contingency of pigments, there seems to be little we can dream up that nature has not already anticipated, exploiting its capacity to fashion intricate fabrics and structures on the tiniest scales. We can only learn, and admire. 

References

Note: The current article is an extended version of Ball P (2012), “Nature’s color tricks”, Sci. Am. 306(5), 74-79.  

Crne M, Sharma V, Blair J, Park J O, Summers C J & Srinivasaro M (2011), “Biomimicry of optical microsctructures of Papilio palinurus”, Europhys. Lett. 93, 14001. 

Dufresne E R, Noh H, Saranathan V, Mochrie S G J, Cao H & Prum R O (2009), “Self-assembly of amorphous biophotonic nanostructures by phase separation”, Soft Matter 5, 1792-1795. 

Forbes P (2009), Dazzled and Deceived: Mimicry and Camouflage. Yale University Press, New Haven. 

Forster J D, Noh H, Liew S F, Saranathan V, Schrenk C F, Yang L, Park J-G, Prum R O, Mochrie S G J, O’Hern C S, Cao H & Dufresne E R (2010), “Biomimetic isotropic nanostructures for structural coloration”, Adv. Mater. 22, 2939-2944. 

Hallam B T, Hiorns A G & Vukusic P (2009), “Developing optical efficiency through optimized coating structure: biomimetic inspiration from white beetles”, Appl. Opt. 48, 3243-3249. 

Holt A L, Wehner J G A, Hampp A & Morse D E (2010), “Plastic transmissive infrared electrochromic devices”, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 211, 1701-1707. 

Hooke R (1665), Micrographia. Reprinted by BiblioBazaar, p. 294. Charleston, South Carolina, 2007. 

Hur K, Francescato Y, Giannini V, Maier S A, Hennig R G & Wiesner U (2011), “Three-dimensionally isotropic negative refractive index materials from block copolymer self-assembled chiral gyroid networks”, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 11985-11989. 

Hyde S, Blum Z, Landh T, Lidin S, Ninham B W, Andersson S & Larsson K (1997), The Language of Shape. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 

Michielsen K and Stavenga D G (2008), “Gyroid cuticular structures in butterfly wing scales: biological photonic crystals”, J. R. Soc. Interface 5, 85-94. 

Parker A R, McPhedran R C, McKenzie D R, Botten L C & Nicorovici N-A P (2001), “Aphrodite’s iridescence”, Nature 409, 36-37. 

Potyrailo R A (2011), “Bio-inspired device offers new model for vapor sensing”, SPIE Newsroom, 10.1117/2.1201103.003568. 

Russell P (2003), “Photonic crystal fibers”, Science 299, 358-362. 

Saranathan V, Osuji C O, Mochrie S G J, Noh H, Narayanan S, Sandy A, Dufresne E R & Prum R O (2010), “Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales”, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11676-11681. 

Schenk F (2009), “Nature’s fluctuating colour captured on canvas?”, Int. J. Design & Nature and Ecodynamics 4(3), 1-11. 

Schenk F & Parker A (2011), “Iridescent color: from nature to the painter’s palette”, Leonardo 4(2) [no page numbers]. 

Shawkey M D, Morehouse N I & Vukusic, P (2009), “A protean palette: colour materials and mixing in birds and butterfiles”, J. R. Soc. Interface 6, S221-S231. 

Stavenga D G, Leertouwer H L, Marshall N J & Osorio D (2011), “Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules”, Proc. R. Soc. B 278, 2098-2104. 

Stefik M, Wang S, Hovden R, Sai H, Tate M W, Muller D A, Steiner U, Gruner S M & Wiesner U (2012), “Networked and chiral nanocomposites from ABC triblock terpolymer coassembly with transition metal oxide nanoparticles”, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 1078-1087. 

Tao A R, DeMartini D G, Izumi M, Sweeney A M, Holt A L & Morse D E (2010), “The role of protein assembly in dynamically tunable bio-optical tissues”, Biomaterials 31, 793-801. 

Turner M D, Schröder-Turk G E & Gu M (2011), “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional biomimetic chiral composites”, Opt. Express 19(10), 10001-10008. 

Vukusic P and Sambles J R (2003), “Photonic structures in biology”, Nature 424, 852-855. 

Vukusic P (2004), “Natural photonics”, Physics World 17 (2), 35-39. 

Trzeciak T M & Vukusic P (2009), “Photonic crystal fiber in the polychaete worm Pherusa sp.”, Phys. Rev. E 80, 061908. 

Wolpert H D (2009), “Optical filters in nature”, Optics and Photonics News 20(2), 22-27. 

05/30/12 

Technology of Nanostructures

Colloidal Self Assembly for fabrication of Photonic nanostructures including

  • Colloidal crystals
  • Composite and Inverse Opals
  • Photonic Glasses

Applications

  • Displays
  • Optical Devices
  • Photochemistry
  • Biological Sensors

Source: Self-assembled colloidal structures for photonics

My related posts

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Digital Color and Imaging

Color and Imaging in Digital Video and Cinema

Shapes and Patterns in Nature

Growth and Form in Nature: Power Laws and Fractals

On Luminescence: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Bioluminescence

Color Change: In Biology and Smart Pigments Technology

Optics of Metallic and Pearlescent Colors

Selected Review Papers

Structural colors: from natural to artificial systems

Self-assembled colloidal structures for photonics

Bioinspired Stimuli-Responsive Color-Changing Systems

Structural coloration in nature

Emerging optical properties from the combination of simple optical effects
Artificial Structural Color Pixels: A Review

https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/10/8/944/htm

Bio-Inspired Variable Structural Color Materials

Bio-inspired intelligent structural color materials

Biomimetic and Bioinspired Photonic Structures

Key Sources of Research

Structural color materials in evolution

Volume 19, Issue 8, Page 420–421 | Luoran Shang, Zhongze Gu, Yuanjin Zhao

https://www.materialstoday.com/amorphous/articles/s136970211600095x/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136970211600095X?via%3Dihub

Crafting Color

by KATHERINE XUE

Harvard Magazine 2014

JULY-AUGUST 2014

https://harvardmagazine.com/2014/07/crafting-color

A Different Form of Structural Color in Birds

Molly Moser

https://www.osa-opn.org/home/newsroom/2020/may/a_different_form_of_structural_color_in_birds/

Tunable Structural Color Patterns Based on the Visible‐Light‐Responsive Dynamic Diselenide Metathesis

Cheng LiuZhiyuan FanYizheng TanFuqiang FanHuaping Xu

First published: 06 February 2020

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adma.201907569

Structural color and its interaction with other color-producing elements: perspectives from spiders

Bor-Kai HsiungTodd A. BlackledgeMatthew D. Shawkey

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/9187/91870B/Structural-color-and-its-interaction-with-other-color-producing-elements/10.1117/12.2060831.short?SSO=1

Structural Colour in Nature

Cambridge University

https://www.ch.cam.ac.uk/group/vignolini/research/structural-colour-nature

Angle-independent structural colors of silicon

Emil Højlund-NielsenJohannes WeirichJesper NørregaardJoergen GarnaesN. Asger MortensenAnders Kristensen

J. of Nanophotonics, 8(1), 083988 (2014)

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/journals/journal-of-nanophotonics/volume-8/issue-1/083988/Angle-independent-structural-colors-of-silicon/10.1117/1.JNP.8.083988.short?SSO=1

Omnidirectional Structural Color

Recommended paper in Journal of Nanophotonics.

01 October 2014 

Tom Mackay

https://spie.org/news/spie-professional-magazine-archive/2014-october/hilites-jnp-omnidirectional-structural-color?SSO=1

Structural color switching with a doped indium-gallium-zinc-oxide semiconductor 

Inki Kim, Juyoung Yun, Trevon Badloe, Hyuk Park, Taewon Seo, Younghwan Yang, Juhoon Kim, Yoonyoung Chung, and Junsuk Rho

Polymer opal with brilliant structural color under natural light and white environment

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 August 2015

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-materials-research/article/abs/polymer-opal-with-brilliant-structural-color-under-natural-light-and-white-environment/FEB1DB9D31744F911EB53BDFADC1702C

Structural colors from cellulose-based polymers

Self-assembly of responsive photonic biobased materials in liquid marbles

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-08/w-scf082820.php

Bio-inspired robust non-iridescent structural color with self-adhesive amorphous colloidal particle arrays

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/nr/c7nr08056e#!divAbstract

Transmissive/Reflective Structural Color Filters: Theory and Applications


Yan Yu,1,2 Long Wen,2 Shichao Song,2 and Qin Chen2,3

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/212637/

Structural coloration and its application to textiles: a review

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00405000.2019.1663623

Engineers make clear droplets produce iridescent colors

https://news.mit.edu/2019/water-droplets-structural-color-0227

Colouration by total internal reflection and interference at microscale concave interfaces

Nature 566, pages 523–527 (2019)

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-0946-4

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00638-4

Structural color for wood coloring: A Review

Hu, J., Liu, Y., and Wu, Z. (2020). “Structural color for wood coloring: A Review,” BioResources, 15(4), 9917-9934.

Structural colour using organized microfibrillation in glassy polymer films

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1299-8

Crazy colour printing without ink

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01856-6

Colour without colourants

Nature volume 472, pages423–424(2011)

https://www.nature.com/articles/472423a

Structural Color in Animals

https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-90-481-9751-4_384

Biomimetics of Optical Nanostructures

https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-90-481-9751-4_393

Highly selective photonic glass filter for saturated blue structural color 

APL Photonics 4, 046101 (2019

https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.5084138

Photonic glass based structural color

APL Photonics 5, 060901 (2020

https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0006203

Self-assembling structural colour in nature

Stephanie L Burg1 and Andrew J Parnell1

Published 20 September 2018 • © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd
Journal of Physics: Condensed MatterVolume 30Number 41

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-648X/aadc95

Structural colour

BY ANGELI MEHTA

25 MAY 2018

https://www.chemistryworld.com/features/structural-colour/3009020.article

Structural coloration in nature 

Jiyu Sun,*abBharat Bhushan*b  and  Jin Tonga

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2013/ra/c3ra41096j#!divAbstract

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255772388_Structural_coloration_in_nature

MECHANICS OF STRUCTURAL COLOR

https://mechse.illinois.edu/news/blogs/mechanics-structural-color

Color from Structure

https://www.the-scientist.com/cover-story/color-from-structure-39860

6 – Structural Color in Nature: Basic Observations and Analysis

Shinya Yoshioka

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123970145000067

Nanophotonic Structural Colors

  • Soroosh Daqiqeh Rezaei*
  • Zhaogang Dong, 
  • John You En Chan, 
  • Jonathan Trisno, 
  • Ray Jia Hong Ng, 
  • Qifeng Ruan, 
  • Cheng-Wei Qiu, 
  • N. Asger Mortensen, and 
  • Joel K.W. Yang*

 ACS Photonics 2020, Publication Date:July 28, 2020

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsphotonics.0c00947

Iridescence-controlled and flexibly tunable retroreflective structural color film for smart displays

  1. Wen Fan1,*
  2. Jing Zeng1,*
  3. Qiaoqiang Gan2,3,*
  4. Dengxin Ji2
  5. Haomin Song2
  6. Wenzhe Liu4
  7. Lei Shi4 and 
  8. Limin Wu1,

Science Advances  09 Aug 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 8,

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/8/eaaw8755

Designing Structural-Color Patterns Composed of Colloidal Arrays

  • Jong Bin Kim, 
  • Seung Yeol Lee, 
  • Jung Min Lee, and 
  • Shin-Hyun Kim*

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.8b21276

Physics, Development, and Evolution of Structural Coloration

Prum Lab

Yale Iniv

https://prumlab.yale.edu/research/physics-development-and-evolution-structural-coloration

Structural colors in nature: the role of regularity and irregularity in the structure

Shuichi Kinoshita 1Shinya Yoshioka

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16015669/

Structural Colors in the Realm of Nature

https://doi.org/10.1142/6496 | October 2008Pages: 368

https://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/6496

Self-assembling structural colour in nature

Stephanie L Burg1 and Andrew J Parnell1

Published 20 September 2018 • © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd
Journal of Physics: Condensed MatterVolume 30Number 41

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-648X/aadc95

Structural Colors In Butterflies

http://www.uvm.edu/~dahammon/Structural_Colors/Structural_Colors/Structural_Colors_In_Butterflies.html

Video: Silica layer enables tuning of structural colors for biocompatible pigments that don’t fade in tattoos, paints, foods, and more

Bioinspired bright noniridescent photonic melanin supraballs

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/9/e1701151/tab-pdf

Nature’s Fantastical Palette: Color from Structure

Philip Ball
18 Hillcourt Road
East Dulwich
London SE22 0PE, UK
p.ball@btinternet.com

http://photobiology.info/Ball.html

Bio-inspired intelligent structural color materials

Luoran Shang, page2image1859075856ab Weixia Zhang, page2image1859077760b Ke Xuc and Yuanjin Zhao

Bio-inspired variable structural color materials

Yuanjin Zhao,w Zhuoying Xie,w Hongcheng Gu, Cun Zhu and Zhongze Gu

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41, 3297–3317

Self-Assembly of Colloidal Particles for Fabrication of Structural Color Materials toward Advanced Intelligent Systems

Heng Zhang, Xiuming Bu, SenPo Yip, Xiaoguang Liang, and Johnny C. Ho

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/aisy.201900085

Spherical Colloidal Photonic Crystals with Selected Lattice Plane Exposure and Enhanced Color Saturation for Dynamic Optical Displays

Jing Zhang,† Zhijun Meng,‡ Ji Liu,§ Su Chen,† and Ziyi Yu

Photonic Crystal Structures with Tunable Structure Color as Colorimetric Sensors 

by Hui Wang and Ke-Qin Zhang

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/13/4/4192/htm

Color from hierarchy: Diverse optical properties of micron-sized spherical colloidal assemblies

Nicolas Vogel, Stefanie Utech, Grant T. England, Tanya Shirman, Katherine R. Phillips, Natalie Koay, Ian B. Burgess, Mathias Kolle, David A. Weitz, and Joanna Aizenberg

PNAS September 1, 2015 112 (35) 10845-10850; first published August 19, 2015;

https://www.pnas.org/content/112/35/10845.full

Structural Color Patterns on Paper Fabricated by Inkjet Printer and Their Application in Anticounterfeiting

Phys. Chem. Lett. 2017, 8, 13, 2835–2841Publication Date:June 9, 2017

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jpclett.7b01372

Artificial Structural Color Pixels: A Review 

by Yuqian Zhao 1Yong Zhao 1,*Sheng Hu 1Jiangtao Lv 1Yu Ying 2Gediminas Gervinskas 3 and Guangyuan Si 3,*1

College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China2College of Information & Control Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China3Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia*Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed. 

Materials 201710(8), 944; 

https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/10/8/944/htm

Bioinspired structural color sensors based on responsive soft materials

Meng Qin, Mo Sun, Mutian Hua, Ximin He⁎

Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science

Progress in polydopamine-based melanin mimetic materials for structural color generation

Michinari Kohri

Science and Technology of Advanced Materials,

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/14686996.2020.1852057

Engineering Light at the Nanoscale: Structural Color Filters and Broadband Perfect Absorbers

Chengang Ji, Kyu-Tae Lee, Ting Xu, Jing Zhou, Hui Joon Park, and L. Jay Guo

https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/138917/adom201700368_am.pdf?sequence=1

Biomimetic photonic materials with tunable structural colors

JunXuaZhiguangGuo

Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Volume 406, 15 September 2013, Pages 1-17

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0021979713004554

Antibacterial Structural Color Hydrogels

Zhuoyue Chen,† Min Mo,‡ Fanfan Fu,† Luoran Shang,† Huan Wang,† Cihui Liu,† and Yuanjin Zhao

Designing the iridescences of biopolymers by assembly of photonic crystal superlattices

Yu Wang, Meng Li, Elena Colusso, Wenyi Li, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto*

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/am-pdf/10.1002/adom.201800066

Structural Colored Gels for Tunable Soft Photonic Crystals

MOHAMMAD HARUN-UR-RASHID, TAKAHIRO SEKI, YUKIKAZU TAKEOKA

The Chemical Record, Vol. 9, 87–105 (2009)
© 2009 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Responsive Amorphous Photonic Structures of Spherical/Polyhedral Colloidal Metal–Organic Frameworks

Ling Bai, Yuheng He, Jiajing Zhou, Yun Lim, Van Cuong Mai, Yonghao Chen, Shuai Hou, Yue Zhao, Jun Zhang,* and Hongwei Duan*

Advanced Optical Materials · April 2019

Plasmonic- and dielectric-based structural coloring: from fundamentals to practical applications

Nano Convergence volume 5, Article number: 1 (2018)

https://nanoconvergencejournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40580-017-0133-y

Emerging optical properties from the combination of simple optical effects

Grant T Englandand Joanna Aizenberg

Rep. Prog. Phys. 81 (2018) 016402 (12pp)

Artificial selection for structural color on butterfly wings and comparison with natural evolution

Bethany R. Wasika,1, Seng Fatt Liewb,1, David A. Lilienb,1, April J. Dinwiddiea, Heeso Nohb,c, Hui Caob,2, and Antónia Monteiroa,d,e,2

METHOD OF GENERATING STRUCTURAL COLOR

(75) Inventors:SunghoonKwon,Seoul(KR);Hyoki Kim,Seoul(KR)

(73) Assignee:SNUR&DBFoundation,Seoul(KR)

US8,889,234B2 /2014

Coherent light scattering by blue feather barbs

NATURE | VOL 396 | 5 NOVEMBER 1998

How Structural Coloration Gives the Morpho Butterfly Its Gorgeous Iridescent Blue Color

by Lori Dorn on February 11, 2015

Biomimetic Isotropic Nanostructures for Structural Coloration

Jason D. ForsterHeeso NohSeng Fatt LiewVinodkumar SaranathanCarl F. SchreckLin YangJin‐Gyu ParkRichard O. PrumSimon G. J. MochrieCorey S. O’HernHui CaoEric R. Dufresne

Advanced Materials

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adma.200903693

Structural color

Harvard

https://manoharan.seas.harvard.edu/structural-color

Structural coloration in nature

Jiyu Sun, Bharat Bhushan and Jin Tong

RSC Advances, 2013, 3, 14862

Structural color printing: full color printing with single ink

Hyoki KimJianping GeJunhoi KimSung-Eun ChoiHosuk LeeHowon LeeWook ParkYadong YinSunghoon Kwon

Proceedings Volume 7609, Photonic and Phononic Crystal Materials and Devices X; 760916 (2010)

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/7609/760916/Structural-color-printing-full-color-printing-with-single-ink/10.1117/12.841420.short?SSO=1

Structural colors in nature: the role of regularity and irregularity in the structure

Shuichi Kinoshita 1Shinya Yoshioka

Chemphyschem 2005 Aug 12;6(8):1442-59

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16015669/

Mechanisms of structural colour in the Morpho butterfly: cooperation of regularity and irregularity in an iridescent scale.

Shuichi KinoshitaShinya Yoshioka, and  Kenji Kawagoe

Proc Biol Sci. 2002 Jul 22;269(1499):1417-21.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12137569/

Structural Colours in Feathers

Nature volume 112, page243(1923)

https://www.nature.com/articles/112243a0


Angle-independent Structural Coloured Materials inspired by Blue Feather Barbs

Yukikazu TAKEOKA
NIPPON GOMU KYOKAISHI (2014)

Stimuli-responsive opals: colloidal crystals and colloidal amorphous arrays for use in functional structurally colored materials

Yukikazu Takeoka
Journal of Materials Chemistry C (2013)

Angle-independent structural coloured amorphous arrays

Yukikazu Takeoka
Journal of Materials Chemistry (2012)

Full-Spectrum Photonic Pigments with Non-iridescent Structural Colors through Colloidal Assembly

Jin-Gyu Park, Shin-Hyun Kim, Sofia Magkiriadou, Tae Min Choi, Young-Seok Kim, Vinothan N. Manoharan*

Angewandte Chemie International Edition 53(11): 2899 (2014)

https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/24873725/submitted_version-postprint.pdf?sequence=1

Amorphous Photonic Structures with Brilliant and Noniridescent Colors via Polymer-Assisted Colloidal Assembly

Yang Hu, Dongpeng Yang,* and Shaoming Huang*

ACS Omega 2019, 4, 18771−18779

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acsomega.9b02734

Viburnum tinus Fruits Use Lipids to Produce Metallic Blue Structural Color

Rox Middleton,1,8,10 Miranda Sinnott-Armstrong,2,9,10 Yu Ogawa,3 Gianni Jacucci,1 Edwige Moyroud,4,5 Paula J. Rudall,6 Chrissie Prychid,6 Maria Conejero,6 Beverley J. Glover,7 Michael J. Donoghue,2 and Silvia Vignolini

In-Plane Direct-Write Assembly of Iridescent Colloidal Crystals

Alvin T. L. Tan, Sara Nagelberg, Elizabeth Chang-Davidson, Joel Tan, Joel K. W. Yang, Mathias Kolle, and A. John Hart

Fabrication of non-iridescent structural color on silk surface by rapid T polymerization of dopamine

Xiaowei Zhu, Biaobiao Yan, Xiaojie Yan, Tianchen Wei, Hongli Yao, Md Shipan Mia, Tieling Xing*, Guoqiang Chen

Bioinspired Stimuli-Responsive Color-Changing Systems

Golnaz Isapour and Marco Lattuada

Advanced Materials 30(19): 1707069

Plasmonic films based on colloidal lithography

Bin Ai a, Ye Yu a, Helmuth Möhwald b, Gang Zhang a,⁎, Bai Yang

Advances in Colloid and Interface Science

Printing a Wide Gamut of Saturated Structural Colors Using Binary Mixtures, With Applications in Anti-Counterfeiting

March 2020

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340326621_Printing_a_Wide_Gamut_of_Saturated_Structural_Colors_Using_Binary_Mixtures_With_Applications_in_Anti-Counterfeiting

Template Synthesis for Stimuli-Responsive Angle Independent Structural Colored Smart Materials

Mohammad Harun-Ur-Rashid1, Abu Bin Imran1, Takahiro Seki1, Yukikazu Takeoka1*, Masahiko Ishii2 and Hiroshi Nakamura2

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tmrsj/34/2/34_333/_pdf

Optical Characterization of the Photonic Ball as a Structurally Colored Pigment

Ryosuke Ohnuki,* Miki Sakai, Yukikazu Takeoka, and Shinya Yoshioka

2020

HIGHLY DIFFRACTING, COLORSHIFTING, POLYMERIZED CRYSTALLINE COLLODAL ARRAYS OF HIGHILY CHARGED POLYMER SPHERES, PAINTS AND COATINGS AND PROCESSES FOR MAKING THE SAME

Matti Ben-Moshe, Reut(IL);

Sanford A. Asher, Pitsburgh, PA(US);

Justin J.Bohn, Pitsburgh, PA(US)

US7,902,272B2 /2011

Structural colors: from natural to artificial systems

Yulan Fu,1 Cary A. Tippets,2 Eugenii U. Donev3 and Rene Lopez

WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016

Structural color and its interaction with other color-producing elements: perspectives from spiders

Bor-Kai Hsiung*, Todd A Blackledge, and Matthew D Shawkey
Department of Biology and Integrated Bioscience Program, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio

Self-assembled colloidal structures for photonics

Shin-Hyun Kim1, Su Yeon Lee2, Seung-Man Yang2* and Gi-Ra Yi3*

Harvard University, USA, KAIST and Chungbuk National University, Korea

Chameleon-Inspired Strain-Accommodating Smart Skin

Yixiao Dong,† Alisina Bazrafshan,† Anastassia Pokutta,‡ Fatiesa Sulejmani,‡ Wei Sun,‡ J. Dale Combs,† Kimberly C. Clarke,† and Khalid Salaita

ACS Nano XXXX, XXX, XXX−XXX

A composite hydrogels-based photonic crystal multi-sensor

Cheng Chen1, Zhigang Zhu1, Xiangrong Zhu1, Wei Yu1, Mingju Liu1, Qiaoqiao Ge1 and Wei-Heng Shih2

Published 16 April 2015 • 
Materials Research ExpressVolume 2Number 4

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2053-1591/2/4/046201/pdf

Template Synthesis for Stimuli-Responsive Angle Independent Structural Colored Smart Materials

Article in Transactions of the Materials Research Society of Japan

February 2009

PATTERNED SILK INVERSE OPAL PHOTONIC CRYSTALS WITH TUNABLE, GEOMETRICALLY DEFINED STRUCTURAL COLOR

US Patent US2019/018731A1

Fiorenzo G.Omenetto, Lexington,MA (US);

YuWang, Medford, MA (US)

Bioinspired colloidal materials with special optical, mechanical, and cell-mimetic functions

Taiji Zhang, Yurong Ma and Limin Qi*

J. Mater. Chem. B, 2013, 1, 251

DYNAMICALLY TUNABLE PLASMONIC STRUCTURAL COLOR

DANIEL FRANKLIN

PhD Thesis 2018

Wetting in Color: Colorimetric Differentiation of Organic Liquids with High Selectivity

Ian B. Burgess,†,* Natalie Koay,‡,§, Kevin P. Raymond,‡,§, Mathias Kolle,† Marko Loncar,† and Joanna Aizenberg†,‡,^,*

Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern

Jae-Jun Kima, Youngseop Leea, Ha Gon Kimb, Ki-Ju Choic, Hee-Seok Kweonc, Seongchong Parkd, and Ki-Hun Jeong

PNAS | November 13, 2012 | vol. 109 | no. 46

Functional Micro–Nano Structure with Variable Colour: Applications for Anti-Counterfeiting

Hailu Liu , Dong Xie, Huayan Shen, Fayong Li, and Junjia Chen

Hindawi
Advances in Polymer Technology
Volume 2019, Article ID 6519018, 26 pages

REVIEW ARTICLE
515 million years of structural colour

Andrew Richard Parker

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2000) R15–R28

Colloidal Crystals from Microfluidics

Feika Bian, Lingyu Sun, Lijun Cai, Yu Wang, Yuetong Wang, and Yuanjin Zhao

Small 2019, 1903931

Nanochemistry Chapter 1

Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly

Mathias Kolle1,2, Pedro M. Salgard-Cunha1, Maik R. J. Scherer1, Fumin Huang1, Pete Vukusic3, Sumeet Mahajan1, Jeremy J. Baumberg1 & Ullrich Steiner

Cambridge Univ

Nature Nanotechnology, 2010, (5) 511-515

Bioinspired bright noniridescent photonic melanin supraballs

Ming Xiao,1* Ziying Hu,2,3* Zhao Wang,4 Yiwen Li,5 Alejandro Diaz Tormo,6 Nicolas Le Thomas,6 Boxiang Wang,7 Nathan C. Gianneschi,2,3,4† Matthew D. Shawkey,8,9† Ali Dhinojwala

Sci. Adv. 2017;3:e1701151 15 September 2017

Structural Color and Odors: Towards a Photonic Crystal Nose Platform

Leonardo da Silva Bonifacio

PhD Thesis 2010

The Self-Assembly of Cellulose Nanocrystals: Hierarchical Design of Visual Appearance

Richard M. Parker, Giulia Guidetti, Cyan A. Williams, Tianheng Zhao, Aurimas Narkevicius, Silvia Vignolini,* and Bruno Frka-Petesic

Adv. Mater. 201830, 1704477

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/adma.201704477

Bio-inspired design of multiscale structures for function integration

Kesong Liua, Lei Jiang

A ROBUST SMART FILM :REVERSIBLY SWITCHING FROM HIGH TRANSPARENCY TO ANGLE-INDEPENDENT STRUCTURAL COLOR DISPLAY

US Patent 2018

US2018/024876A1

Inventors:Shu YANG, BlueBel, PA(US);

Deng teng GE, Shanzhai(CN);

Elaine LEE,Brooklyn,NY (US)

Click to access US20180244876A1.pdf

Optimization of sharp and viewing-angle-independent structural color

Chia Wei Hsu,1,2,∗ Owen D. Miller,3 Steven G. Johnson,3 and Marin Soljacˇic ́1

Bioinspired living structural color hydrogels

Fanfan Fu, Luoran Shang, Zhuoyue Chen, Yunru Yu, Yuanjin Zhao

SCIENCE ROBOTICS

Measuring and specifying goniochromatic colors

Alejandro Ferrero1, Joaquín Campos1, Esther Perales2, Ana M. Rabal1, Francisco Martínez-Verdú2, Alicia Pons1, Elisabet Chorro2 and M. Luisa Hernanz

Bio-Inspired Photonic Structures: Prototypes, Fabrications and Devices

By Feng Liu, Biqin Dong and Xiaohan Liu

Submitted: November 5th 2011Reviewed: May 28th 2012Published: September 19th 2012

https://www.intechopen.com/books/optical-devices-in-communication-and-computation/bio-inspired-photonic-structures-prototypes-fabrications-and-devices

Photobiology

The Science of Light and Life
  • Lars Olof Björn

https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4939-1468-5

“Guanigma”: The Revised Structure of Biogenic Anhydrous Guanine 

Anna Hirsch,† Dvir Gur,‡ Iryna Polishchuk,§ Davide Levy,§ Boaz Pokroy,§ Aurora J. Cruz-Cabeza,∥ Lia Addadi,*,‡ Leeor Kronik,*,† and Leslie Leiserowitz*,†

Natural photonics 

Pate Vukusic

Stimuli-Responsive Structurally Colored Films from Bioinspired Synthetic Melanin Nanoparticles

Ming Xiao,†,# Yiwen Li,‡,#,○ Jiuzhou Zhao,† Zhao Wang,‡ Min Gao,§ Nathan C. Gianneschi,*,‡ Ali Dhinojwala,*,† and Matthew D. Shawkey

Chem. Mater. 2016, 28, 5516−5521

A Microfluidic Chip with Integrated Colloidal Crystal for Online Optical Analysis

Siew-Kit Hoi, Xiao Chen, Vanga Sudheer Kumar, Sureerat Homhuan, Chorng-Haur Sow, and Andrew A. Bettiol*

Highly monodisperse zwitterion functionalized non-spherical polymer particles with tunable iridescence

Vivek Arjunan Vasantha*aWendy RusliaChen JunhuiaZhao WenguangaKandammathe Valiyaveedu SreekanthbcRanjan Singhbc and Anbanandam Parthiban*a 

 RSC Adv., 2019, 9, 27199-27207

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2019/ra/c9ra05162g

Stimuli-responsive opals: colloidal crystals and colloidal amorphous arrays for use in functional structurally colored materials

Yukikazu Takeoka

J. Mater. Chem. C, 2013, 1, 6059

Biomimetic and Bioinspired Photonic Structures

Wu Yi, Ding-Bang Xiong * and Di Zhang

Nano Adv., 2016, 1, 62–70.

Bio-inspired photonic crystal patterns

Pingping Wu,abJingxia Wang *abc  and  Lei Jiang

https://pubs.rsc.org/no/content/articlelanding/2020/mh/c9mh01389j/unauth#!divAbstract

Stretchable and reflective displays: materials, technologies and strategies

Nano Convergence volume 6, Article number: 21 (2019)

https://nanoconvergencejournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40580-019-0190-5

Colloidal Lithography

By Ye Yu and Gang Zhang

2013

https://www.intechopen.com/books/updates-in-advanced-lithography/colloidal-lithography

Structure and mechanical properties of beetle wings: a review 

Jiyu Sun and Bharat Bhushan

RSC Advances, 2012, 2, 12606–12623

A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

Ling LiStefan KolleJames C. WeaverChristine OrtizJoanna Aizenberg & Mathias Kolle 

Nature Communications volume 6, Article number: 6322 (2015) 

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms7322/

Fabrication of 3D polymeric photonic arrays and related applications 

A. Yadav a, *, A. Kaushik b, Y. Mishra c, V. Agrawal d, A. Ahmadivan e, K. Maliutina f, Y. Liu g, Z. Ouyang h, W. Dong a, **, G.J. Cheng

Materials Today Chemistry, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtchem.2019.100208

Reversible Design of Dynamic Assemblies at Small Scales

Fernando Soto, Jie Wang, Shreya Deshmukh, and Utkan Demirci

Adv. Intell. Syst. 2020, 2000193

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/aisy.202000193

Biological composites— complex structures for functional diversity.

Eder, M., Shahrouz, A., & Fratzl, P. (2018).

Science, 362(6414), 543-547.

Stimuli-Responsive Optical Nanomaterials

Zhiwei Li, and Yadong Yin

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/am-pdf/10.1002/adma.201807061

Bio-Inspired Structural Colors Produced via Self-Assembly of Synthetic Melanin Nanoparticles

Ming Xiao,†,^ Yiwen Li,‡,^ Michael C. Allen,§ Dimitri D. Deheyn,§ Xiujun Yue,‡ Jiuzhou Zhao,† Nathan C. Gianneschi,*,‡ Matthew D. Shawkey,*, and Ali Dhinojwala

ACS Nano 2015

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acsnano.5b01298

Pigments Based on Colloidal Photonic Crystals

Carlos Israel Aguirre Vélez

PhD Thesis 2010

Structural Colors in Nature: The Role of Regularity and Irregularity in the Structure

Shuichi Kinoshita* and Shinya Yoshioka

ChemPhysChem 2005, 6, 1442 – 1459

Flexible mechanochromic photonic crystals: routes to visual sensors and their mechanical properties

Rui Zhang, Qing Wang  and Xu Zheng

J. Mater. Chem. C, 2018, 6, 3182

Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

VILLADS EGEDE JOHANSEN,1,* LASSE HØJLUND THAMDRUP,2 KRISTIAN SMISTRUP,2 THEODOR NIELSEN,2 OLE SIGMUND,1 AND PETER VUKUSIC

Vol. 2, No. 3 / March 2015 / Optica

Subwavelength nanocavity for flexible structural transmissive color generation with a wide viewing angle

KYU-TAE LEE,1 JI-YUN JANG,2 SANG JIN PARK,2 UJWAL KUMAR THAKUR,2 CHENGANG JI,1 L. JAY GUO,1 AND HUI JOON PARK

Vol. 3, No. 12 / December 2016 / Optica

Color and Texture Morphing with Colloids on Multilayered Surfaces

Ziguang Chen,†,‡,⊥ Shumin Li,†,‡,⊥ Andrew Arkebauer,§ George Gogos,† and Li Tan

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2015, 7, 10125−10131

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/am5087215

Electrodeposition of Large Area, Angle-Insensitive Multilayered Structural Colors

Chengang Ji,1,† Saurabh Acharya,1,† Kaito Yamada,2 Stephen Maldonado,2,3,* and L. Jay Guo

https://par.nsf.gov/servlets/purl/10111165

Bright and Vivid Diffractive-Plasmonic Structural Colors

Emerson G. Melo,†,‡,§ Ana L. A. Ribeiro,†,‡ Rodrigo S. Benevides,†,‡ Antonio A. G. V. Zuben,†,‡ Marcos V. P. Santos,† Alexandre A. Silva,¶ Gustavo S. Wiederhecker,†,‡ and Thiago P. M. Alegre

2019

Biomimetic photonic structures for optical sensing

Raúl J. Martín-Palmaa, Mathias Kolle

Optics and Laser Technology 109

2019

􏰀􏰁􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰅 􏰇􏰈􏰉 􏰊􏰇􏰅􏰋􏰌 􏰍􏰋􏰄􏰎􏰈􏰏􏰐􏰏􏰑􏰒 􏰓􏰔􏰕 􏰖􏰗􏰔􏰓􏰕􏰘 􏰗􏰙􏰔􏰚􏰀􏰁􏰂􏰃􏰄􏰅 􏰇􏰈􏰉 􏰊􏰇􏰅􏰋􏰌 􏰍􏰋􏰄􏰎􏰈􏰏􏰐􏰏􏰑􏰒 􏰓􏰔􏰕 􏰖􏰗􏰔􏰓􏰕􏰘 􏰗􏰙􏰔􏰚􏰗􏰙􏰙

Colloidal Self-Assembly Concepts for Plasmonic Metasurfaces

Martin Mayer, Max J. Schnepf, Tobias A. F. König,* and Andreas Fery

Adv. Optical Mater. 20197, 1800564

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/adom.201800564

Flourishing Smart Flexible Membranes Beyond Paper

Anal. Chem. 2019, 91, 7, 4224–4234

Publication Date:March 18, 2019

https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00743

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00743

Biological vs. Electronic Adaptive Coloration: How Can One Inform the Other?

Eric Kreit1, Lydia M. Mäthger2, Roger T. Hanlon2, Patrick B. Dennis3, Rajesh R. Naik3, Eric Forsythe4 and Jason Heikenfeld1*

Dynamic plasmonic color generation enabled by functional materials

  1. Frank Neubrech
  2. Xiaoyang Duan
  3. Na Liu

Science Advances  04 Sep 2020:
Vol. 6, no. 36, eabc2709
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abc2709

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/36/eabc2709

The New Generation of Physical Effect Colorants

Faiz Rahman and Nigel P. Johnson

Optics and Photonics News

2008

https://www.osa-opn.org/home/articles/volume_19/issue_2/features/the_new_generation_of_physical_effect_colorants/

The Japanese jewel beetle: a painter’s challenge

Franziska Schenk1, Bodo D Wiltsand Doekele G Stavenga2

Bioinspir. Biomim. (2013) 045002 (10pp)

Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

Ainsley E. Seago1,*, Parrish Brady2, Jean-Pol Vigneron3 and Tom D. Schultz4

Iridescence as Camouflage

Karin Kjernsmo,1,4,* Heather M. Whitney,1 Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel,2 Joanna R. Hall,2 Henry Knowles,1 Laszlo Talas,2,3 and Innes C. Cuthill1

Current Biology

VOLUME 30, ISSUE 3, P551-555.E3, FEBRUARY 03, 2020

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdfExtended/S0960-9822(19)31608-2

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(19)31608-2?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982219316082%3Fshowall%3Dtrue

Chromic Phenomena: Technological Applications of Colour Chemistry

Peter Bamfield

Book, Royal Society of Chemistry 2018 edition

Amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal in the feather barbs of the scarlet macaw

Haiwei Yina,1, Biqin Donga,1, Xiaohan Liua, Tianrong Zhana, Lei Shia, Jian Zia,2, and Eli Yablonovitchb,2

PNAS | July 24, 2012 | vol. 109 | no. 30

Amorphous Photonic Crystals with Only Short-Range Order

Lei Shi, Yafeng Zhang, Biqin Dong, Tianrong Zhan, Xiaohan Liu,* and Jian Zi

Adv. Mater. 201325, 5314–5320

Diamond-structured photonic crystals

Nature Materials  volume 3, pages593–600(2004)

https://www.nature.com/articles/nmat1201

Nano-Optics in the Biological World: Beetles, Butterflies, Birds, and Moths

Mohan Srinivasarao*

Fiber and Polymer Science Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8301

Chem. Rev. 1999, 99, 1935−1961

515 million years of structural colour

Andrew Richard Parker

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK

E-mail: andrew.parker@zoo.ox.ac.uk

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2000) R15–R28

Photophysics of Structural Color in the Morpho Butterflies

Shuichi KINOSHITA1,2*, Shinya YOSHIOKA1,2, Yasuhiro FUJII2 and Naoko OKAMOTO

Forma17, 103–121, 2002

Photonic structures in biology

  • October 2004

Peter Vukusic

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235888153_Photonic_structures_in_biology

Physics of structural colors

S Kinoshita, S Yoshioka and J Miyazaki

Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

E-mail: skino@fbs.osaka-u.ac.jp

Rep. Prog. Phys. 71 (2008) 076401 (30pp)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/231075466_Physics_of_structural_colors

Coloration strategies in peacock feathers

Jian Zi*, Xindi Yu, Yizhou Li, Xinhua Hu, Chun Xu, Xingjun Wang, Xiaohan Liu*, and Rongtang Fu

A Review of Electronic Paper Display Technologies from the Standpoint of SID Symposium Digests

Tatsumi Takahashi

Review of Paper-Like Display Technologies

Peng Fei Bai1, Robert A. Hayes1, Ming Liang Jin1, Ling Ling Shui1, Zi Chuan Yi1, L. Wang1, Xiao Zhang1, and Guo Fu Zhou1, 2

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 147, 95–116, 2014

Stretchable and reflective displays: materials, technologies and strategies

Nano Convergence volume 6, Article number: 21 (2019)

https://nanoconvergencejournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40580-019-0190-5

Review Paper: A critical review of the present and future prospects for electronic paper

Jason Heikenfeld (SID Senior Member) Paul Drzaic (SID Fellow)
Jong-Souk Yeo (SID Member)
Tim Koch (SID Member)

Journal of the SID 19/2, 2011

Biological versus electronic adaptive coloration: how can one inform the other?

Eric Kreit1, Lydia M. Ma ̈thger2, Roger T. Hanlon2, Patrick B. Dennis3, Rajesh R. Naik3, Eric Forsythe4 and Jason Heikenfeld1

J R Soc Interface 10: 20120601.

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rsif.2012.0601

Transmissive/Reflective Structural Color Filters: Theory and Applications


Yan Yu,1,2 Long Wen,2 Shichao Song,2 and Qin Chen

Volume 2014 |Article ID 212637 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/212637

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/212637/

Interferometric modulator display

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interferometric_modulator_display

Qualcomm resurrects Mirasol reflective displays with new 576 ppi smartphone panel

https://www.theverge.com/2013/5/22/4354642/high-res-mirasol-display-for-smartphones-demonstrated

Iridescence-controlled and flexibly tunable retroreflective structural color film for smart displays

  • Wen Fan
  • Jing Zeng
  • Qiaoqiang Gan
  • Dengxin Ji
  • Haomin Song
  • Wenzhe Liu
  • Lei Shi
  • Limin Wu

Science Advances  09 Aug 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 8, eaaw8755
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw8755

Click to access eaaw8755.full.pdf

Artificial Structural Color Pixels: A Review 

by Yuqian Zhao 1Yong Zhao 1,*Sheng Hu 1Jiangtao Lv 1Yu Ying 2Gediminas Gervinskas 3 and Guangyuan Si 

Materials 201710(8), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10080944

https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/10/8/944/htm

Dynamically Tunable Plasmonic Structural Color

Daniel Franklin
University of Central Florida 2018

PHD Thesis

Colors with plasmonic nanostructures: A full-spectrum review 

Applied Physics Reviews 6, 041308 (2019); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5110051

https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.5110051?journalCode=are

Dynamic plasmonic color generation enabled by functional materials

Frank Neubrech1,2, Xiaoyang Duan1,2, Na Liu3,4*

Bright and Vivid Diffractive–Plasmonic Reflective Filters for Color Generation

  • Emerson G. Melo, 
  • Ana L. A. Ribeiro, 
  • Rodrigo S. Benevides, 
  • Antonio A. G. V. Zuben, 
  • Marcos V. Puydinger dos Santos, 
  • Alexandre A. Silva, 
  • Gustavo S. Wiederhecker, and 
  • Thiago P. M. Alegre*

ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2020, 3, 2, 1111–1117Publication Date:December 31, 2019 https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.9b02508

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acsanm.9b02508

Active control of plasmonic colors: emerging display technologies

Kunli Xiong, Daniel Tordera, Magnus Jonsson and Andreas B. Dahlin

Rep Prog Phys. 2019 Feb;82(2):024501.

doi: 10.1088/1361-6633/aaf844.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30640724/

Self-assembled plasmonics for angle-independent structural color displays with actively addressed black states

Daniel Franklina,b, Ziqian Hec, Pamela Mastranzo Ortegab, Alireza Safaeia,b, Pablo Cencillo-Abadb, Shin-Tson Wuc, and Debashis Chandaa,b,c,1

https://www.pnas.org/content/117/24/13350

Bio-inspired intelligent structural color materials

Luoran Shang, Weixia Zhang, Ke Xuc and Yuanjin Zhao

Mater. Horiz., 2019,6, 945-958 

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/mh/c9mh00101h#!divAbstract

Advanced Plasmonic Materials for Dynamic Color Display

DOI: 10.1002/adma.201704338

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320997060_Advanced_Plasmonic_Materials_for_Dynamic_Color_Display

Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces

Nature Communications volume 6, Article number: 7337 (2015)

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms8337

Tunable plasmonic color filter 

Rosanna Mastria, Karl Jonas Riisnaes, Monica Craciun, and Saverio Russo

Frontiers in Optics / Laser Science OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020),paper JTh4B.7•

https://doi.org/10.1364/FIO.2020.JTh4B.7

https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=FiO-2020-JTh4B.7

Color Change: In Biology and Smart Pigments Technology

  • Color change due to Pigment
  • Color change due to Structure

This post is on color change due to pigments.

In a future post, I will research structural colors.

Key Words

  • Color Change in Biology
  • Color Change using Technology
  • Smart Pigments
  • Thermochromic property
  • Photochromic property
  • Piezochromic property
  • Solvatochromic property
  • Chimiochromic property
  • Electrochromism
  • Smart Textiles
  • Smart Plastics
  • Smart Paper
  • Smart Inks
  • Smart Food Packaging
  • Color Science
  • Material Science
  • Color Fading
  • Color Fastness
  • Color Metamerism
  • Chromatophores
  • Iridophores
  • Leucophores
  • Chlorophyll
  • Anthrocyanins
  • Flavonols
  • Flavonoids

Color Change and Technology

Chromic phenomena in dyes and pigments

Some of the major companies are

  • LCR Hallcrest LLC
  • Hali Pigment Co. Ltd
  • Chromatic Technologies Inc.
  • QCR Solutions Corp.
  • OliKrom
  • SFXC
  • MICI
  • RPM International Inc.
  • Good Life Innovations Ltd
  • FX Pigments Pvt. Ltd
  • Smarol Industry Co. Ltd
  • Kolortek Co. Ltd
  • Kolorjet Chemicals Pvt. Ltd
  • Colourchange

Source: OliKrom

Smart Hybrid Pigments

The solutions developed by OliKrom involve a new generation of hybrid pigments that combines the proven strength of the metal ions and the flexibility of the molecular material. The change in the structure allow to control the color change as a function of :

  • Temperature (thermochromic property),
  • Light (photochromic property),
  • Pressure (piezochromic property),
  • A solvent (solvatochromic property),
  • A gas (chimiochromic property),

The expertise of OliKrom allows for each of these properties:

  • To adjust the request colors,
  • To obtain reversible and/or irreversible color-shifting,
  • To modulate the speed of the color change,
  • To control the issues of fatigability.
  • To insert these adaptive pigments in a formulation (paint, ink, masterbatch, …) without altering the properties!
  • To produce on an industrial scale paintings, inks, master batches, …

Applications

SAFETY
  • Threshold temperature indicators / industrial pipes, thermal mapping.
  • Display: visual aid in the detection of ice.
  • Indicator of “health matter”, gauge effort, shock detection (Aeronautic & Navy).
  • Control: Temperature Indicator for monitoring sensitive products: cold chain, transport & medical vaccines or blood products.
  • Sterilization indicator: labels or inks.
  • Adhesives: indicator of adhesion, optimum drying.
  • Food Packaging: temperature indicator for the consumption of a product: beer, wine, vodka, champagne, cans and bottles, hot and cold drinks, baby food.
TRACEABILITY / INFRINGEMENT
  • Irreversible overheat indicator of industrial processes.
  • Security inks: offset ink for ticketing, games, secure access badges.
  • Infringement Indicator: branded article, banknote.
DECORATION / MARKETING / ADVERTISING
  • Plastic toys: decor with changing color, labels, packaging, paper / plastic promotional, “dynamic” advertising inserts.
  • Cosmetics: Bottles & Jars of cosmetic or perfume.
  • Smart Textiles: comfort indicator, clarification of the textile with temperature.

Fluorescent Pigments and Phosphorescent Pigments

Source: PHOTOLUMINESCENTS: FLUORESCENT AND PHOSPHORESCENT INKS AND PAINTS / OliKrom

Photochromic Pigments

Piezochromic Pigments

Thermochromic

Type

  • Reversible Thermochromic Material
  • Irreversible Thermochromic Material

Material

  • Liquid Crystal
  • Leuco Dyes
  • Pigment
  • Other Materials

Application

  • Roof Coatings
  • Printing
  • Food Packaging
  • Cosmetics
  • Other Applications

Solvachromes and Chemochromes

Color Change in Biology

Animals
  • Chameleon
  • Golden Tortoise Beetle
  • Mimic Octopus
  • Pacific Tree Frog
  • Sea Horses
  • Flounders
  • Cuttlefish
  • Crab Spiders
  • Squid
  • Cyanea Octopus

Mechanisms for Color Change

  • Chromatophores
  • Leucophores
  • Iridophores

Source: Adaptive camouflage helps blend into the environment 

Cephalopods such as cuttlefish often use use adaptive camouflage to blend in with their surroundings. They are able to match colors and surface textures of their surrounding environments by adjusting the pigment and iridescence of their skin.

On the skin surface, chromatophores (tiny sacs filled with red, yellow, or brown pigment) ab­sorb light of various wavelengths. Once vis­ual input is processed, the cephalopod sends a signal to a nerve fiber, which is connected to a muscle. That muscle relaxes and contracts to change the size and shape of the chromato­phore. Each color chromatophore is controlled by a different nerve, and when the attached muscle contracts, it flattens and stretches the pigment sack outward, expanding the color on the skin. When that muscle relaxes, the chro­matophore closes back up, and the color dis­appears. As many as two hundred of these may fill a patch of skin the size of a pencil eraser, like a shimmering pixel display.

The innermost layer of skin, composed of leuc­ophores, reflects ambient light. These broadband light reflectors give the cephalopods a ‘base coat’ that helps them match their surroundings.

Between the colorful chromatophores and the light-scattering leucophores is a reflective lay­er of skin made up of iridophores. These reflect light to create pink, yellow, green, blue, or silver coloration, while the reflector cells (found only in octopuses) reflect blue or green.

Source: https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/10-animals-that-can-change-colors.html

10 Animals That Can Change Colors

The mimic octopus changes their skin tone and body shape to copy other sea creatures.
The mimic octopus changes their skin tone and body shape to copy other sea creatures. 

There are a few animals that have the unique ability to change colors. The ability to change colors can help animals protect themselves against their predators because it allows them to blend into their natural environment. Here is a list of 10 color changing animals.

10. Chameleon

A chameleon is a unique species of lizard famous for changing its skin color. It does so to camouflage with its surrounding. Sometimes chameleons change their color when they are angry or fearful. To change its color, the chameleon adjusts a layer of specialized cells underlying its skin. Others change color in response to humidity, light, and temperature. Chameleons never stop growing. They keep shedding their skin from time to time. Furthermore, chameleons have excellent eyesight characterized by a 360-degree arc vision. Although chameleons do not hear, their bodies detect sound within the surrounding.

9. Golden Tortoise Beetle

The golden tortoise beetle is an insect that can change its color. The species with this ability include Charidotella sexpunctata and Charidotella egregia. The tortoise beetles change color due to particular events that occur in their environment. Such events include meeting a willing mate and being touched by a curious human being. Hence, when they are mating or agitated, the tortoise beetles change their color from gold to a bright red color. The change of color occurs due to a process referred to as optical illusion.

8. Mimic Octopus

Mimic octopus, scientifically known as Thaumoctopus mimicus, change their color and they can also mimic other sea creatures such as a lionfish, jellyfish, stingrays, and sea snakes. The mimic octopus can pick the color of the sea creature that they intend to mimic. The mimic octopuses change their body shape to avoid potential predators. The change of skin color helps them to adapt to their surrounding. Mimic octopuses can change color and mimic shapes due to their skin which is very responsive to the environment.

7. Pacific Tree Frog

The Pacific Tree Frog inhabits North America. One of its common features is the sticky toe pads. The sticky toe pads enable them to climb trees and plants. The Pacific Tree Frog changes its color to blend in with its surroundings. The change of color is a defense mechanism against predators such as raccoons, bullfrogs, snakes, heron, and many others. Pacific Tree Frogs also change their color based on the seasons and temperature. When the temperatures are high, they turn into a shade of yellow. An example of Pacific Tree Frog species that changes color is Hyla regilla. The process of color change in Pacific Tree Frogs takes 1-2 minutes.

6. Seahorses

Seahorses, such as the thorny seahorse, are among the marine animals that have mastered changing their color. The purpose of changing their skin color is to camouflage, frighten predators, communicate their emotions, and for courtship. Complex interactions between the brain, nervous system, hormones, and organelles make it possible for the seahorses to change their color. The organelles responsible for these color changes are known as chromatophores. Regarding the speed at which the skin color changes, this depends on the stimulus. For instance, in a life or death situation such as involving a predator, the color changes quickly. But whenever the seahorse is courting a mate, the change takes place slowly.

5. Flounders

Flounders are naturally brown. However, they can change color to suit their surroundings. A flounder uses its vision and specialized cells inside the skin to change color. The cells, in turn, have color pigments and are linked to the eyes of the flounders. When a flounder moves to a new environment, the retina in the eyes captures the new color. Consequently, the color seen by the eyes are transmitted to the cells. The cells adjust the pigmentation to match the surface color. Scientists have discovered that flounders depend entirely on their vision to change color. When their eyes are damaged, then they have difficulties in camouflaging to their surrounding. An example of flounder species that changes color is the peacock flounder.

4. Cuttlefish

Cuttlefish are cephalopods that change color to feed on prey and avoid predators craftily. They have three mechanisms by which they can change color. Firstly, the cuttlefish skin contains papillae that alter the tone of the fish. The papillae cause the skin to become smooth or rough depending on the environment. Secondly, camouflaging is possible because of the chromatophores in their skin. The chromatophores are sacs of color pigments. To change color, these sacs receive color-changing instructions from the brain and act accordingly. Lastly, cuttlefish have reflecting plates called leucophores and iridophores. The plates enable the fish to change its color.

3. Crab Spiders

Spiders called flower spiders (or crab spiders) change their color. They usually change color to hide from their prey. Consequently, the spiders change color to resemble the flower surface on which they sit through the reflection of light. Some spiders release a yellow pigment that enhances their color changing process. An example of a species of spider with such color changing features is Misumenoides formosipes and Misumena vatia. The color change from white to yellow takes 10-25 days. Hence, the flower spiders patiently wait for the completion of the process before they can attack their prey.

2. Squid

Squids are marine cephalopods. They possess two long tentacles and eight arms. An interesting fact about the squids is that their blood is blue. Furthermore, they have three hearts instead of one like other fish. The squids are uniquely beautiful and able to change color. They change color using chromatophores engraved in their skin. The purpose of changing color is to match the surface they are on so that they can avoid predators. The camouflage also acts as a hunting tactic since it enables them to hide away from their prey.

1. Cyanea Octopus

Known as the big blue octopus or the day octopus, octopus cyabea is found in the waters of the Indo-Pacific. It is known as the day octopus as it is most active during the daytime in contrast to most other octopus species. The cyanea octopus is especially adept at camouflage, able to not only frequently change the color of their skin, but also recreate patterns and textures. On the hunt for crabs, molluscs, shrimp, and fish, the cyanea octopus is able to quickly adapt its appearance to its surroundings, even mimicking moving shadows such as overhead clouds.

Color Change in Plants And Flowers

Color change in Leaves and Flowers

  • Chlorophyll – Green
  • Cartenoids – Xanthophylls – Yellow as in Corn
  • Cartenoids – Carotenes – Orange as in Carrots
  • Anthrocyanins – Blueberries and Cherries – Blue, purple, red, pink
  • Flavonols – Pale yellows and whites

Plants change colors

  • Change in Heat
  • Change in pH
  • During the Fall
  • During the day

Color Fading and Color Metamerism are also important problems but are not discussed in this post.

Source: The science behind why leaves change color in autumn

A rainbow of autumn colors

The green color of chlorophyll is so strong that it masks any other pigment. The absence of green in the fall lets the other colors come through. Leaves also contain the pigments called carotenoids; xanthophylls are yellow (such as in corn) and carotenes are orange (like in carrots). Anthocyanins (also found in blueberries, cherries) are pigments that are only produced in the fall when it is bright and cold. Because the trees cut off most contact with their leaves at this point, the trapped sugar in the leaves’ veins promotes the formation of anthocyanins, which are used for plant defense and create reddish colors.

However, trees in the fall aren’t just yellow and red: they are brown, golden bronze, golden yellow, purple-red, light tan, crimson, and orange-red. Different trees have different proportions of these pigments; the amount of chlorophyll left and the proportions of other pigments determine a leaf’s color. A combination of anthocyanin and chlorophyll makes a brown color, while anthocyanins plus carotenoids create orange leaves.

Source: The science behind why leaves change color in autumn

Source:https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/ornamental/flowers/hibiscus/hibiscus-turning-different-color.htm

Can Hibiscus Change Color: Reasons For Hibiscus Turning A Different Color

07/20/20

Can hibiscus change color? The Confederate Rose (Hibiscus mutabilis) is famous for its dramatic color changes, with flowers that can go from white to pink to deep red within one day. But almost all hibiscus varieties produce flowers that can change colors under certain circumstances. Read on to learn more.

Reasons for Color Changing in Hibiscus

If you’ve ever noticed the flowers on your hibiscus turning a different color, you’ve probably wondered what was behind the change. To understand why this happens, we need to look at what creates flower colors in the first place.

Three groups of pigments create the vibrant color displays of hibiscus flowers. Anthocyanins produce blue, purple, red, and pink colors, depending on the individual pigment molecule and the pH it is exposed to. Flavonols are responsible for pale yellow or white colors. Carotenoids create colors on the “warm” side of the spectrum – yellows, oranges, and reds.

Each hibiscus variety has its own genetics that determine what pigments, and what range of colors it can produce. However, within that range, temperature, sunlight, pH, and nutrition can all affect the levels of different pigments in a flower and what color they appear.

The blue- and red-colored anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments carried in plant sap. Meanwhile, the red, orange and yellow carotenoids are fat-soluble pigments created and stored in the plastids (compartments in plant cells similar to the chloroplasts that carry out photosynthesis). Therefore, anthocyanins are less protected and more sensitive to environmental changes, while carotenoids are more stable. This difference helps explain the color changes in hibiscus.

Anthocyanins exposed to hot conditions will often break down, causing flower colors to fade, while carotenoid-based colors hold up well in the heat. High temperatures and bright sunlight also enhance carotenoid production, leading to bright reds and oranges.

On the other hand, plants produce more anthocyanins in cold weather, and the anthocyanins they produce tend to be more red- and pink-colored as opposed to blue or purple. For this reason, some anthocyanin dependent hibiscus flowers will produce brilliant color displays during cool weather or in partial shade, but will fade in bright, hot sunlight.

Similarly, flavonols exposed to high temperatures will fade from yellow to white, while cold weather will cause an increase in production and a deepening of yellow flower colors.

Other Factors in Hibiscus Color Change

Some anthocyanin pigments will change color depending on the pH they’re exposed to within the flower. The pH doesn’t usually change over time within a hibiscus flower because it is determined genetically, but patches of different pH levels can lead to multiple colors occurring within one flower.

Nutrition is also a factor in color changes. Adequate sugar and protein in the sap are required for anthocyanin production. Making sure your plant has enough fertility and nutrients is important for vibrant colors in anthocyanin dependent flowers.

So, depending on its variety, your hibiscus changed color because of some combination of temperature, sunlight, nutrition, or pH has taken place. Can gardeners control this hibiscus color change? Yes, indirectly – by controlling the plant’s environment: shade or sun, good fertility, and protection from hot or cold weather.

Source: https://www.loc.gov/everyday-mysteries/botany/item/what-causes-flowers-to-have-different-colors/

What causes flowers to have different colors?

Answer

Anthocyanins and carotenoids… plus some other things.

Flowers come in all shapes and sizes, but what makes them truly stand apart from each other is their vibrant colors.  These colors are made up of pigments and, generally speaking, the fewer the pigments, the lighter the color.  The most common pigments in flowers come in the form of anthocyanins.  These pigments range in color from white to red to blue to yellow to purple and even black and brown.  A different kind of pigment class is made up of the carotenoids.  Carotenoids are responsible for some yellows, oranges, and reds.  (These little guys are what cause the brilliant colors of autumn leaves!)  While many flowers get their colors from either anthocyanins or carotenoids, there are some that can get their colors from a combination of both.

Anthocyanins and carotenoids are the main sources of flower coloration, but there are other factors that can affect how colors present themselves.  The amount of light flowers receive while they grow, the temperature of the environment around them, even the pH level of the soil in which they grow can affect their coloration.  Another factor is stress from the environment.  This stress can include a drought or a flood or even a lack of nutrition in the soil, all of which can dampen the coloration of flowers.  And then, of course, there is the visual that the eye and brain form together: humans can, for the most part, view all colors in the visible spectrum, BUT every human perceives color differently, so a red rose may appear more vibrant to one person while it appears more muted to another.  Beauty (and color!) is in the eye of the beholder.

My Related Posts

Digital Color and Imaging

Color and Imaging in Digital Video and Cinema

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

On Luminescence: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Bioluminescence

Key Sources of ResearCH

Photochromic and Thermochromic Colorants in Textile Applications

M. A. Chowdhury, M. Joshi and B. S. Butola

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/155892501400900113

THE CHEMISTRY & PHYSICS OF
SPECIAL EFFECT PIGMENTS & COLORANTS

A. NURHAN BECIDYAN

President
UNITED MINERAL & CHEMICAL CORPORATION

PHOTOLUMINESCENTS: FLUORESCENT AND PHOSPHORESCENT INKS AND PAINTS

Structural colour and iridescence in plants: the poorly studied relations of pigment colour

Beverley J. Glover1,* and  Heather M. Whitney2

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2850791/

Analysing photonic structures in plants 

Silvia Vignolini1,2, Edwige Moyroud3, Beverley J. Glover3 and Ullrich Steiner1

1Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK 3Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK

The Mechanism of Color Change in the Neon Tetra Fish: a Light‐Induced Tunable Photonic Crystal Array

Dvir Gur 1 , Benjamin A Palmer 1 , Ben Leshem 2 , Dan Oron 2 , Peter Fratzl 3 , Steve Weiner 1 , Lia Addadi 4

First published: 27 April 2015

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25914222/

10 Animals that can Change Colors

https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/10-animals-that-can-change-colors.html

How Octopuses and Squids Change Color

https://ocean.si.edu/ocean-life/invertebrates/how-octopuses-and-squids-change-color

Why color-changing animals alter their appearance

By Zach Fitzner

Earth.com staff writer

Iridophores and their interactions with other chromatophores are required for stripe formation in zebrafish

Hans Georg Frohnhöfer, Jana Krauss, Hans-Martin Maischein, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

Development  2013  140: 2997-3007;  doi: 10.1242/dev.096719

https://dev.biologists.org/content/140/14/2997.article-info

Magic Traits in Magic Fish: Understanding Color Pattern Evolution Using Reef Fish

Author links open overlay panelPaulineSalis1ThibaultLorin2VincentLaudet1BrunoFrédérich3

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0168952519300162

Developmental and comparative transcriptomic identification of iridophore contribution to white barring in clownfish. 

https://www.x-mol.com/paper/959131

Rapid integumental color changes due to novel iridophores in the chameleon sand tilefish Hoplolatilus chlupatyi

Makoto Goda

First published: 13 February 2017 https://doi.org/10.1111/pcmr.12581

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/pcmr.12581

Flashing Tilefish’s Color Changing Skin is Unique in the Animal World

Top 10 Colour Changing Animals Around the World

Chameleon-Inspired Variable Coloration Enabled by a Highly Flexible Photonic Cellulose Film

  • Ze-Lian Zhang, 
  • Xiu Dong, 
  • Yi-Ning Fan, 
  • Lu-Ming Yang, 
  • Lu He, 
  • Fei Song*
  • Xiu-Li Wang, and 
  • Yu-Zhong Wang*

Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 41, 46710–46718Publication Date:September 23, 2020

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.0c13551

The secret to chameleon color change: Tiny crystals

By Robert F. ServiceMar. 10, 2015 

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/03/secret-chameleon-color-change-tiny-crystals

Amazing Octopus Color Transformation | National Geographic

How do Octopuses Change Color?

Here’s everything you ever wanted to know about chromatophores.

Study demonstrates that octopus’s skin possesses same cellular mechanism for detecting light as its eyes do

by  University of California – Santa Barbara

https://phys.org/news/2015-05-octopus-skin-cellular-mechanism-eyes.html

Progress and Opportunities in Soft Photonics and Biologically Inspired Optics

Mathias KolleSeungwoo Lee

First published: 23 October 2017

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adma.201702669

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29057519/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/am-pdf/10.1002/adma.201702669

Bioinspired living structural color hydrogels

Fanfan Fu, Luoran Shang, Zhuoyue Chen, Yunru Yu, Yuanjin Zhao

Smart pigments with reactive nanocolors printed on paper and flexibles

2009 International Conference on Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry

Click to access 09nan23.pdf

Thermochromic Material

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/thermochromic-material

Color Changing Plastics for Food Packaging

By

Lizanel Feliciano
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

Smart dyes for medical and other textiles

  • February 2007

DOI: 10.1533/9781845692933.1.123

Tatjana Rijavec, Sabina Bračko

University of Ljubljana

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288402591_Smart_dyes_for_medical_and_other_textiles

Thermochromic colors in textiles

S. Periyasamy, Gaurav Khanna

https://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/3059/thermochromic-colors-in-textiles

“Smart” fluorescent dyes change color in different solid states

Aug 21st, 2018

https://www.laserfocusworld.com/lasers-sources/article/16571232/smart-fluorescent-dyes-change-color-in-different-solid-states

Materials that Change Color

Smart Materials, Intelligent Design
  • Marinella Ferrara
  • Murat Bengisu

https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-00290-3#about

Switching Colors with Electricity

BY  ROGER J. MORTIMER

American Scientist

JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013

VOLUME 101, NUMBER 1

https://www.americanscientist.org/article/switching-colors-with-electricity

Smart textiles change colour on demand


Friday, 13 May 2016

https://portal.engineersaustralia.org.au/news/smart-textiles-change-colour-demand

Design Concepts for a Temperature-sensitive Environment Using Thermochromic Colour Change

Robert M Christie, Sara Robertson and Sarah Taylor

Colour: Design & Creativity (2007) 1 (1): 5, 1–11

Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection

Huibin Sun1,2,􏰀, Shujuan Liu1,􏰀, Wenpeng Lin1, Kenneth Yin Zhang1, Wen Lv1, Xiao Huang2, Fengwei Huo2, Huiran Yang1, Gareth Jenkins1,2, Qiang Zhao1 & Wei Huang1,2

Received 21 Oct 2013 | Accepted 10 Mar 2014 | Published 7 April 2014

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms4601.pdf?origin=ppub

Anthocyanin food colorant and its application in pH-responsive color change indicator films

Swarup Roy & Jong-Whan Rhim (2020)

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition,

DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2020.1776211

Smart monitoring of gas/temperature changes within food packaging based on natural colorants

COMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD SAFETY

2020;19:2885–2931.

DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12635

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/1541-4337.12635

Smart textiles: an overview of recent progress on chromic textiles

Heloisa Ramlow Karina Luzia Andrade  & Ana Paula Serafini Immich 

Pages 152-171 | Received 20 Feb 2019, Accepted 24 Oct 2019, Published online: 29 Jun 2020

The Journal of The Textile Institute Volume 112, 2021 – Issue 1

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00405000.2020.1785071

Anthocyanin – A Natural Dye for Smart Food Packaging Systems

Suman Singh1, Kirtiraj K. Gaikwad2, and Youn Suk Lee3*

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Anthocyanin-–-A-Natural-Dye-for-Smart-Food-Systems-Singh-Forestry/4f41ec48d77d61bc05decd7738a672f414f9b2db?p2df

Critical Review on Smart Chromic Clothing

Esraa El-Khodary1, Bahira Gebaly2, Eman Rafaat2, Ahmed AlSalmawy2

Colorimetric properties of reversible thermochromic printing inks

Rahela Kulcar a, Mojca Friskovec b, Nina Hauptman c, Alenka Vesel d, Marta Klanjsek Gunde

Dyes and Pigments 86 (2010) 271e277

Designing Smart Textiles Prints with Interactive Capability

Prof. Hoda Abdel Rahman Mohamed El-Hadi 1 ,Prof. Sherif Hassan Abdel Salam 2 Eng. Kholoud Hassan Mohamed Mahmoud

Smart Chromic Colorants Draw Wide Attention for the Growth of Future Intelligent Textile Materials

Amit Sengupta#& Jagadananda Behera

Wool Research Association, Thane, India

LEUCO DYE-BASED THERMOCHROMIC INKS: RECIPES AS A GUIDE FOR DESIGNING TEXTILE SURFACES

MARJAN KOOROSHNIA Swedish School of Textiles

Relation between colour- and phase changes of a leuco dye-based thermochromic composite

Scientific Reports volume 8, Article number: 5511 (2018)

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-23789-2

The Chemistry and Physics of Special-Effect Pigments and Colorants for Inks and Coatings

Paints and Coatings

2003

https://www.pcimag.com/articles/85016-the-chemistry-and-physics-of-special-effect-pigments-and-colorants-for-inks-and-coatings

THERMOCHROMIC MATERIAL MARKET

https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/thermochromic-material-market

QCR Solutions Corp

OliKrom

The Effective Use of Interference and Polychromatic Colorants

https://www.pcimag.com/articles/102445-the-effective-use-of-interference-and-polychromatic-colorants

White reflection from cuttlefish skin leucophores

Cephalopod Camouflage: Cells and Organs of the Skin

https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/cephalopod-camouflage-cells-and-organs-of-the-144048968/

Chromatophore Organs, Reflector Cells, Iridocytes and Leucophores in Cephalopods

RICHARD A. CLONEY AND STEVEN L. BROCCO

Mechanisms and behavioural functions of structural coloration in cephalopods

Lydia M. Ma ̈thger1,2,3,*,†, Eric J. Denton3,‡, N. Justin Marshall2 and Roger T. Hanlon1

J. R. Soc. Interface (2009) 6, S149–S163

Cephalopod Camouflage: Cells and Organs of the Skin

https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/cephalopod-camouflage-cells-and-organs-of-the-144048968/

Chromatophore

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromatophore

Leucophores are similar to xanthophores in their specification and differentiation processes in medaka

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262111984_Leucophores_are_similar_to_xanthophores_in_their_specification_and_differentiation_processes_in_medaka

Identification and Characterization of Highly Fluorescent Pigment Cells in Embryos of the Arabian Killifish (Aphanius Dispar)

On leucophores and the chromatic unit of Octopus vulgaris

D. Froesch1J. B. Messenger2

https://zslpublications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1978.tb03363.x

Adaptive camouflage helps blend into the environment 

Cuttlefish

https://asknature.org/strategy/adaptive-camouflage-helps-blend-into-the-environment/

Identification of kit-ligand a as the Gene Responsible for the Medaka Pigment Cell Mutant few melanophore

THE SECRET OF A SQUID’S ABILITY TO CHANGE COLORS MAY LIE IN AN UNEXPECTED SPARKLE ON ITS SKIN

INVISIBILITY IS (ALMOST) POSSIBLE WHEN HUMAN CELLS ARE MERGED WITH SQUID GENES

https://www.syfy.com/syfywire/human-cells-merged-with-squid-invisibility-trait

How Cephalopods Change Color

By Dr. James Wood and Kelsie Jackson

ELECTRONIC PAPER DISPLAYS: Kindles and cuttlefish: Biomimetics informs e-paper displays

https://www.laserfocusworld.com/detectors-imaging/article/16549524/electronic-paper-displays-kindles-and-cuttlefish-biomimetics-informs-epaper-displays

Skin paterning in Octopus vulgaris and its importance for camouflage

Iridophores and Not Carotenoids Account for Chromatic Variation of Carotenoid-Based Coloration in Common Lizards ( Lacerta vivipara ).

Biological vs. Electronic Adaptive Coloration: How Can One Inform the Other?

Eric Kreit1, Lydia M. Mäthger2, Roger T. Hanlon2, Patrick B. Dennis3, Rajesh R. Naik3, Eric Forsythe4 and Jason Heikenfeld1*

The Chemistry of Biological Camouflage

https://www.chemistryislife.com/the-chemistry-of-biological-camouflage

Mechanisms and behavioural functions of structural coloration in cephalopods

https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:170626

Sepiida algorithm for solving optimal reactive power problem

Are You Ready for Plants That Change Color?

Why Leaves Change Color

https://www.esf.edu/pubprog/brochure/leaves/leaves.htm

Can Hibiscus Change Color: Reasons For Hibiscus Turning A Different Color

https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/ornamental/flowers/hibiscus/hibiscus-turning-different-color.htm

What causes flowers to have different colors?

https://www.loc.gov/everyday-mysteries/botany/item/what-causes-flowers-to-have-different-colors/

The science behind why leaves change color in autumn

Why has my plant’s flower changed colour?

Why Does Cannabis Change Colors?

https://cannabis.net/blog/strains/why-does-cannabis-change-colors

A cyborg plant with color-changing leaves? Scientists just rose to the challenge.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2015/11/23/a-cyborg-plant-with-color-changing-leaves-scientists-just-rose-to-the-occasion/

Color-changing plants detect pollutants and explosives

https://newatlas.com/color-changing-plants-detect-pollutants-and-explosives/17915/

The Color Genes of Speciation in Plants

Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos1

Genetics. 2013 May; 194(1): 39–42.
doi: 10.1534/genetics.113.150466

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3632479/

Guide to Fall Colors in Upstate New York

Donald J. Leopold
Chair, Department of Environmental and Forest Biology and Distinguished Teaching Professor
SUNY-ESF, Syracuse

The plants that change colour through the seasons

https://www.stuff.co.nz/life-style/home-property/nz-gardener/76979012/the-plants-that-change-colour-through-the-seasons

Colours of plants and animals

https://www.itp.uni-hannover.de/fileadmin/arbeitsgruppen/zawischa/static_html/botzooE.html

What is Code Biology?

What is Code Biology?

 

 

 

Key Terms

  • Code Biology
  • Biosemiotics
  • Charles Sanders Peirce
  • Genetic Code
  • Musical Harmony
  • Symmetry
  • Jay Kappraff
  • Gary Adamson
  • Pythagorean Triples
  • Harmonic Laws
  • Numbers
  • Geometry
  • Matrices
  • Self, Culture, Nature
  • I, We, It, Its
  • Sergey V. Petoukhov
  • Codes
  • Meaning
  • Value
  • Marcello Barbieri
  • RNA, DNA, Proteins, Cells
  • Code Semiotics
  • Ferdinand D Saussure

 

What is Code Biology?

Codes and conventions are the basis of our social life and from time immemorial have divided the world of culture from the world of nature. The rules of grammar, the laws of government, the precepts of religion, the value of money, the rules of chess etc., are all human conventions that are profoundly different from the laws of physics and chemistry, and this has led to the conclusion that there is an unbridgeable gap between nature and culture. Nature is governed by objective immutable laws, whereas culture is produced by the mutable conventions of the human mind.

In this millennia-old framework, the discovery of the genetic code, in the early 1960s, came as a bolt from the blue, but strangely enough it did not bring down the barrier between nature and culture. On the contrary, a protective belt was quickly built around the old divide with an argument that effectively emptied the discovery of all its revolutionary potential. The argument that the genetic code is not a real code because its rules are the result of chemical affinities between codons and amino acids and are therefore determined by chemistry. This is the ‘Stereochemical theory’, an idea first proposed by George Gamow in 1954, and re-proposed ever since in many different forms (Pelc and Welton 1966; Dunnil 1966; Melcher 1974; Shimizu 1982; Yarus 1988, 1998; Yarus, Caporaso and Knight 2005). More than fifty years of research have not produced any evidence in favour of this theory and yet the idea is still circulating, apparently because of the possibility that stereochemical interactions might have been important at some early stages of evolution (Koonin and Novozhilov 2009). The deep reason is probably the persistent belief that the genetic code must have been a product of chemistry and cannot possibly be a real code. But what is a real code?

The starting point is the idea that a code is a set of rules that establish a correspondence, or a mapping, between the objects of two independent worlds (Barbieri 2003). The Morse code, for example, is a mapping between the letters of the alphabet and groups of dots and dashes. The highway code is a correspondence between street signals and driving behaviours (a red light means ‘stop’, a green light means ‘go’, and so on).

What is essential in all codes is that the coding rules, although completely compatible with the laws of physics and chemistry, are not dictated by these laws. In this sense they are arbitrary, and the number of arbitrary relationships between two independent worlds is potentially unlimited. In the Morse code, for example, any letter of the alphabet could be associated with countless combinations of dots and dashes, which means that a specific link between them can be realized only by selecting a small number of rules. And this is precisely what a code is: a small set of arbitrary rules selected from a potentially unlimited number in order to ensure a specific correspondence between two independent worlds.

This definition allows us to make experimental tests because organic codes are relationships between two worlds of organic molecules and are necessarily implemented by a third type of molecules, called adaptors, that build a bridge between them. The adaptors are required because there is no necessary link between the two worlds, and a fixed set of adaptors is required in order to guarantee the specificity of the correspondence. The adaptors, in short, are the molecular fingerprints of the codes, and their presence in a biological process is a sure sign that that process is based on a code.

This gives us an objective criterion for discovering organic codes and their existence is no longer a matter of speculation. It is, first and foremost, an experimental problem. More precisely, we can prove that an organic code exists, if we find three things: (1) two independents worlds of molecules, (2) a set of adaptors that create a mapping between them, and (3) the demonstration that the mapping is arbitrary because its rules can be changed, at least in principle, in countless different ways.

 

Two outstanding examples

The genetic code

In protein synthesis, a sequence of nucleotides is translated into a sequence of amino acids, and the bridge between them is realized by a third type of molecules, called transfer-RNAs, that act as adaptors and perform two distinct operations: at one site they recognize groups of three nucleotides, called codons, and at another site they receive amino acids from enzymes called aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetases. The key point is that there is no deterministic link between codons and amino acids since it has been shown that any codon can be associated with any amino acid (Schimmel 1987; Schimmel et al. 1993). Hou and Schimmel (1988), for example, introduced two extra nucleotides in a tRNA and found that that the resulting tRNA was carrying a different amino acid. This proved that the number of possible connections between codons and amino acids is potentially unlimited, and only the selection of a small set of adaptors can ensure a specific mapping. This is the genetic code: a fixed set of rules between nucleic acids and amino acids that are implemented by adaptors. In protein synthesis, in conclusion, we find all the three essential components of a code: (1) two independents worlds of molecules (nucleotides and amino acids), (2) a set of adaptors that create a mapping between them, and (3) the proof that the mapping is arbitrary because its rules can be changed.

 

The signal transduction codes

Signal transduction is the process by which cells transform the signals from the environment, called first messengers, into internal signals, called second messengers. First and second messengers belong to two independent worlds because there are literally hundreds of first messengers (hormones, growth factors, neurotransmitters, etc.) but only four great families of second messengers (cyclic AMP, calcium ions, diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate) (Alberts et al. 2007). The crucial point is that the molecules that perform signal transduction are true adaptors. They consists of three subunits: a receptor for the first messengers, an amplifier for the second messengers, and a mediator in between (Berridge 1985). This allows the transduction complex to perform two independent recognition processes, one for the first messenger and the other for the second messenger. Laboratory experiments have proved that any first messenger can be associated with any second messenger, which means that there is a potentially unlimited number of arbitrary connections between them. In signal transduction, in short, we find all the three essential components of a code: (1) two independents worlds of molecules (first messengers and second messengers), (2) a set of adaptors that create a mapping between them, and (3) the proof that the mapping is arbitrary because its rules can be changed (Barbieri 2003).

 

A world of organic codes

In addition to the genetic code and the signal transduction codes, a wide variety of new organic codes have come to light in recent years. Among them: the sequence codes (Trifonov 1987, 1989, 1999), the Hox code (Paul Hunt et al. 1991; Kessel and Gruss 1991), the adhesive code (Redies and Takeichi 1996; Shapiro and Colman 1999), the splicing codes (Barbieri 2003; Fu 2004; Matlin et al. 2005; Pertea et al. 2007; Wang and Burge 2008; Barash et al. 2010; Dhir et al. 2010), the signal transduction codes (Barbieri 2003), the histone code (Strahl and Allis 2000; Jenuwein and Allis 2001; Turner 2000, 2002, 2007; Kühn and Hofmeyr 2014), the sugar code (Gabius 2000, 2009), the compartment codes (Barbieri 2003), the cytoskeleton codes (Barbieri 2003; Gimona 2008), the transcriptional code (Jessell 2000; Marquard and Pfaff 2001; Ruiz i Altaba et al. 2003; Flames et al. 2007), the neural code (Nicolelis and Ribeiro 2006; Nicolelis 2011), a neural code for taste (Di Lorenzo 2000; Hallock and Di Lorenzo 2006), an odorant receptor code(Dudai 1999; Ray et al. 2006), a space code in the hippocampus (O’Keefe and Burgess 1996, 2005; Hafting et al. 2005; Brandon and Hasselmo 2009; Papoutsi et al. 2009), the apoptosis code (Basañez and Hardwick 2008; Füllgrabe et al. 2010), the tubulin code (Verhey and Gaertig 2007), the nuclear signalling code (Maraldi 2008), the injective organic codes (De Beule et al. 2011), the molecular codes (Görlich et al. 2011; Görlich and Dittrich 2013), the ubiquitin code (Komander and Rape 2012), the bioelectric code (Tseng and Levin 2013; Levin 2014), the acoustic codes (Farina and Pieretti 2014), the glycomic code (Buckeridge and De Souza 2014; Tavares and Buckeridge 2015) and the Redox code (Jones and Sies 2015).

The living world, in short, is literally teeming with organic codes, and yet so far their discoveries have only circulated in small circles and have not attracted the attention of the scientific community at large.

 

Code Biology

Code Biology is the study of all codes of life with the standard methods of science. The genetic code and the codes of culture have been known for a long time and represent the historical foundation of Code Biology. What is really new in this field is the study of all codes that came after the genetic code and before the codes of culture. The existence of these codes is an experimental fact – let us never forget this – but also more than that. It is one of those facts that have extraordinary theoretical implications.

The first is the role that the organic codes had in the history of life. The genetic code was a precondition for the origin of the first cells, the signal transduction codes divided the descendants of the common ancestor into the primary kingdoms of Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya, the splicing codes were instrumental to the origin of the nucleus, the histone code provided the rules of chromatin, and the cytoskeleton codes allowed the Eukarya to perform internal movements, including those of mitosis and meiosis (Barbieri 2003, 2015). The greatest events of macroevolution, in other words, were associated with the appearance of new organic codes, and this gives us a completely new understanding of the history of life.

The second great implication is the fact that the organic codes have been highly conserved in evolution, which means that they are the great invariants of life, the sole entities that have been perpetuated while everything else has been changed. Code Biology, in short, is uncovering a new history of life and bringing to light new fundamental concepts. It truly is a new science, the exploration of a vast and still largely unexplored dimension of the living world, the real new frontier of biology.

 

References

Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2007) Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th Ed. Garland, New York.

Barash Y, Calarco JA, Gao W, Pan Q, Wang X, Shai O, Blencow BJ and Frey BJ (2010). Deciphering the splicing code. Nature, Vol 465, 53-59.

Barbieri M (2003) The Organic Codes. An Introduction to Semantic Biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Barbieri M (2015) Code Biology. A New Science of Life. Springer, Dordrecht.

Basañez G and Hardwick JM (2008) Unravelling the Bcl-2 Apoptosis Code with a Simple Model System. PLoS Biol 6(6): e154. Doi: 10.137/journal.pbio.0060154.

Berridge M (1985) The molecular basis of communication within the cell. Scientific American, 253, 142-152.

Brandon MP and Hasselmo ME (2009) Sources of the spatial code within the hippocampus. Biology Reports, 1, 3-7.

Buckeridge MS and De Souza AP (2014) Breaking the “Glycomic Code” of cell wall polysaccharides may improve second-generation bioenergy production from biomass. BioEnergy Research, 7, 1065-1073.

De Beule J, Hovig E and Benson M (2011) Introducing Dynamics into the Field of Biosemiotics. Biosemiotics, 4(1), 5-24.

Dhir A, Buratti E, van Santen MA, Lührmann R and Baralle FE, (2010). The intronic splicing code: multiple factors involved in ATM pseudoexon definition. The EMBO Journal, 29, 749–760.

Di Lorenzo PM (2000) The neural code for taste in the brain stem: Response profiles. Physiology and Behaviour, 69, 87-96.

Dudai Y (1999) The Smell of Representations. Neuron 23: 633-635.

Dunnill P (1966) Triplet nucleotide-amino-acid pairing; a stereochemical basis for the division between protein and non-protein amino-acids. Nature, 210, 1267-1268.

Farina A and Pieretti N (2014) Acoustic Codes in Action in a Soundscape Context. Biosemiotics, 7(2), 321–328.

Flames N, Pla R, Gelman DM, Rubenstein JLR, Puelles L and Marìn O (2007) Delineation of Multiple Subpallial Progenitor Domains by the Combinatorial Expression of Transcriptional Codes. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 9682–9695.

Fu XD (2004) Towards a splicing code. Cell, 119, 736–738.

Füllgrabe J, Hajji N and Joseph B (2010) Cracking the death code: apoptosis-related histone modifications. Cell Death and Differentiation, 17, 1238-1243.

Gabius H-J (2000) Biological Information Transfer Beyond the Genetic Code: The Sugar Code. Naturwissenschaften, 87, 108-121.

Gabius H-J (2009) The Sugar Code. Fundamentals of Glycosciences. Wiley-Blackwell.

Gamow G (1954) Possible relation between deoxyribonucleic acid and protein structures. Nature, 173, 318.

Gimona M (2008) Protein linguistics and the modular code of the cytoskeleton. In: Barbieri M (ed) The Codes of Life: The Rules of Macroevolution. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 189-206.

Görlich D, Artmann S, Dittrich P (2011) Cells as semantic systems. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1810 (10), 914-923.

Görlich D and Dittrich P (2013) Molecular codes in biological and chemical reaction networks. PLoS ONE 8(1):e54,694, DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0054694.

Hafting T, Fyhn M, Molden S, Moser MB, Moser EI (2005) Microstructure of a spatial map in the entorhinal cortex. Nature, 436, 801-806.

Hallock RM and Di Lorenzo PM (2006) Temporal coding in the gustatory system. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 30, 1145-1160.

Hou Y-M and Schimmel P (1988) A simple structural feature is a major determinant of the identity of a transfer RNA. Nature, 333, 140-145.

Hunt P, Whiting J, Nonchev S, Sham M-H, Marshall H, Graham A, Cook M, Alleman R, Rigby PW and Gulisano M (1991) The branchial Hox code and its implications for gene regulation, patterning of the nervous system and head evolution. Development, 2, 63-77.

Jenuwein T and Allis CD (2001) Translating the histone code. Science, 293, 1074-1080.

Jessell TM (2000) Neuronal Specification in the Spinal Cord: Inductive Signals and Transcriptional Codes. Nature Genetics, 1, 20-29.

Jones DP and Sies H (2015) The Redox Code. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, 23 (9), 734-746.

Kessel M and Gruss P (1991) Homeotic Tansformation of Murine Vertebrae and Concomitant Alteration of Hox Codes induced by Retinoic Acid. Cell, 67, 89-104.

Komander D and Rape M (2012), The Ubiquitin Code. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 81, 203–29.

Koonin EV and Novozhilov AS (2009) Origin and evolution of the genetic code: the universal enigma. IUBMB Life. 61(2), 99-111.

Kühn S and Hofmeyr J-H S (2014) Is the “Histone Code” an organic code? Biosemiotics, 7(2), 203–222.

Levin M (2014) Endogenous bioelectrical networks store non-genetic patterning information during development and regeneration. Journal of Physiology, 592.11, 2295–2305.

Maraldi NM (2008) A Lipid-based Code in Nuclear Signalling. In: Barbieri M (ed) The Codes of Life: The Rules of Macroevolution. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 207-221.

Marquard T and Pfaff SL (2001) Cracking the Transcriptional Code for Cell Specification in the Neural Tube. Cell, 106, 651–654.

Matlin A, Clark F and Smith C (2005) Understanding alternative splicing: towards a cellular code. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., 6, 386-398.

Melcher G (1974) Stereospecificity and the genetic code. J. Mol. Evol., 3, 121-141.

Nicolelis M (2011) Beyond Boundaries: The New Neuroscience of Connecting Brains with Machines and How It Will Change Our Lives.Times Books, New York.

Nicolelis M and Ribeiro S (2006) Seeking the Neural Code. Scientific American, 295, 70-77.

O’Keefe J, Burgess N (1996) Geometric determinants of the place fields of hippocampal neurons. Nature, 381, 425-428.

O’Keefe J, Burgess N (2005) Dual phase and rate coding in hippocampal place cells: theoretical significance and relationship to entorhinal grid cells. Hippocampus, 15, 853-866.

Papoutsi M, de Zwart JA, Jansma JM, Pickering MJ, Bednar JA and Horwitz B (2009) From Phonemes to Articulatory Codes: An fMRI Study of the Role of Broca’s Area in Speech Production. Cerebral Cortex,19, 2156 – 2165.

Pelc SR and Weldon MGE (1966) Stereochemical relationship between coding triplets and amino-acids. Nature, 209, 868-870.

Pertea M, Mount SM, Salzberg SL (2007) A computational survey of candidate exonic splicing enhancer motifs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Bioinformatics, 8, 159.

Ray A, van der Goes van Naters W, Shiraiwa T and Carlson JR (2006) Mechanisms of Odor Receptor Gene Choice in Drosophila. Neuron, 53, 353-369.

Redies C and Takeichi M (1996) Cadherine in the developing central nervous system: an adhesive code for segmental and functional subdivisions. Developmental Biology, 180, 413-423.

Ruiz i Altaba A, Nguien V and Palma V (2003) The emergent design of the neural tube: prepattern, SHH morphogen and GLI code.Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, 13, 513–521.

Schimmel P (1987) Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases: General scheme of structure-function relationship in the polypeptides and recognition of tRNAs. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 56, 125-158.

Schimmel P, Giegé R, Moras D and Yokoyama S (1993) An operational RNA code for amino acids and possible relationship to genetic code. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 90, 8763-8768.

Shapiro L and Colman DR (1999) The Diversity of Cadherins and Implications for a Synaptic Adhesive Code in the CNS. Neuron, 23, 427-430.

Shimizu M (1982) Molecular basis for the genetic code. J. Mol. Evol., 18, 297-303.

Strahl BD and Allis D (2000) The language of covalent histone modifications. Nature, 403, 41-45.

Tavares EQP and Buckeridge MS (2015) Do plant cells have a code? Plant Science, 241, 286-294.

Trifonov EN (1987) Translation framing code and frame-monitoring mechanism as suggested by the analysis of mRNA and 16s rRNA nucleotide sequence. Journal of Molecular Biology, 194, 643-652.

Trifonov EN (1989) The multiple codes of nucleotide sequences. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 51: 417-432.

Trifonov EN (1999) Elucidating Sequence Codes: Three Codes for Evolution. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 870, 330-338.

Tseng AS and Levin M (2013) Cracking the bioelectric code. Probing endogenous ionic controls of pattern formation. Communicative & Integrative Biology, 6(1), 1–8.

Turner BM (2000) Histone acetylation and an epigenetic code. BioEssays, 22, 836–845.

Turner BM (2002) Cellular memory and the Histone Code. Cell, 111, 285-291.

Turner BM (2007) Defining an epigenetic code. Nature Cell Biology, 9, 2-6.

Verhey KJ and Gaertig J (2007) The Tubulin Code. Cell Cycle, 6 (17), 2152-2160.

Wang Z and Burge C (2008) Splicing regulation: from a part list of regulatory elements to an integrated splicing code. RNA, 14, 802-813.

Yarus M (1988) A specific amino acid binding site composed of RNA. Science, 240, 1751-1758.

Yarus M (1998) Amino acids as RNA ligands: a direct-RNA-template theory for the code’s origin. J. Mol. Evol.,47(1), 109–117.

Yarus M, Caporaso JG, and Knight R (2005) Origins of the Genetic Code: The Escaped Triplet Theory. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 74,179-198.

 

CODE BIOLOGY, PEIRCEAN BIOSEMIOTICS, AND ROSEN’S RELATIONAL BIOLOGY

The classical theories of the genetic code claimed that its coding rules were determined by chemistry—either by stereochemical affinities or by metabolic reactions—but the experimental evidence has revealed a totally different reality: it has shown that any codon can be associated with any amino acid, thus proving that there is no necessary link between them. The rules of the genetic code, in other words, obey the laws of physics and chemistry but are not determined by them. They are arbitrary, or conventional, rules. The result is that the genetic code is not a metaphorical entity, as implied by the classical theories, but a real code, because it is precisely the presence of arbitrary rules that divides a code from all other natural processes. In the past 20 years, furthermore, various independent discoveries have shown that many other organic codes exist in living systems, which means that the genetic code has not been an isolated case in the history of life. These experimental facts have one outstanding theoretical implication: they imply that in addition to the concept of information we must introduce in biology the concept of meaning, because we cannot have codes without meaning or meaning without codes. The problem is that at present we have two different theoretical frameworks for that purpose: one is Code Biology, where meaning is the result of coding, and the other is Peircean biosemiotics, where meaning is the result of interpretation. Recently, however, a third party has entered the scene, and it has been proposed that Robert Rosen’s relational biology can provide a bridge between Code Biology and Peircean biosemiotics.

 

 

Please see my related posts

Semiotics, Bio-Semiotics and Cyber Semiotics

Autocatalysis, Autopoiesis and Relational Biology

Geometry of Consciousness

Mind, Consciousness and Quantum Entanglement

 

 

Key Sources of Research:

 

Code Biology

http://www.codebiology.org

 

What is Code Biology?

Marcello Barbieri

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320332986_What_is_Code_Biology

Code Biology, Peircean Biosemiotics, and Rosen’s Relational Biology

Marcello Barbieri

 

 

 

Why Biosemiotics? An Introduction to Our View on the Biology of Life Itself

Kalevi Kull, Claus Emmeche and Jesper Hoffmeyer

 

 

 

BIOSEMIOTICS AND SELF-REFERENCE FROM PEIRCE TO ROSEN

Eliseo Fernández

Click to access PRfinal.pdf

 

 

 

What Does it Take to Produce Interpretation? Informational, Peircean and Code-Semiotic Views on Biosemiotics

Søren Brier & Cliff Joslyn

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255813854_What_Does_It_Take_to_Produce_Interpretation_Informational_Peircean_and_Code-Semiotic_Views_on_Biosemiotics

Naturalizing semiotics: The triadic sign of Charles Sanders Peirce as a systems property

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26276466

 

 

 

BIOSEMIOSIS AND CAUSATION: DEFENDING BIOSEMIOTICS THROUGH ROSEN’S THEORETICAL BIOLOGY OR INTEGRATING BIOSEMIOTICS AND ANTICIPATORY SYSTEMS THEORY1

Arran Gare

http://cosmosandhistory.org/index.php/journal/article/viewFile/806/1396

 

 

 

GENERALIZED GENOMIC MATRICES, SILVER MEANS, AND PYTHAGOREAN TRIPLES

Jay Kappraff

Gary W. Adamson

 

Click to access report0809-12.pdf

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f641/6a1d093e77df80173ed76add159b452924b1.pdf?_ga=2.121727499.1841123216.1571671914-1769689123.1571671914

 

 

The genetic code, 8-dimensional hypercomplex numbers and dyadic shifts

 

Sergey V. Petoukhov

 

Click to access 1102.3596.pdf

 

 

 

A Fresh Look at Number

Jay Kappraff

Gary Adomson

Click to access bridges2000-255.pdf

 

 

 

SYMMETRIES IN MOLECULAR-GENETIC SYSTEMS AND MUSICAL HARMONY

G. Darvas, A.A. Koblyakov, S.V.Petoukhov, I.V.Stepanian

 

Click to access GENETIC_CODE_AND_MUSICAL_HARMONY_2012_PETOUKHOV.pdf

 

 

 

On the Semio-Mathematical Nature of Codes

Yair Neuman & Ophir Nave

Click to access On-the-Semio-Mathematical-Nature-of-Codes.pdf

 

 

GENETIC CODE AS A HARMONIC SYSTEM

Miloje M. Rakočević

 

Click to access 0610044.pdf

 

 

 

Genetic Code Table: A note on the three splittings into amino acid classes

Miloje M. Rakočević

 

Click to access 0903.4110.pdf

 

 

 

GENETIC CODE AS A HARMONIC SYSTEM: THREE SUPPLEMENTS

Miloje M. Rakočević

 

Click to access 0703011.pdf

 

 

THE GENETIC CODE INVARIANCE: WHEN EULER AND FIBONACCI MEET

Tidjani Négadi

 

Click to access 1305.5103.pdf

 

 

 

Genetic Code as a Coherent System

Miloje Rakočević

 

Click to access Genetic-Code-as-a-Coherent-System.pdf

 

 

 

A NEW GENETIC CODE TABLE

Miloje M. Rakočević

 

Click to access A-New-Genetic-Code-Table.pdf

 

 

 

Harmonically Guided Evolution

Richard Merrick

 

Click to access a084ad5ca081cf5ac00c82c77d5857795745.pdf

 

 

 

Golden and Harmonic Mean in the Genetic Code

Miloje M. Rakočević

Click to access 35c07d4f0e09a12acc2d6822a16407a14ccd.pdf