Digital Color and Imaging

Digital Color and Imaging

In my previous post, I focused on Industrial Color Technology as used in Process Industries such as Paint, Plastics, Textiles, Paper, and Printing.

There are several useful links in the references section to color introduction which will be beneficial to people interested in digital colors and imaging.

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

In this post, I have focused on another aspect of color technology as used in Digital Technology and Graphics Arts and Design Industry.

Devices for Digital Color and Imaging

  • Inkjet and Laser Printers
  • Displays on Desktop Computers and Mobile Devices
  • Television
  • Digital Cameras/Photography
  • Digital Video

Color Models

Not all color models listed below are device independent.

They represent human vision. These are international standards of color measurement. They were developed at diffrent times and are refinements on older models to mimic human vision and visual perception.

Image Source: COLOR PART 1: CIE CHROMATICITY AND PERCEPTION

RGB VS CMY Color Models

Image Source: BASICS OF COLOR IMAGING

List of Color Models

  • CIE x,y,Y
  • CIEXYZ
  • CIELAB
  • CIELCH
  • CIELUV
  • RGB
  • CMYK
  • HSB
  • HSV
  • HSL
  • HSI
  • YUV
  • YIQ
  • YCbCr
  • YPbPr

Color Models Classification

Image Source: UNDERSTANDING COLOR MODELS: A REVIEW

Uses of Color Models

Image Source: UNDERSTANDING COLOR MODELS: A REVIEW

Color Models Taxonomy

Image Source: UNDERSTANDING COLOR MODELS: A REVIEW

Image Source: COLOR IMAGES, COLOR SPACES AND COLOR IMAGE PROCESSING

Spot Colors Color Spaces

These color systems are used in Spot Printing in commercial printing applications.

  • ANPA
  • Colour Index International
  • DIC
  • PMS
  • FOCOLTONE
  • HKS
  • Munsell
  • NCS
  • Pantone
  • RAL
  • TOYO
  • Truematch

Image Source: A PRIMER TO COLORS IN DIGITAL DESIGN

Color Spaces

Are device dependent color models.

  • Adobe RGB 1998
  • sRGB
  • Apple RGB
  • ProPHOTO
  • Wide Gamut RGB
  • DCI-P3 or Display P3
  • P3 D65
  • P3 Theatrical
  • EBU Tech. 3213-E (Supersedes PAL)
  • oRGB
  • ECI RGB V2
  • ColorMatch RGB
  • Rec 2020
  • SWOP CMYK
  • HDTV RGB
  • NTSC RGB
  • CIE RGB
  • SGI RGB
  • PAL/SECAM RGB
  • SMPTE-240M RGB
  • SMPTE-C RGB
  • ACES RGB
  • Rec. 709 (ITU-R BT. 709)
  • Photo RGB
  • DCI-P3Pro
  • REC 209
  • scRGB
  • ROMM RGB
  • Arri LogC
  • RedWideGamutRGB
  • Bruce RGB
  • Ekta Space PS5
  • Don RGB 4
  • Beta RGB
  • Best RGB
  • Max RGB
  • Xtreme RGB
  • Ma RGBta

List of Color Spaces available in PhotoShop

Image Source: WHICH IS THE BEST COLOR SPACE FOR PHOTOGRAPHY: SRGB OR ADOBE RGB?

List of Color Spaces used in Videos/Cinema

Image Source: COMMON RGB COLOR SPACES

Color Gamut

Is range of color. Defines boundaries of color space. Number of Hues will be higher in a larger color gamut color space.

A color gamut is the defining a range of chromaticities—essentially a set of possible hues and their respective maximum saturations.

Image Source: UNDERSTANDING COLOR SPACE

Image Source: Beginner’s Guide to Color Space: RGB, CMYK, and Pantone

Color Management

Color spaces are used in

  • Capture of images, videos and Cinema
  • Editing and Processing of Images and Videos
  • Visual Displays on Computer Monitors, Phone and Tablet Displays, Digital Camera Displays, Digital Video Displays, Television, Cinema Screens, and LCD screens on Auto and Home appliances.
  • Printing of Images on Ink Jet printers, Laser printers, Screen Printing, Offset Printing etc.

Flows of Images from

  • Capture to Editing
  • Editing to Viewing on Media Devices
  • Editing to Printing on Media
  • Editing to Storage on Media Devices

Image Source: COLOR SPACE

Color Spaces used for different stages of the process

  • Capture – For Stills – Adobe RGB, sRGB; For Video -YUV
  • Editing – ProPhoto, Adobe RGB, sRGB, CIEXYZ, YUV
  • Viewing – sRGB
  • Printing – CMYK
  • Storage – sRGB, Adobe RGB, YUV, CMYK

Color Profiles

Color profiles define the specific color space (e.g. Adobe RGB) of a document or device. The terms color profile and color space are often used interchangeably.

Image Source: Digital Color Workflows and the
HP DreamColor LP2480zx Professional LCD Display

Please see the link below to learn about embedded color profiles. Since Color spaces are different, the tagged color profile is required for uniformity of image across different color spaces.

Color Filters

  • Bayer Array
  • Foveon X3

Source: COLOR FILTER ARRAY/Wikipedia

Color filters are needed because the typical photosensors detect light intensity with little or no wavelength specificity, and therefore cannot separate color information.[1] Since sensors are made of semiconductors they obey solid-state physics.

The color filters filter the light by wavelength range, such that the separate filtered intensities include information about the color of light. For example, the Bayer filter (shown to the right) gives information about the intensity of light in red, green, and blue (RGB) wavelength regions. The raw image data captured by the image sensor is then converted to a full-color image (with intensities of all three primary colors represented at each pixel) by a demosaicing algorithm which is tailored for each type of color filter. The spectral transmittance of the CFA elements along with the demosaicing algorithm jointly determine the color rendition.[2] The sensor’s passband quantum efficiency and span of the CFA’s spectral responses are typically wider than the visible spectrum, thus all visible colors can be distinguished. The responses of the filters do not generally correspond to the CIE color matching functions,[3] so a color translation is required to convert the tristimulus values into a common, absolute color space.[4]

Source: COLOR FILTER ARRAY/Wikipedia

Color BIT Depth

Defines details of a color image. More bit depth means more data storage per pixel of screen.

Color Gamut and Bit Depth defines color of an image.

What color Gamut was used and what bit depth was used in creating, editing, viewing, printing, and storing of an image?

Source: Human Vision and Digital Color Perception

The bit depth is what determines the color information of a digital image. The more bits stored in a pixel, the more information is stored and the greater the detail in color. The following is a guide of how many colors can be represented based on the number of bits.

1 Bit — 2 colors (Monochrome)
8 Bit — 256 colors (Low Color)
16 Bit — 65536 colors (High Color)
24 Bit — 16777216 colors (True Color)

Image Source: INTRODUCTION TO BASIC MEASURES OF A DIGITAL IMAGE FOR PICTORIAL COLLECTIONS

Rendering Intent

Image Source: A Breakdown Of Color Spaces | You Really Should Have A Grasp On This

Image Source: Choosing a color space: sRGB, Adobe RGB and ProPhoto RGB

Image Format during Image Capture

  • RAW
  • JPEG
  • JPEG2000

Using Color Filter Array, the color data is captured in RAW form. It then is converted to JPEG image file format.

Image Source: UNDERSTANDING DIGITAL RAW CAPTURE

Process Flows In Digital Color Imaging System

Image Source: SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION IN DIGITAL COLOR IMAGING

Digital Color Terminology

Image Source:

My Related Posts

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Key Sources of Research

Basics of Color Imaging

Yao Wang

Introduction to Color Imaging Science

HSIEN-CHE LEE

Digital Color Imaging

Gaurav Sharma, Member, IEEE, and H. Joel Trussell, Fellow, IEEE

Digital Color Imaging Handbook

Edited By Gaurav Sharma, Gaurav Sharma, Raja Bala

https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781315220086/chapters/10.1201/9781420041484-1

HUMAN VISION AND DIGITAL COLOR PERCEPTION

Vince Tabora

HD Pro Blog

Medium.com

Understanding Chroma And Luminance In Digital Imaging

Vince Tabora

HD PRO

Medium.com

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CMYK AND RGB IN DIGITAL PRINTING

https://www.decalimpressions.com/company-info/blog.html/article/2018/06/05/the-difference-between-cmyk-and-rgb-in-digital-printing

Some Common RGB Working Space Matrices

http://brucelindbloom.com/index.html?Eqn_RGB_XYZ_Matrix.html

Color Part 1:
CIE Chromaticity and Perception 

by Roger N. Clark

https://clarkvision.com/articles/color-cie-chromaticity-and-perception/

A Primer to Colors in Digital Design

Archit Jha

https://uxdesign.cc/a-primer-to-colors-in-digital-design-7d16bb33399e

Digital Color Workflows and the
HP DreamColor LP2480zx Professional LCD Display

RGB color space profiles

http://www.hutchcolor.com/profiles.html#freeRGBspaces

Video Colour Color Space for photographers

http://www.jamesmilnersmyth.com/video-colour-color-space-for-photographers/

Understanding Color Space

https://stephaniebryanphoto.com/myblog/understanding-color-space

Choosing a color space: sRGB, Adobe RGB and ProPhoto RGB

Information on Color Spaces and Rendering Intent

Canon

Understanding Color Models Used in Digital Image Processing

https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/technical-articleUnderstanding Color Models Used in Digital Image Processings/understanding-color-models-used-in-digital-image-processing/

Which is the Best Color Space for Photography: sRGB or Adobe RGB?

https://contrastly.com/which-is-the-best-color-space-for-photography-srgb-or-adobe-rgb/

How to Choose the Right Video Color Space

http://www.cinematiccolor.com/

Color Models

http://cs.brown.edu/courses/cs092/VA10/HTML/ColorModels.html

Color Space Mismatches

Colour Space Conversions

Adrian Ford (ajoec1@wmin.ac.uk <defunct>) and Alan Roberts (Alan.Roberts@rd.bbc.co.uk).

August 11, 1998(a)

UNDERSTANDING COLOR SPACES

Unraval

https://www.unravel.com.au/understanding-color-spaces

ColorPerfect, ColorNeg et al. and RGB / grayscale working spaces

https://www.colorperfect.com/working_spaces.html?lang=en

Color Space Names

Apple

https://developer.apple.com/documentation/coregraphics/cgcolorspace/color_space_names

History of the Very Odd sRGB Color Space

https://ninedegreesbelow.com/photography/srgb-history.html

color images, color spaces and color image processing

Ole-Johan Skrede 08.03.2017

INF2310 – Digital Image Processing

Department of Informatics
The Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences University of Oslo

The Reversibility of Six Geometric Color Spaces

Tian-YuanShih

A Review of RGB Color Spaces

Beginner’s Guide to Color Space: RGB, CMYK, and Pantone

Color spaces, profiles and color management explained

https://lifeafterphotoshop.com/color-spaces-profiles-and-color-management-explained/

color space

PC Magazine

https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/color-space

Digital-Image Color Spaces

Jeffrey Friedl’s Blog

Color Spaces and Digital Imaging

Higham, Nicholas J. 2015

The Essential Guide to Color Spaces

Cullen Kelly

Mathematical Representation of Color Spaces and Its Role in Communication Systems

Riyadh M. Al-saleem ,1 Baraa M. Al-Hilali ,2 and Izz K. Abboud

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2020/4640175/

Color Spaces and Color Profiles

https://www.dpbestflow.org/color/color-space-and-color-profiles

Good One

Commercial Printing

https://www.dpbestflow.org/color/commercial-printing

https://www.dpbestflow.org/links/31

Color Management Overview

https://www.dpbestflow.org/node/247

Describing, Specifying, and Using Digital Digital Color Space

NOVEMBER 18, 2002 

https://www.screenweb.com/content/describing-specifying-and-using-digital-digital-color-space

Introduction to Light, Color and Color Space

https://www.scratchapixel.com/lessons/digital-imaging/colors/color-space

The Color Space Conundrum

https://theasc.com/magazine/jan05/conundrum/index.html

A Breakdown Of Color Spaces | You Really Should Have A Grasp On This

A Standard Default Color Space for the Internet – sRGB

Michael Stokes (Hewlett-Packard), Matthew Anderson (Microsoft), 

Srinivasan Chandrasekar (Microsoft), Ricardo Motta (Hewlett-Packard)

Version 1.10, November 5, 1996

https://www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB.html

Color Models

https://scc.ustc.edu.cn/zlsc/sugon/intel/ipp/ipp_manual/IPPI/ippi_ch6/ch6_color_models.htm

COLOR SCIENCE AND COLOR APPEARANCE MODELS FOR CG, HDTV, AND D-CINEMA

Authors:
Charles A Poynton
Garrett M Johnson
Publication: SIGGRAPH ’04: ACM SIGGRAPH 2004 Course NotesAugust 2004

Color in Information Display Principles, Perception, and Models

Maureen C. Stone

StoneSoup Consulting

Course 20 SIGGRAPH 2004

oRGB: A Practical Opponent Color Space for Computer Graphics

Margarita Bratkova∗ Solomon Boulos† Peter Shirley‡ University of Utah

Color in Science, Art and Industry: The Inter-Society Color Council 75th Anniversary CD

ISCC

Image Processing 101

Color Theory Color Models

http://www.pengadprinting.com/content/color-theory-part-ii-types-color-and-uses-0

Color Models (RGB vs CMYK)

Understanding Color Models: A Review

1 Noor A. Ibraheem, 2 Mokhtar M. Hasan, 3 Rafiqul Z. Khan, 4 Pramod K. Mishra
1 Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, India

Color Theory

Colorotate

RGB vs HSB vs HSL - Demystified

Anagh Sharma

https://www.anaghsharma.com/blog/rgb-vs-hsb-vs-hsl-demystified/

System Optimization in Digital Color Imaging

Understanding and exploiting interactions

Raja Bala and Gaurav Sharma

IEEE Signal Processing Magazine · February 2005

Digital image processing

Gonzalez and Woods, 

2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 2002

Which Color Space Should You Use When?

https://havecamerawilltravel.com/photographer/color-profiles/

DIGITAL IMAGING AND PHOTOGRAPHY

On Line Course

University of Delaware

https://www.eecis.udel.edu/~arce/courses/digitalimgproc/

Introduction to Basic Measures of a Digital Image for Pictorial Collections

Kit A. Peterson, Digital Conversion Specialist, June 2005

Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540-4730

Color spaces and gamut

Published on April 15, 2015   |  Updated on October 31, 2019

https://www.color-management-guide.com/color-spaces.html

COLOR IN DIGITAL CINEMA

Color Spaces

http://www.updig.org/guidelines/ph_color_spaces.html

https://danpgomez.com/tbl/2016/3/29/whats-the-difference-between-a-color-space-and-a-color-profile

Review and evaluation of color spaces for image/video compression

Samruddhi Y. Kahu1 | Rajesh B. Raut2 | Kishor M. Bhurchandi

Color Res Appl. 2019;44:8–33.

Color filter array

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_filter_array#List_of_color_filter_arrays

Eyeing the Camera: into the Next Century

Richard F. Lyon and Paul M. Hubel

Foveon, Inc.
Santa Clara, California, USA

Color Filter Arrays: Design and Performance Analysis

Rastislav Lukac, Member, IEEE, and Konstantinos N. Plataniotis, Senior Member, IEEE

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 51, No. 4, NOVEMBER 2005

Introduction to Bayer Filters

https://www.arrow.com/en/research-and-events/articles/introduction-to-bayer-filters

DIGITAL CAMERA SENSORS

https://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/camera-sensors.htm

https://www.cambridgeincolour.com

Rethinking Color Cameras

Ayan Chakrabarti

William T. Freeman

Todd Zickler

IEEE 2014

Color Filter Arrays for Quanta Image Sensors 

Omar A. Elgendy, Student Member, IEEE and Stanley H. Chan, Senior Member, IEEE

Quad Bayer sensors: what they are and what they are not

https://www.gsmarena.com/quad_bayer_sensors_explained-news-37459.php

Image sensor format

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_sensor_format

Image file formats

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_file_formats

Understanding Digital Raw Capture

Adobe

Why Every Editor, Colorist, and VFX Artist Needs to Understand ACES

Ben Bailey 2019

Common RGB Color Spaces

https://nick-shaw.github.io/cinematiccolor/common-rgb-color-spaces.html

Some of my earlier published papers

Some of my earlier published papers

Below is a list of my papers which have been published in referred journals or as technical paper.  All of the work was done by me during my post graduate studies at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA.  I was there since 1987 to 1991.

My research projects included:

  • Paper Recycling
  • Paper Color modeling and prediction
  • Simulation Modeling and Analysis of a Just In Time production system

Based on my research, I was awarded All University Graduate Creative and Research Scholar award by the University and was given a Award Citation by the University President in a Award Ceremony.

 

Effect of Recycling on the Physical Properties of Specific Fibers and Their Networks,”

by John F. Bobalek and Mayank Chaturvedi. In Proceedings, 1988 TAPPI Pulping Conference, p. 183-187.

 

 

Bobalek, John F., and Mayank Chaturvedi. 1989.

“The Effects of Recycling on the Physical Properties of Handsheets with Respect to Specific Wood Species.”

Tappi Journal June: 123- 125.

 

http://imisrise.tappi.org/TAPPI/Products/89/JUN/89JUN123.aspx

 

 

PREDICTION OF PAPER COLOR: A PROCESS SIMULATION APPROACH

WMU Masters Thesis 890

http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/masters_theses/890/

 

 

PREDICTION OF PAPER COLOR: A PROCESS SIMULATION APPROACH

IPST Technical Paper 469

Click to access tps-469.pdf

 

 

PREDICTION OF PAPER COLOR: A PROCESS SIMULATION APPROACH

IPST Annual Research Review

 

Click to access a31667.pdf

 

 

Simulation modelling and analysis of a JIT production system

Mayank Chaturvedi, Damodar Y Golhar
1992/1/1
Production Planning & Control
Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages 81-92
Taylor & Francis Group

My Research Page at Bepress.com