System Archetypes: Stories that Repeat

System Archetypes: Stories that Repeat

Source: Archetypes

Archetypes in stories express patterns.

While plots may be “archetypal” when they exhibit certain forms, in this post we are concerned with character archetypes.

In modern storytelling, to consider them as archetypes might suggest a bit of a corset, perhaps even a straightjacket for the characters. For today’s author, to present a character as an archetype does not seem conducive to achieving psychological verisimilitude.

But an archetype is not the same as a stereotype. An advisor or mentor does not need to be a wise old man like Obi-Wan Kenobi. And an antagonist does not need to be a baddy.

Consider archetypes as powers within a story. Like planets in a solar system, they have gravity and they therefore exert force as they move.

Archetypes denote certain general roles or functions for characters within the system of the story. There is ample room for variation within each role or function. Boundaries between one archetype and another may be fuzzy. And it is possible for one character to stand for more than one archetype.

Archetypes Through The Ages

Certain archetypes are ancient and have been around as long as stories have been told. Others may have a Christian background. Some are modern interpretations of ancient archetypes seen in the light of dramaturgical principles.

We may distinguish between three sorts of archetypes.

  • Ancient – archetypes that we find in the very oldest stories, and in very modern ones
  • Classical – archetypes that we find in works of literature of the past two thousand years
  • Role-based – modern variants that consider the dramaturgical function of characters

This categorisation has overlaps. The ancient, original archetypes, such as the Mentor, are of course also classical. And certain role-based archetypes, such as the Protagonist, may correspond to ancient ones, such as the Prince.

The Protagonist is sometimes called the Hero, a word which in terms of ancient archetypes might refer to a number of archetypes, for instance Warrior (Achilles) or Trickster (Odysseus). In the modern sense of role-based archetypes, this is the person (or rabbit, or robot, or whatever) the story is primarily about, the one whose travails the recipient, the audience or reader, follows through to the end of the story.

The Protagonist’s opposing power is the antagonism, which may be personified in an individual Antagonist. It helps to remember that in terms of function within the story, an antagonist does not necessarily have to be a villain, but is a counterforce to the protagonist (for an ancient example, consider Agamemnon and Achilles in the Iliad).

The antagonistic force is sometimes referred to as the “Shadow”. This can be misleading, since really almost every archetype has its own shadow side. A Patriarch may be presented as benevolent or “light”, or as tyrannical and “dark”. Indeed, in one story the character (or characters) representing such an archetype might show signs of both.

Characters Wearing Hats

Several of the roles or functions that you find in all sorts of stories – such as the Mentor, the Ally, the Patriarch – do not always have to be riveted to one specific character. For instance, it is quite possible that one character may have the Mentor hat on at one point in the story, and the Ally hat at another.

The point is that such forces or functions tend to be present in stories, and characters express these forces through their role or function within the story at each point in the narrative.

There is even an archetype for a character that explicitly changes roles in the story, where it becomes part of that character’s function to jump role at one or more points along the story. That is a Shapechanger.

Some archetypes are gender specific. The Patriarch/Father/King stands for different values from the Matriarch/Mother/Queen. For other archetypes, whether the character is male or female is not the point. A Shapechanger or a Trickster is defined by what the character does in the story.

So archetypes are really little more than signposts. Assigning a character an archetype is not to pressure that character into behaving in a certain way. Calling a character an archetype is merely to give us a pointer to that character’s role and function in the story. Characters that can be labelled as several archetypes tend to be multi-facetted. Hamlet, for instance, fulfils the criteria for several archetypes. So thinking about characters in terms of which archetypal roles they may play is actually a way of making the characters richer, giving them more depth, making them appear psychologically real and ultimately human.

System archetypes are the pattern which are recurrent.

Key Terms

  • Systems
  • System Archetypes
  • Feedback
  • Causal Loops
  • Delays
  • Leveraged Networks
  • The Systems Thinker
  • Daniel H Kim
  • Peter Senge
  • Barry Richmond
  • STELLA
  • VENSIM
  • ITHINK
  • Ventana Systems
  • Isee Systems

WHAT IS A SYSTEMS ARCHETYPE?

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Without having to climb beanstalks or push anyone into an oven, children learn lessons from fairy tales about how to hide from powerful, cruel beings, build solid dwellings, and be respectful of old people. Literary themes also show us the hero’s journey, the trials of hard work, the outcomes of faithful love and misguided passion, and the ennui of a materialistic life. In these examples from literature, the term archetype signifies a recurring, generic character, symbol, or storyline. In systems thinking, the term has a very similar meaning. It refers to recurring, generic systemic structures that are found in many kinds of organizations, under many circumstances, and at different levels or scales, from internal personal dynamics to global international relations.

Captured in the stories, structures, and behavior over time of the archetypes are similar teachings about competition, addiction, the perils of quick fixes, and the high flyer’s downfall. And as we do with stories and fairy tales, we can use the archetypes to explore generic problems and hone our awareness of the organizational dramas unfolding around us. We can even use archetypes to sharpen our ability to anticipate difficulties, communicate about them with our colleagues, and find ways to address them together.

The systems archetypes, as a group, make up one of the 10 current categories of systems thinking tools. (See Appendix B for a complete list of these tools.) Each archetype features a storyline with a distinctive theme, a particular pattern of behavior over time that can be graphed, and a unique systemic structure that can be depicted in a causal loop diagram. The value of archetypes is that we can study them apart from a specific story, problem, or organizational situation and take away generic, transferable learnings that we can then apply to many situations in our own lives.

WHERE DID ARCHETYPES COME FROM?

In the 1960s and 1970s, Jay Forrester, Dennis Meadows, Donella Meadows, and other pioneers of systems thinking observed several recurring systemic structures. In the 1980s, Michael Goodman, Charles Kiefer, Jenny Kemeny, and Peter Senge built on that work, in part with the help of notes developed by John Sterman, by describing, diagramming, and cataloguing these generic systemic structures as systems templates. When Peter Senge authored The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, he referred to those structures as systems archetypes. Since then, the notion of systems archetypes has become quite popularized, and systems thinking practitioners have continued to teach, apply, and write about these recurring generic structures as well as investigate and test the potential of identifying new ones.

List of Key System Archetypes

  • Drifting Goals
  • Escalation
  • Fixes that Fail
  • Growth and Underinvestment
  • Limits to Success
  • Shifting the Burden/Addiction
  • Success to the Successful
  • Tragedy of the Commons

Source: Systems Thinking Tools: A User’s Reference Guide

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES I

Source: Systems Thinking Tools: A User’s Reference Guide

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES I

System Archetypes and Their Storylines

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES AND THEIR APPLICATION

Archetypes and their Applications

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES AND THEIR APPLICATION

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Growth Archetypes

Source: A theory of spatial system archetypes

➤ A Glossary of Systems Thinking Tools

Source: Systems Archetype Basics : From Story to Structure

Systems thinking can serve as a language for communicating about complexity and interdependencies. To be fully conversant in any language, you must gain some mastery of the vocabulary, especially the phrases and idioms unique to that language. This glossary lists many terms that may come in handy when you’re faced with a systems problem.

Accumulator 

Anything that builds up or dwindles; for example, water in a bathtub, savings in a bank account, inventory in a warehouse. In modeling software, a stock is often used as a generic symbol for accumulators. Also known as Stock or Level.

Balancing Process/Loop 

Combined with reinforcing loops, balancing processes form the building blocks of dynamic systems. Balancing processes seek equilibrium: They try to bring things to a desired state and keep them there. They also limit and constrain change generated by reinforcing processes. A balancing loop in a causal loop diagram depicts a balancing process.

Balancing Process with Delay 

A commonly occurring structure. When a bal- ancing process has a long delay, the usual response is to overcorrect. Over- correction leads to wild swings in behavior. Example: real estate cycles.

Behavior Over Time (BOT) Graph 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. BOT graphs capture the history or trend of one or more variables over time. By sketching several variables on one graph, you can gain an explicit understanding of how they interact over time. Also called Reference Mode.

Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. Causal loop diagrams capture how variables in a system are interrelated. A CLD takes the form of a closed loop that depicts cause-and-effect linkages.

Drifting Goals 

A systems archetype. In a “Drifting Goals” scenario, a gradual downward slide in performance goals goes unnoticed, threatening the long- term future of the system or organization. Example: lengthening delivery delays.

Escalation 

A systems archetype. In the “Escalation” archetype, two parties compete for superiority in an arena. As one party’s actions put it ahead, the other party “retaliates” by increasing its actions. The result is a continual ratcheting up of activity on both sides. Examples: price battles, the Cold War.

Feedback 

The return of information about the status of a process. Example: annual performance reviews return information to an employee about the quality of his or her work.

Fixes That Fail 

A systems archetype. In a “Fixes That Fail” situation, a fix is applied to a problem and has immediate positive results. However, the fix also has unforeseen long-term consequences that eventually worsen the problem. Also known as “Fixes That Backfire.”

Flow 

The amount of change something undergoes during a particular unit of time. Example: the amount of water that flows out of a bathtub each minute, or the amount of interest earned in a savings account each month. Also called a Rate.

Generic Structures 

Structures that can be generalized across many different settings because the underlying relationships are fundamentally the same. Systems archetypes are a class of generic structures.

Graphical Function Diagram (GFD) 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. GFDs show how one variable, such as delivery delays, interacts with another, such as sales, by plotting the relationship between the two over the entire range of relevant values. The resulting diagram is a concise hypothesis of how the two variables interrelate. Also called Table Function.

Growth and Underinvestment 

A systems archetype. In this situation, resource investments in a growing area are not made, owing to short-term pressures. As growth begins to stall because of lack of resources, there is less incentive for adding capacity, and growth slows even further.

Learning Laboratory 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. A learning lab- oratory embeds a management flight simulator in a learning environment. Groups of managers use a combination of systems thinking tools to explore the dynamics of a particular system and inquire into their own understand- ing of that system. Learning labs serve as a manager’s practice field.

Level 

See Accumulator.

Leverage Point 

An area where small change can yield large improvements in a system.

Limits to Success 

A systems archetype. In a “Limits to Success” scenario, a company or product line grows rapidly at first, but eventually begins to slow or even decline. The reason is that the system has hit some limit— capacity constraints, resource limits, market saturation, etc.—that is inhibiting further growth. Also called “Limits to Growth.”

Management Flight Simulator (MFS) 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. Similar to a pilot’s flight simulator, an MFS allows managers to test the outcome of different policies and decisions without “crashing and burning” real companies. An MFS is based on a system dynamics computer model that has been changed into an interactive decision-making simulator through the use of a user interface.

Policy Structure Diagram 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. Policy structure diagrams are used to create a conceptual “map” of the decision- making process that is embedded in an organization. It highlights the fac- tors that are weighed at each decision point.

Rate 

See Flow.

Reference Mode 

See Behavior Over Time Graph.

Reinforcing Process/Loop 

Along with balancing loops, reinforcing loops form the building blocks of dynamic systems. Reinforcing processes com- pound change in one direction with even more change in that same direc- tion. As such, they generate both growth and collapse. A reinforcing loop in a causal loop diagram depicts a reinforcing process. Also known as vicious cycles or virtuous cycles.

Shifting the Burden 

A systems archetype. In a “Shifting the Burden” situa- tion, a short-term solution is tried that successfully solves an ongoing prob- lem. As the solution is used over and over again, it takes attention away from more fundamental, enduring solutions. Over time, the ability to apply a fundamental solution may decrease, resulting in more and more reliance on the symptomatic solution. Examples: drug and alcohol dependency.

Shifting the Burden to the Intervener 

A special case of the “Shifting the Burden” systems archetype that occurs when an intervener is brought in to help solve an ongoing problem. Over time, as the intervener successfully handles the problem, the people within the system become less capable of solving the problem themselves. They become even more dependent on the intervener. Example: ongoing use of outside consultants.

Simulation Model 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. A computer model that lets you map the relationships that are important to a problem or an issue and then simulate the interaction of those variables over time.

Stock 

See Accumulator.

Structural Diagram 

Draws out the accumulators and flows in a system, giving an overview of the major structural elements that produce the system’s behavior. Also called flow diagram or accumulator/flow diagram.

Structure-Behavior Pair 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. A structure- behavior pair consists of a structural representation of a business issue, using accumulators and flows, and the corresponding behavior over time (BOT) graph for the issue being studied.

Structure 

The manner in which a system’s elements are organized or interre- lated. The structure of an organization, for example, could include not only the organizational chart but also incentive systems, information flows, and interpersonal interactions.

Success to the Successful 

A systems archetype. In a “Success to the Success- ful” situation, two activities compete for a common but limited resource. The activity that is initially more successful is consistently given more resources, allowing it to succeed even more. At the same time, the activity that is initially less successful becomes starved for resources and eventually dies out. Example: the QWERTY layout of typewriter keyboards.

System Dynamics 

A field of study that includes a methodology for constructing computer simulation models to achieve better understanding of social and corporate systems. It draws on organizational studies, behavioral decision theory, and engineering to provide a theoretical and empirical base for structuring the relationships in complex systems.

System 

A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements form- ing a complex whole. Almost always defined with respect to a specific pur- pose within a larger system. Example: An R&D department is a system that has a purpose in the context of the larger organization.

Systems Archetypes 

One of the 10 tools of systems thinking. Systems archetypes are the “classic stories” in systems thinking—common patterns and structures that occur repeatedly in different settings.

Systems Thinking 

A school of thought that focuses on recognizing the inter- connections between the parts of a system and synthesizing them into a unified view of the whole.

Table Function 

See Graphical Function Diagram.

Template 

A tool used to identify systems archetypes. To use a template, you fill in the blank variables in causal loop diagrams.

Tragedy of the Commons 

A systems archetype. In a “Tragedy of the Commons” scenario, a shared resource becomes overburdened as each person in the system uses more and more of the resource for individual gain. Eventually, the resource dwindles or is wiped out, resulting in lower gains for everyone involved. Example: the Greenhouse Effect.

The above glossary is a compilation of definitions from many sources, including:

  • Innovation Associates’ and GKA’s Introduction to Systems Thinking coursebooks
  • The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, by Peter Senge
  • High Performance Systems’ Academic User’s Guide to STELLA
  • The American Heritage Dictionary and The Random House Dictionary.

Systems Thinking Tools

Source: THE “THINKING” IN SYSTEMS THINKING: HOW CAN WE MAKE IT EASIER TO MASTER?

Source: Systems Thinking Tools: A User’s Reference Guide

Source: Systems Thinking Tools: A User’s Reference Guide

Systems Thinking Publications

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES I

The Systems Thinker

Source: SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES I

The Language of Links and Loops

Source: System Archetypes I

My Releated Posts

Jay W. Forrester and System Dynamics

Feedback Thought in Economics and Finance

Stock Flow Consistent Models for Ecological Economics

What are Problem Structuring Methods?

Law of Dependent Origination

Oscillations and Amplifications in Demand-Supply Network Chains

Systems and Organizational Cybernetics

Stock Flow Consistent Input Output Models (SFCIO)

Stock-Flow Consistent Modeling

Myth of Invariance: Sound, Music, and Recurrent Events and Structures

Systems Biology: Biological Networks, Network Motifs, Switches and Oscillators

Key Sources of Research

CAUSAL LOOP CONSTRUCTION: THE BASICS

COLLEEN LANNON

Systems Archetype Basics

From Story to Structure

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Virginia Anderson

Introduction to Systems Thinking

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Systems Archetypes I: Diagnosing Systemic Issues and Designing High-Leverage Interventions

The System Thinker

Pegasus Communications

Systems Archetypes II: Using Systems Archetypes to Take Effective Action

The System Thinker

Pegasus Communications

Systems Archetypes III: Understanding Patterns of Behavior and Delay

by Daniel H. Kim
© 2000 by Pegasus Communications, Inc.
First edition.

First printing March 2000

Systems Thinking Tools: A User’s Reference Guide

DANIEL H. KIM

THE “THINKING” IN SYSTEMS THINKING: HOW CAN WE MAKE IT EASIER TO MASTER?

BY

BARRY RICHMOND

THE THINKING IN SYSTEMS THINKING: EIGHT CRITICAL SKILLS

BY BARRY RICHMOND

Click to access Vol.%2021%20No.%203,%20abr.%202010.pdf

Systems Thinking Basics: From Concepts to Causal Loops

Book by Virginia Anderson

MOVING FROM KNOWER TO LEARNER

BRIAN HINKEN

Tools for Systems Thinkers: The 12 Recurring Systems Archetypes

Disruptive Design

The System Archetypes 

By William Braun

SYSTEMS ARCHETYPES AND THEIR APPLICATION

By Jorge Taborga

Saybrook Forum, Human Experience – Monday, August 15, 2011

https://www.saybrook.edu/unbound/systems-archetypes/

Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg: Using Systems Archetypes to Understand Common and Recurring Issues in Sports Coaching

Scott McLean1*Gemma J. M. Read1Adam Hulme1Karl Dodd1Adam D. Gorman2Colin Solomon1,3 and Paul M. Salmon1

  • 1Centre for Human Factors and Sociotechnical Systems, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia
  • 2School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
  • 3School of Health and Sports Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fspor.2019.00049/full

Archetypes

Interaction Structures of the Universe

https://www.systems-thinking.org/arch/arch.htm

Systems: Schools of Thought and Traditions of Practice

W. Barnett Pearce
Fielding Graduate University
Public Dialogue Consortium
Pearce Associates
CMM Institute for Personal and Social Evolution

On systems thinking in logistics management – A critical perspective

Magnus Lindskog

June 2012

Department of Science and Technology Linköpings universitet, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden

Applying resilience thinking

Seven principles for building resilience in social-ecological systems

http://www.stockholmresilience.su.se

An Introduction to Systems Thinking

by Barry Richmond

Chapter 1 Featuring Stella

ISBN 0-9704921-1-1

isee systems
Phone: (603) 643.9636 http://www.iseesystems.com

Systems Thinking: A Review and Bibliometric Analysis 

Niamat Ullah Ibne Hossain , Vidanelage L. Dayarathna, Morteza Nagahi and Raed Jaradat *

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA; ni78@msstate.edu (N.U.I.H.); vld66@msstate.edu (V.L.D.); mn852@msstate.edu (M.N.)
Correspondence: jaradat@ise.msstate.edu

SYSTEMIC THINKING FOR POLICY MAKING – THE POTENTIAL OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS FOR ADDRESSING GLOBAL POLICY CHALLENGES IN THE 21st CENTURY

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17-18 September 2019, OECD Conference Centre

Edited by Gabriela Ramos, William Hynes, Jan-Marco Müller and Martin Lees

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A Dissertation
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in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

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Derek Anthony Cabrera May 2006

https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/2860/DerekCabreraDissertation.pdf;sequence=1

Systems thinking: critical thinking skills for the 1990s and beyond

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System Dynamics Review Vol. 9, no. 2 (Summer 1993):113-133

System Dynamics/Systems Thinking: Let’s Just Get On With It

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Delivered at the 1994 International Systems Dynamics Conference in Sterling, Scotland

Thinking in Systems

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TEACHING SYSTEMIC THINKING: EDUCATING THE NEXT GENERATION OF BUSINESS LEADERS

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APPLYING SYSTEM DYNAMICS TO PUBLIC POLICY: THE LEGACY OF BARRY RICHMOND

BY STEVE PETERSON

Systems Thinking Resources

Using generic system archetypes to support thinking and modelling

Eric Wolstenholme

System Dynamics Review Volume 20 Number 4 Winter 2004

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.390.6202&rep=rep1&type=pdf#/

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Using-generic-system-archetypes-to-support-thinking-Wolstenholme/daed8d5c3a1081addf196543e9fa4ca228c42185

System Archetypes as Diagnostic Tools

Daniel H Kim

Using System Archetypes to Identify Failure Patterns in Acquisition

Diane Gibson Linda Levine, PhD William E. Novak
May 2, 2006

An Approach for the Development of Complex Systems Archetypes

Walter Lee Akers
Old Dominion University, akers.walt@gmail.com

(2015). Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Dissertation, Engineering Management & Systems Engineering, Old Dominion University, DOI: 10.25777/6xmx-r674
https://digitalcommons.odu.edu/emse_etds/18

Thinking systemically about ecological interventions: what do system archetypes teach us?

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First published: 11 June 2020

 https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13220

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Daniel J Pesut PhD RN FAAN
Professor of Nursing Population Health and Systems Cooperative Unit Director of the Katharine Densford International Center for Nursing Leadership University of Minnesota School of Nursing
308 Harvard St. SE

MPLS MN 55455 USA

Judith Pechacek, DNP, RN, CENP University of Minnesota, School of Nursing

Clinical Associate Professor
Director, Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Program 308 Harvard St. SE

MPLS MN 55455 USA

https://sigma.nursingrepository.org/bitstream/handle/10755/18454/Pesut_94821_A10.pdf?sequence=1

System Archetypes

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https://thesystemsthinker.com/category/how-to-guides/

Using the Archetypes

System Archetypes at a Glance

Palette of System Thinking Tools

SYSTEMS ARCHETYPE BASICS: FROM STORY TO STRUCTURE

A theory of spatial system archetypes

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System Dynamics Review

System Dynamics Review vol 28, No 2 (April-June 2012): 109–130

Archetypes

What are Problem Structuring Methods?

What are Problem Structuring Methods?

Source: PROBLEM STRUCTURING IN PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS

Problem structuring methods provide a methodological complement to theories of policy design. Arguably, structuring a problem is a prerequisite of designing solutions for that problem.4 In this context, problem structuring methods are metamethods. They are “about” and “come before” processes of policy design and other forms of problem solving.

Source: Strategic Development: Methods and Models

Key Terms

  • PSM
  • Soft OR
  • Hard OR
  • Unstructured Problems
  • Systems
  • System Sciences
  • SODA Strategic Options Development and Analysis
  • SSM Soft Systems Methodology
  • SCA Strategic Choice Approach
  • Robustness Analysis
  • Drama Theory
  • Interactive Planning
  • Scenario Planning
  • Critical Systems Heuristics
  • SWOT
  • Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing
  • Viable Systems Model VSM
  • System Dynamics
  • Decision Conferencing
  • Multi-methodology
  • John Mingers
  • Jonathan Rosenhead
  • John Morecroft
  • MC Jackson
  • Operational Research
  • Problem Structuring Methods PSM
  • Stafford Beer
  • Robert Dyson
  • Jay Forrester
  • Russell Ackoff
  • Robert Flood
  • Peter Checkland
  • Group Model Building
  • Behaviour Operational Research
  • Community Operations Research
  • Ill-structured versus Well-structured Problems
  • Wicked Versus Tame Problems
  • Ill-Defined versus Well-Defined Problems
  • Nigel Howard
  • Metagames
  • Hypergames

Problem Structuring Methods

Source: Past, present and future of problem structuring methods

The problematic situations for which PSMs aim to provide analytic assistance are characterized by

  • Multiple actors,
  • Differing perspectives, 
  • Partially conflicting interests,  
  • Significant intangibles,
  • Perplexing uncertainties.

The relative salience of these factors will differ between situations (and different methods are selective in the emphasis given to them). However, in all cases there is a meta-characteristic, that of complexity, arising out of the need to comprehend a tangle of issues without being able to start from a presumed consensual formulation. For an introduction to PSMs, see Rosenhead and Mingers, 2001

Source: Problem structuring methods in action

Strategic options development and analysis (SODA) is a general problem identification method that uses cognitive mapping as a modelling device for eliciting and recording individuals’ views of a problem situation. The merged individual cognitive maps (or a joint map developed within a workshop session) provide the framework for group discussions, and a facilitator guides participants towards commitment to a portfolio of actions.

Soft systems methodology (SSM) is a general method for system redesign. Participants build ideal-type conceptual models (CMs), one for each relevant world view. They compare them with perceptions of the existing system in order to generate debate about what changes are culturally feasible and systemically desirable. 

Strategic choice approach (SCA) is a planning approach centered on managing uncertainty in strategic situations. Facilitators assist participants to model the interconnectedness of decision areas. Interactive comparison of alternative decision schemes helps them to bring key uncertainties to the surface. On this basis the group identifies priority areas for partial commitment, and designs explorations and contingency plans.

Robustness analysis is an approach that focuses on maintaining useful flexibility under uncertainty. In an interactive process, participants and analysts assess both the compatibility of alternative initial commitments with possible future configurations of the system being planned for, and the performance of each configuration in feasible future environments. This enables them to compare the flexibility maintained by alternative initial commitments. 

Drama theory draws on two earlier approaches, meta games and hyper games. It is an interactive method of analysing co-operation and conflict among multiple actors. A model is built from perceptions of the options available to the various actors, and how they are rated. Drama theory looks for the “dilemmas” presented to the actors within this model of the situation. Each dilemma is a change point, tending to cause an actor to feel specific emotions and to produce rational arguments by which the model itself is redefined. When and only when such successive redefinitions have eliminated all dilemmas is the actors’ joint problem fully resolved. Analysts commonly work with one of the parties, helping it to be more effective in the rational-emotional process of dramatic resolution. (Descriptions based substantially on Rosenhead, 1996.)

Given the ill-defined location of the PSM/non- PSM boundary, there are a number of other methods with some currency that have at least certain family resemblances. These include critical systems heuristics (CSH) (Ulrich, 2000), interactive planning (Ackoff, 1981), and strategic assumption surfacing and testing (Mason and Mitroff, 1981). Other related methods which feature in this special issue are SWOT (Weihrich, 1998), scenario planning (Schoemaker, 1998), and the socio-technical systems approach (Trist and Murray, 1993). Those which are particularly close to the spirit of PSMs in at least some of their modes of use, and therefore thought to merit inclusion in Rosenhead and Mingers (2001), are the following:

Viable systems model (VSM) is a generic model of a viable organization based on cybernetic principles. It specifies five notional systems that should exist within an organization in some form––operations, co-ordination, control, intelligence, and policy, together with the appropriate control and communicational relationships. Although it was developed with a prescriptive intent, it can also be used as part of a debate about problems of organizational design and redesign (Harnden, 1990). 

System dynamics(SD) is a way of modelling peoples’ perceptions of real-world systems based especially on causal relationships and feedback. It was developed as a traditional simulation tool but can be used, especially in combination with influence diagrams (causal–loop diagrams), as a way of facilitating group discussion (Lane, 2000; Vennix, 1996).

Decision conferencing is a variant of the more widely known “decision analysis”. Like the latter, it builds models to support choice between decision alternatives in cases where the consequences may be multidimensional; and where there may be uncertainty about future events which affect those consequences. What distinguishes decision conferencing is that it operates in workshop mode, with one or more facilitators eliciting from the group of participants both the structure of the model, and the probabilities and utilities to be included in it. The aim is cast, not as the identification of an objectively best solution, but as the achievement of shared understanding, the development of a sense of common purpose, and the generation of a commitment to action (Phillips, 1989; Watson and Buede, 1987).

There are a number of texts which present a different selection of “softer” methods than do Rosenhead and Mingers. These include Flood and Jackson (1991), who concentrate on systems-based methods, Dyson and O’Brien (1998) who consider a range of hard and soft approaches in the area of strategy formulation; and Sorensen and Vidal (1999) who make a wide range of methods accessible to a Scandinavian readership. There is clearly an extensive repertoire of methods available. In fact it is common to combine together a number of PSMs, or PSMs together with more traditional methods, in a single intervention––a practice known as multimethodology (Mingers and Gill, 1997). So the range of methodological choice is wider even than a simple listing of methods might suggest.

Source: Are project managers ready for the 21th challenges? A review of problem structuring methods for decision support

Benefits of Problem Structuring Methods

Source: Are project managers ready for the 21th challenges? A review of problem structuring methods for decision support

My Related Posts

Systems and Organizational Cybernetics

Micro Motives, Macro Behavior: Agent Based Modeling in Economics

Production and Distribution Planning : Strategic, Global, and Integrated

Drama Theory: Choices, Conflicts and Dilemmas

Drama Theory: Acting Strategically

Quantitative Models for Closed Loop Supply Chain and Reverse Logistics

Hierarchical Planning: Integration of Strategy, Planning, Scheduling, and Execution

Stock Flow Consistent Input Output Models (SFCIO)

Stock Flow Consistent Models for Ecological Economics

Gantt Chart Simulation for Stock Flow Consistent Production Schedules

Shell Oil’s Scenarios: Strategic Foresight and Scenario Planning for the Future

Water | Food | Energy | Nexus: Mega Trends and Scenarios for the Future

Global Trends, Scenarios, and Futures: For Foresight and Strategic Management

HP’s Megatrends

Global Flow of Funds: Statistical Data Matrix across National Boundaries

Credit Chains and Production Networks

Supply Chain Finance (SCF) / Financial Supply Chain Management (F-SCM)

Financial Social Accounting Matrix

Morris Copeland and Flow of Funds accounts

Systems Biology: Biological Networks, Network Motifs, Switches and Oscillators

Oscillations and Amplifications in Demand-Supply Network Chains

Portfolio Planning Models for Corporate Strategic Planning

Cyber-Semiotics: Why Information is not enough

Truth, Beauty, and Goodness: Integral Theory of Ken Wilber

Key Sources of Research

Understanding behaviour in problem structuring methods interventions with activity theory.

White, L., Burger, K., & Yearworth, M. (2016).

European Journal of Operational Research, 249(3), 983-1004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2015.07.044

https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/en/publications/understanding-behaviour-in-problem-structuring-methods-interventi

“Is Value Focused Thinking a Problem Structuring Method or Soft OR or what?”

Keisler, Jeffrey,

(2012). 

Management Science and Information Systems Faculty Publication Series. Paper 42.


http://scholarworks.umb.edu/msis_faculty_pubs/42

Rational Analysis for a Problematic World Revisited: Problem Structuring Methods for Complexity, Uncertainty and Conflict

John Mingers, Jonathan Rosenhead

2001 Book Second ed.

The characteristics of problem structuring methods: A literature review

https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/the-characteristics-of-problem-structuring-methods-a-literature-review(e4bbf605-6df1-4a33-853c-2bc17dc18a8e).html

Problem structuring methods in action

John Mingers a,*, Jonathan Rosenhead b

a Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK 

b London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, UK

European Journal of Operational Research 152 (2004) 530–554

Click to access Problem%20structuring%20methods%20in%20action.pdf

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Problem-structuring-methods-in-action-Mingers-Rosenhead/752fdb5dfaddbc0a7946f281a9c454d6f4203542

Click to access Problem%20structuring%20methods%20in%20action.pdf

Introduction to the Special Issue: Teaching Soft O.R., Problem Structuring Methods, and Multimethodology.

John Mingers, Jonathan Rosenhead, (2011)

INFORMS Transactions on Education 12(1):1-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/ited.1110.0073

Click to access Mingers-Rosenberg-PSM-SoftOR.pdf

https://pubsonline.informs.org/toc/ited/12/1

Problem Structuring Methods, 1950s-1989: An Atlas of the Journal Literature

Georgiou, Ion and Heck, Joaquim,

(June 26, 2017).

Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3077648 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3077648

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3077648

“An Investigation on the Effectiveness of a Problem Structuring Method in a GroupDecision-Making Process”

Thaviphoke, Ying.

(2020). Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Dissertation, Engineering Management, Old Dominion University,

DOI: 10.25777/cx7x-z403
https://digitalcommons.odu.edu/emse_etds/182

What’s the Problem? An Introduction to Problem Structuring Methods

Jonathan Rosenhead

Published Online:1 Dec 1996

https://doi.org/10.1287/inte.26.6.117

PROBLEM STRUCTURING IN PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS

William N. Dunn
Graduate School of Public and International Affairs University of Pittsburgh

Past, present and future of problem structuring methods

J Rosenhead

London School of Economics, London, UK

Journal of the Operational Research Society (2006), 1–7

Framing and Reframing as a Creative Problem Structuring Aid

Victoria J Mabin, and John Davies Management Group Victoria University of Wellington PO Box 600 Wellington
email: vicky.mabin@vuw.ac.nz

Tel +4-495 5140
email: john.davies@vuw.ac.nz Tel + 4-471 5382
Fax + 4-471 2200

Reassessing the scope of OR practice: the influences of problem structuring methods and the analytics movement

Ranyard, J.C., Fildes, R. and Hun, T-I (2014).

(LUMS Working Paper 2014:8).

Lancaster University: The Department of Management Science.

Reasoning maps for decision aid: an integrated approach for problem-structuring and multi-criteria evaluation


G Montibeller1∗, V Belton2, F Ackermann2 and L Ensslin3

1London School of Economics, London, UK; 2University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK; and 3Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Floriano ́polis, Brazil

Journal of the Operational Research Society (2008) 59, 575–589

Special issue on problem structuring research and practice

Fran Ackermann • L. Alberto Franco • Etie ̈nne Rouwette • Leroy White

EURO J Decis Process (2014) 2:165–172 DOI 10.1007/s40070-014-0037-6

Soft OR Comes of Age – But Not Everywhere!

Mingers, John (2011)

ISSN 0305-0483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2011.01.005

Omega, 39 (6). pp. 729-741

An Investigation on the Effectiveness of a Problem Structuring Method in a Group Decision-Making Process

Ying Thaviphoke
Old Dominion University, ythav001@odu.edu

2020

OR competences: the demands of problem structuring methods

Richard John Ormerod

EURO J Decis Process (2014) 2:313–340

DOI 10.1007/s40070-013-0021-6

Hard OR, Soft OR, Problem Structuring Methods, Critical Systems Thinking: A Primer

Hans G. Daellenbach

Department of Management University of Canterbury Christchurch, NZ

h.daellenbach@mang.canterbury.ac.nz

Are project managers ready for the 21th challenges? A review of problem structuring methods for decision support

José Ramón San Cristóbal Mateo

Emma Diaz Ruiz de Navamuel

María Antonia González Villa

https://repositorio.unican.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10902/13669/ijispm-050203.pdf?sequence=1

Towards a new framework for evaluating systemic problem structuring methods

Gerald Midgley  Robert Y. Cavana  John Brocklesby , Jeff L. Foote  David R.R. Wood , Annabel Ahuriri-Driscoll 

European Journal of Operational Research 229 (2013) 143–154

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377221713000945

Problem structuring methods

Jonathan Rosenhead1

Chapter in book

(1) The London School of Economics and Political Science, London, England

Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-0611-X_806

Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science

2001 Edition | Editors: Saul I. Gass, Carl M. Harris

Beyond Problem Structuring Methods: Reinventing the Future of OR/MS

Author(s): M. C. Jackson

Source: The Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 57, No. 7, Special Issue: Problem Structuring Methods (Jul., 2006), pp. 868-878

Published by: Palgrave Macmillan Journals on behalf of the Operational Research Society

Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4102274

Strategic Development: Methods and Models

Robert G. Dyson (Editor)Frances A. O’Brien (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-471-97495-6 

May 1998 346 Pages

https://www.wiley.com/en-al/Strategic+Development:+Methods+and+Models-p-9780471974956

Group Model Building:
Problem Structuring, Policy Simulation and Decision Support

David F. Andersen, University at Albany
Jac A.M. Vennix, Radboud University Nijmegen George P. Richardson, University at Albany Etiënne A.J.A. Rouwette, Radboud University Nijmegen

Reassessing the Scope of OR Practice: the Influences of Problem Structuring Methods and the Analytics Movement

J. C. Ranyard, R. Fildes* and Tun-I Hu

The Department of Management Science Lancaster University Management School Lancaster LA1 4YX
UK

Stock Flow Consistent Input Output Models (SFCIO)

Stock Flow Consistent Input Output Models (SFCIO)

 

SFCIO  = SFC + IO Models

SFC = Stock Flow Consistent

IO = Input Output

Stock Flow Consistent Input Output Models (SFCIO)

 

Integrating Varieties of Modeling Methods

  • Monetary Input Output Models
  • Physical Input Output Models
  • Stock Flow Consistent Models
  • System Dynamics Models

 

For integrating:

  • Physical Flows (Resources and Products)
  • Monetary Flows

 

 

From Ecological Macroeconomic Models: Assessing Current Developments

 

0

 

 

From A stock-flow-fund ecological macroeconomic model

ecology13

 

 

From Stock-Flow Consistent Input–Output Models as a Bridge
Between Post-Keynesian and Ecological Economics

One effort to explicitly represent the dynamics of debt, finance, and other monetary factors has been the post-Keynesian stock-flow consistent (SFC) approach. At the same time, input–output (IO) models have been widely used to investigate sectoral interdependencies within the real economy, while environmentally extended input–output models have been used to analyze the relationship between the economy and ecological subsystems. However, the role of monetary dynamics has been left relatively unexplored in IO models (Caiani et al., 2014). This paper proposes a synthesis of elements from both SFC and IO models with insights from ecological economics to provide an avenue for investigating the interrelations between the monetary economy and the physical environment.

 

From Stock-Flow Consistent Input–Output Models as a Bridge
Between Post-Keynesian and Ecological Economics

By combining SFC models and IO models, financial flows of funds can be integrated with flows of real goods and services. Lawrence Klein, who developed large scale macroeconomic models typified by the FRB-MIT-Penn model, has noted the natural synergies between the National Income and Product accounts, the IO accounts, and the FF accounts (Klein, 2003). The approach of combining both SFC and IO models with ecological macroeconomics affords one method to unite those accounts, as suggested by Klein, and to simultaneously model monetary flows through the financial system, flows of produced goods and services through the real economy, and flows of physical materials through the natural environment. Models of this type may provide additional tools to aid macro economists, ecological economists, and physicists in the task of understanding the economy and the physical environment as one united and complexly interrelated system, rather than as a colloidal agglomeration of artificially separated analytical domains. These modes of analysis are required to study pressing problems such as climate change, which are neither purely economic, nor purely environmental, nor purely physical, but rather are all of the above (Rezai et al., 2013).

 

 

Please see my related posts:

Accounting For Global Carbon Emission Chains

Stock Flow Consistent Models for Ecological Economics

 

 

 

Key Sources of Research:

 

A stock-flow consistent input–output model with applications to
energy price shocks, interest rates, and heat emissions

Matthew Berg1, Brian Hartley2 and Oliver Richters3

2015

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1367-2630/17/1/015011/pdf

Stock-Flow Consistent Input–Output Models as a Bridge
Between Post-Keynesian and Ecological Economics

 

Matthew Berg (The New School for Social Research)
Brian Hartley (The New School for Social Research)
Oliver Richters (International Economics, Oldenburg University)

October 7, 2015

Click to access v_2015_10_23_richters.pdf

 

 

 

Integrating Energy Use into Macroeconomic Stock-Flow Consistent Models

Presented by
Oliver Richters

2015

Click to access richters-integrating-energy-use-sfc-models-2015.pdf

 

 

 

The role of money and the financial sector in energy-economy models used for assessing climate and energy policy,

Hector Pollitt & Jean-Francois Mercure

(2018)

Climate Policy, 18:2, 184-197

 

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/14693062.2016.1277685?needAccess=true

 

 

Ecological Macroeconomic Models: Assessing Current Developments

Lukas Hardt a,⁎, Daniel W. O’Neill

2017

 

https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0921800916303202/1-s2.0-S0921800916303202-main.pdf?_tid=4fe094ea-f4d6-4a7e-b7d6-230d3cce6c0e&acdnat=1522699485_1c1d93cd6adda3a829d89b5c8e841d13

 

Ecological macroeconomics: Introduction and review

2016

 

https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0921800915004747/1-s2.0-S0921800915004747-main.pdf?_tid=0cda7488-5f2d-4edf-966e-5b23cb7d43cd&acdnat=1522699625_aaa0756d02319c5ab25e0c1f1d8bf3f1

 

 

 

A stock-flow-fund ecological macroeconomic model

Yannis Dafermos a,⁎, Maria Nikolaidi b, Giorgos Galanis c

2016

 

https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0921800916301343/1-s2.0-S0921800916301343-main.pdf?_tid=932bb9db-d514-47b7-9be4-f345250b3f0d&acdnat=1522699759_7d965a332aad8ec5596fc4b34f22e6ec

 

 

 

Potential Consequences on the Economy of Low or No Growth – Short and Long Term Perspectives

J. Mikael Malmaeus a,⁎, Eva C. Alfredsson

 

https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0921800916300477/1-s2.0-S0921800916300477-main.pdf?_tid=6f5c6223-3f20-4d88-af15-ed8d18eff17a&acdnat=1522699926_1793a74188ac6b373bc1aec837514b30

 

 

Growth, Distribution, and the Environment in a Stock-Flow Consistent Framework∗

Asjad Naqvi†

February 6, 2015

Click to access EcolEcon_WorkingPaper_2015_2.pdf

 

 

 

Foundations for an Ecological Macroeconomics: literature review and model development

Tim Jackson, Ben Drake (SURREY), Peter Victor (York University), Kurt Kratena, Mark Sommer (WIFO)

Click to access WWWforEurope_WPS_no065_MS38.pdf

 

 

 

Towards a Stock-Flow Consistent Ecological Macroeconomics

Authors: Tim Jackson (SURREY), Peter Victor (York University), Ali Asjad Naqvi (WU)

March 2016

Click to access 856194174.pdf

Click to access WWWforEurope_WPS_no114_MS40.pdf

 

Consistency and Stability Analysis of Models of a Monetary Growth Imperative

Oliver Richtersa, Andreas Siemoneitb

a Department of Economics, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, http://www.oliver-richters.de
b Berlin, http://www.ezienzkritik.de

Click to access 863731139.pdf

 

Stock-Flow Consistent Modeling

PK-SFC Modeling

  • Integration of Real and Financial sectors of economy.
  • Balance-sheet  accounting approach
  • Stock-flow consistent
  • Quadruple accounting

 

From  Post-Keynesian Stock-Flow Consistent Modeling: A Survey

 

PK-SFC models are a specific kind of Post-Keynesian macro model that follows distinctive accounting rules, ensuring the consistent integration of the stocks and flows of all the sectors of the economy. The models have three important methodological innovations: first, the consistency of the overall economy is maintained, since one sector’s outflows are always another sector’s inflows just as one sector’s liability is always another sector’s asset; second, the integration of the real and the financial side of the economy; third, the construction of the long run as a chain of short run periods. Nothing is lost, neither in space nor in time. These constraints are crucial in modeling modern macroeconomies which are highly complex, integrated systems.

The roots of PK-SFC models can be identified in the work of Morris A. Copeland (1949), who, with his study on “money flows,” is the father of the flow of funds approach. His intuition was to enlarge the social accounting perspective to the study of money flows. Copeland laid the foundations for an economic approach able to integrate real and financial flows of the economy. A concrete example of his legacy is represented by the quadruple-entry system: since someone’s inflow is someone else’s outflow, the standard double-entry system of accounting is doubled in a quadruple-entry system.

Copeland’s work certainly had a great influence on economics -mainly as a source of financial data- but its potential disruptive impact on the study and modeling of the interdependences between real and financial flows failed to occur. It was only in the 1980s, with the work of Nobel Laureate James Tobin, that these efforts culminated in the organizing theory advocated by Cohen. The article Tobin wrote with co-authors (Backus et al., 1980) perhaps best represents his path-breaking contribution in the foundation of PK-SFC models. Indeed, in developing an empirical model of the US economy in both its financial and non- financial sides, Backus et al combined the theoretical hypothesis on the behavior of the economy with a rigorous accounting framework based on the flow-of-funds social account developed by Copeland. The result is a stock-flow consistent model that includes some of the characteristics still peculiar in the literature, such as the matrices-based accounting approach and discrete time and other features, such as the stock- flow identity, which are fundamental in any model of this type.

 

Next to Tobin, the other scholar who played an essential role in the development of this family of models is Wynne Godley. Godley, head of the New Cambridge school in the 1980s, started developing models coherently integrating stocks and flows. His efforts culminated in the organized framework he developed in his more recent publications, with which he collected the legacy of Tobin. Godley’s contribution probably finds its peak in the seminal book he wrote together with Marc Lavoie (Godley and Lavoie, 2007), which is still the main reference for current PK-SFC practitioners. This paper focuses on the tradition descending from the work of Wynne Godley, hence the choice of talking of PK-SFC models rather than just SFC models.

 

Key Sources of Research:

 

Bezemer, Dirk J.

“The economy as a complex system: the balance sheet dimension.”

(2012)

 

Click to access ACS_1250047_1st_Prf.pdf

 

‘No one saw this coming’ – or did they?

Dirk Bezemer

30 September 2009

http://voxeu.org/article/no-one-saw-coming-or-did-they?quicktabs_tabbed_recent_articles_block=0

 

A complex systems approach to constructing better models for managing financial markets and the economy

J. Doyne Farmer1, M. Gallegati2, C. Hommes3, A. Kirman4, P. Ormerod5, S. Cincotti6, A. Sanchez7, and D. Helbing8

 

Click to access EconFinancialFuturITC16.pdf

 

Money Creation and Financial Instability: An Agent-Based Credit Network Approach

Matthias Lengnick, Sebastian Krug, and Hans-Werner Wohltmann

 

http://www.economics-ejournal.org/economics/journalarticles/2013-32/version_1

 

Complex agent-based macroeconomics: a research agenda for a new paradigm

Domenico Delli Gatti

Edoardo Gaffeo

Mauro Gallegati

 

Click to access delligatti_gallegati.pdf

 

 

Growing fragilities? Balance sheets in The Great Moderation

Richard Barwell and Oliver Burrows

 

Click to access fs_paper10.pdf

 

 

Credit Money and Macroeconomic Instability in the Agent-based Model and Simulator Eurace

Silvano Cincotti, University of Genoa Marco Raberto, Reykjavik University Andrea Teglio, Universitat Jaume I

 

http://repositori.uji.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10234/32596/45464.pdf?sequence=1

 

 

The Financial Instability Hypothesis: a Stochastic Microfoundation Framework

C. Chiarella and C. Di Guilmi

 

Click to access 09e4150ef5365dded1000000.pdf

 

 

The dynamics of the monetary circuit

Steve Keen

 

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.360.9497&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

 

Debunking Macroeconomics

Steve Keen

 

Click to access 0c96051b9fcca21f5c000000.pdf

 

 

Causes of Financial Instability: Don’t Forget Finance

Dirk J. Bezemer

April 2011

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.194.603&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

 

Towards a New Monetary Paradigm: A Quantily Theorem of Disaggrcgated Credit, with Evidence from Japan

By Richard A. Werner

 

Click to access KK_97_Disaggregated_Credit.pdf

 

 

Schumpeter Might Be Right Again: The Functional Differentiation of Credit

Dirk J. Bezemer

Click to access the_functional_differentiation_of_credit.pdf

 

 

Banks As Social Accountants: Credit and Crisis Through an Accounting Lens

Dirk J Bezemer

Click to access MPRA_paper_15766.pdf

 

Bezemer, Dirk J.

“This is Not a Credit Crisis–It is a Debt Crisis.”

Economic Affairs 29.3 (2009): 95-97.

 

Godley, Wynne, and Marc Lavoie.

Monetary economics: an integrated approach to credit, money, income, production and wealth.

Springer, 2012.

 

Stock-flow Consistent Modeling through the Ages

Eugenio Caverzasi Antoine Godin

January 2013

Click to access 558f0a0108ae1e1f9bace43e.pdf

 

Fiscal Policy in a Stock-Flow Consistent (SFC) Model

Wynne Godley and Marc Lavoie

April 2007

Click to access wp_494.pdf

 

Copeland, Morris A.

“Social accounting for moneyflows.” 

The Accounting Review 24.3 (1949): 254-264.

 

Finance and economic breakdown: modeling Minsky’s “financial instability hypothesis”

 

Steeve Keen

Click to access Keen1995FinanceEconomicBreakdown_JPKE_OCRed.pdf

 

The Credit Crisis and Recession as a Paradigm Test

Dirk J. Bezemer

Click to access JEI_PARADIGM_PAPER.pdf

 

Keen, Steve.

“A monetary Minsky model of the Great Moderation and the Great Recession.”

Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 86 (2013): 221-235.

Click to access JEBO_2672.pdf

 

 

“No One Saw This Coming”
Understanding Financial Crisis Through Accounting Models

Dirk J Bezemer

 

Click to access Study-Bezemer-No-one-saw-this-coming.pdf

 

 

Understanding financial crisis through accounting models

Dirk J. Bezemer

Click to access 00b4952ce88deab0d2000000.pdf

 

Can Disequilibrium Macroeconomic Models Be Used to Anticipate Financial Instability?

A Case Study

Dirk J. Bezemer

Click to access Can_Macro_Models_JEvoLEcon_1.pdf

 

A dynamic monetary multi-sectoral model of production

Steve Keen, University of Western Sydney

Click to access Keen2011DynamicMonetaryMultisectoralModel.pdf

 

Circuit Theory Extended: The Role of Speculation in Crises

Neil Lancastle

https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/2086/11640/economics_2012-34.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

Debt cycles, instability and fiscal rules: a Godley-Minsky model

Yannis Dafermos

 

Click to access Dafermos%20(2015)%20Debt%20cycles%20instability%20and%20fiscal%20rules.pdf

 

The post-Keynesian economics of credit and debt

Marc Lavoie

Click to access inet2012lavoie_post-keynesianeconomics.pdf

 

Assessing the Contribution of Hyman Minsky’s Perspective to Our Understanding of Economic Instability

Hersh Shefrin

 

Click to access Shefrin%20Assessing%20Minsky%20Jan%2013%202013.pdf

 

Modeling Financial Instability

Steve Keen

 

Click to access Keen2014ModelingFinancialInstability.pdf

 

 

Post-Keynesian Stock-Flow Consistent Modeling: A Survey

Eugenio Caverzasi and Antoine Godin

 

Click to access february_2015_-_kbs_research_bulletin_pdf.pdf

 

Godley and Graziani: Stock-Flow-Consistent Monetary Circuits

Gennaro Zezza

April 2011

 

Click to access 65034-Zezza%20-%20Godley%20and%20Graziani.%20Stock-Flow-Consistent%20Monetary%20Circuits.pdf

 

Features of a realistic banking system within a post-Keynesian stock-flow consistent model

Marc Lavoie,

Wynne Godley,

December 2003

 

Click to access 1321739.pdf

 

Words to the Wise: Stock Flow Consistent Modeling of Financial Instability

Stephen Kinsella

November 2011

Click to access 6228912.pdf

 

The Minskyan System, Part III:
System Dynamics Modeling of a Stock Flow–Consistent Minskyan Model

Eric Tymoigne

June 2006

Click to access wp_455.pdf

 

TOWARDS A RECONSTRUCTION OF MACROECONOMICS USING A STOCK FLOW CONSISTENT (SFC) MODEL

Wynne Godley

May 2004

 

https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1810/225167/wp16.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

A foxy hedgehog: Wynne Godley and macroeconomic modelling

Lance Taylor

 

Click to access ramanan-20100615T083857-gsl2drg.pdf

 

 

Some Simple, Consistent Models of the Monetary Circuit

Gennaro Zezza,

May 2004

 

Click to access 9314338.pdf

 

Money and Macroeconomic Dynamics : Accounting System Dynamics Approach

Edition 2.0

Kaoru Yamaguchi Ph.D.

 

Click to access Macro%20Dynamics.pdf

 

Money Creation under Full-reserve Banking: A Stock-flow Consistent Model

Patrizio Lainà

October 2015

Click to access wp_851.pdf

 

Endogenous Feedback Perspective on Money in a Stock-Flow Consistent Model

Working Paper (May 5, 2016)

I. David Wheat

Click to access Wheat%20Endogenous%20Feedback%20Perspective%20on%20Money%20WP.pdf

 

 

Modeling the Economy as a Whole – Stock-Flow Models
Gennaro Zezza

 

Click to access memf2015-Chapter25-Gennaro.pdf

 

 

FINANCIALIZATION AND THE MONETARY CIRCUIT: A MACRO-ACCOUNTING APPROACH

MARCO PASSARELLA

 

Click to access MVP%20ROPE%202014.pdf