On Luminescence: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Bioluminescence

Key Words

  • Photoluminescence
  • Fluorescence
  • Phosphorescence
  • Chemiluminescence
  • Luminescence
  • Incandescence
  • Spectrophotometer
  • Spectrofluorophotometer
  • Bioluminescence
  • Chemluminescence
  • Mechnoluminescence
  • Thermoluminescnce
  • Sonoluminescence
  • Electroluminescence
  • Daylight Fluorescent dyes
  • UV Fluorescent Dyes
  • Angle dependent Pigments in coatings
  • Optical Effects
  • Opalescence
  • Iridescence
  • Pearlescence
  • Adularescence
  • Labradorescence
  • Aventurescence
  • GonioSpectrometers
  • Multi Angle Spectrophotometers

There are many forms of energy which selected luminescent pigments can absorb and convert to luminescence, e.g. radioactive (radioluminescence); X-ray (Roentgenoluminescence); cathode ray (cathodoluminescence); mechanical (triboluminescence); electrical (electroluminescence); heat -after previous storage of energy (thermoluminescence); and Ultraviolet (UV) visible and Infrared (IR) (photoluminescence).

Luminescence Vs Incandescence

  • Incandescence
  • Luminescence
    • Bioluminescence
    • Photoluminescence
      • Fluorescence
      • Phosphorescence

Source:

Source:

Source: Introduction/Molecular Fluorescence: Principles and Application

Source: FLUORESCENCE AND PHOSPHORESCENCE

Source: Introduction/Molecular Fluorescence: Principles and Application

Bioluminescence

Please see references listed below for examples of bioluminescence.

  • In plants
    • Reviewing the relevance of fluorescence in biological systems
    • PLANTS WITH SELF-SUSTAINED LUMINESCENCE
  • In ocean Life
    • BIOLUMINESCENCE IN THE SEA
  • Fireflies
    • RESURRECTING THE ANCIENT GLOW OF THE FIREFLIES

Photoluminescence

  • Fluorescence
  • Phasphorescence

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Jablonski Diagram – Molecular States

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Fluorescence

Types of Fluorescence

  • Daylight
  • UV

Fluorescent Dyes and Pigments

Source: Fluorescent Dyes and Pigments

1.Introduction
2.Naphthalimide Dyes
3.Coumarin Dyes
4.Xanthene Dyes
5.Thioxanthene and Benzoxanthene Dyes
6.Naphtholactam, Hydrazam Dyes and Homologues
7.Azlactone Dyes
8.Methine Dyes
9.Oxazine and Thiazine Dyes
10.Miscellaneous Fluorescent Dyes
11.UV Fluorescent Chromophores with No or Low Body Color
12.Special Uses
13.Daylight Fluorescent Pigments
13.1.Production
13.1.1.Dyes for Daylight Fluorescent Pigments
13.1.2.Pigment Matrices
13.1.3.Formaldehyde‐Free and Solvent Resistant Fluorescent Pigments
13.1.4.Sunlight Sensors
13.1.5.Fluorescent Modifications with Covalently Bound Dyes
13.1.6.More ‐ Not Resinated ‐ Solid‐State Fluorescent Pigments
13.2.Quality Specifications of Fluorescent Pigments
13.3.Applications of Fluorescent Pigments
13.4.Toxicology

Industrial Applications of Fluorescence

  • Paper
  • Plastics
  • Paints
  • Textiles
  • Printing Inks
  • Laudary Detergent

In Paper Industry

  • Disulfonated OBA – used in wetend of paper machines
  • Tetrasulfonated OBA – surface coating in size press for standard whiteness
  • Hexasulfonated OBA- for high whiteness

Optical brightening agents in paper

Posted on April 6, 2018 by admin

Optical brightening agents are additives which are used in the paper industries to enhance whitening effects of papers. These chemical compounds absorb light in the ultraviolet and violet region (usually 340-370nm) and re-emit light in the blue region (typically 420-470 nm). It gives a fluorescent effect that masks the inherent yellowness of the fiber and enhances the brightness of the paper product. They not only used in paper but also used in plastics, textiles, laundry detergents. They are also known as optical brighteners, artificial whiteners. It is one kind of coating agent.

The optical brighteners can be applied in either the wet end or dry end or both end. If you want to internal brightness then you have to add them to the stock in wet end. Many paper manufactures use them in dry end at the size press or calender stack as surface coating. The dry end application is more economical compare to the wet end because in the dry end the chemical are used on the outer surface fiber in lieu of whole fiber content for reflects the ultraviolet light. However some manufacturers use a combination treatment; they use both the wet and dry end. 

Types of optical brightening agents

The optical brighteners that are used in paper industries can be sort into three types based on the sulfonic groups. All of them contain stilbene structure.

Disulfonated OBAs

This OBAs contains two sulphonic groups. They are hydrophobic and have a very good affinity. The solubility is very low. Normally it is used in wet end.

Tetrasulfonated types

This OBAs contains four sulphonic groups. It has medium affinity and good solubility so ideal for paper industries both in wet end and dry end. They are suitable for neutral or alkaline pH medium. It is most common type of OBAs that are used in paper and paper board.

Hexasulfonated OBAs

hexasulfonated OBAs contains six sulphonic groups. It is special type of brightener which has excellent solubility. Mostly it is used in those papers where high brightness is required such as photographic paper. They are used in dry end as coating.

Optical brightener’s chemistry

We know that optical brightening agents are stilbene derivatives. The stilbene is a diphenylethene which consist two stereo-isomer – trans-isomer and cis-isomer. Between these two configurations, the trans-isomer can exhibits strong fluorescence whereas the cis-isomer does not exhibit fluorescence. The trans configuration is more stable than cis configuration but when the uv light applied on the trans configuration then it become electronically exited and converted into cis configuration. Consequently the fluorescence phenomenon occurs in. The visible blue light effectively neutralizes the cream color or yellowish hue of the paper fiber.

Disadvantage

All the optical brightening agents are dyestuffs. As like most of the other colorants they also degraded by oxygen in air slowly. So after several years or months, the increasing brightness of the paper with optical brighteners will decrease. As a result the printed paper will not look good. Thus some people does not like print on the paper with artificial brightness. Similarly it is not useful in photographic or art applications. On the other hand in some places or some printers the OBAs would not work. Therefore the paper will appear its normal brightness. This is the reason why some printed papers have a yellowish hue. Although the OBAs are efficient on bleached chemical pulps but it is ineffective on unbleached pulp due to lignin is also an ultraviolet absorbing agent.

Finally

Normally the consumers expect higher brightness paper and paper boards. But all the time the brightness of pulp and fillers cannot fulfill the targeted brightness. Therefore the manufactures use different type of optical brightening agents. Most of the paper manufacturers add these chemicals in order to make paper appear brighter.

Source: The issues of Optical Brightening Agents in paper and ink

Industrial Testing and Measurements

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Source: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Fluorescence Prediction and Control

Please see my post related to Color and Fluorescence Meaurement, Prediction and Control.

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

There are also several references in the list below which describe fluorescence measurement, prediction, and control in more detail. Papers by LG Coppel describe fluorescence modelling. Papers by Tarja Shakespeare describe fluorescence modeling and control online on paper machines.

My Related Posts

Digital Color and Imaging

Color and Imaging in Digital Video and Cinema

On Light, Vision, Appearance, Color and Imaging

Key Sources of Research

Constructing Models to Explain Photoluminescence

Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Chemiluminescence

Noureen Siraj,† Bilal El-Zahab,‡ Suzana Hamdan,† Tony E. Karam,† Louis H. Haber,† Min Li,§
Sayo O. Fakayode,∥ Susmita Das,⊥ Bertha Valle,⊗ Robert M. Strongin,○ Gabor Patonay,#
Herman O. Sintim,× Gary A. Baker,$ Aleeta Powe,¶ Mark Lowry,○ Jan O. Karolin,& Chris D. Geddes,& and Isiah M. Warner*,†

Anal. Chem. 2016, 88, 170−202

Reviewing the relevance of fluorescence in biological systems

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/getauthorversionpdf/c5pp00122f

Pigments, dyes and fluorescent brightening agents for plastics: An overview

Robert M. Christie

First published: August 1994

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pi.1994.210340401

FLUORESCENT DYES FOR PAPER DYEING

Inventor: Helmut-MartinMeier,Ratingen(DE)

Assignee: KemiraGermanyGmbH,Leverkusen (DE)

Photochromic and Thermochromic Colorants in Textile Applications

M. A. Chowdhury, M. Joshi and B. S. Butola

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/155892501400900113

THE CHEMISTRY & PHYSICS OF
SPECIAL EFFECT PIGMENTS & COLORANTS

A. NURHAN BECIDYAN

President
UNITED MINERAL & CHEMICAL CORPORATION

Luminescence Phenomena: An Introduction

K.V.R. Murthy

Hardev Singh Virk

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271866484_Luminescence_Phenomena_An_Introduction

Introduction

Molecular Fluorescence: Principles and Applications, Second Edition. Bernard Valeur,
Mário Nuno Berberan-Santos.
© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

A Brief History of Fluorescence and Phosphorescence before the Emergence of Quantum Theory

Bernard Valeur*,† and Mario N. Berberan-Santos*,‡

Plants with self-sustained luminescence

Tatiana Mitiouchkina et all

Bioluminescence in the Sea

Steven H.D. Haddock,1 Mark A. Moline,2 and James F. Case3

Resurrecting the ancient glow of the fireflies

PHOTOLUMINESCENTS: FLUORESCENT AND PHOSPHORESCENT INKS AND PAINTS

An Introduction to Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Molecular Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Chemiluminescence Spectrometry

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ac00084a016

Molecular Luminescence Spectrometry

Molecular Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Chemiluminescence Spectrometry

Anal Chem. 2006 Jun 15; 78(12): 4047–4068.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2662353/

Fluorescence and phosphorescence

Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Practical Capture and Reproduction of Phosphorescent Appearance

O. Nalbach1, H.-P. Seidel1 and T. Ritschel2

1Max-Planck Institut für Informatik, Germany 2University College London, United Kingdom

Fluorescent Dyes and Pigments

Rami Ismael Hansrudolf Schwander Paul Hendrix

Dyes, optical brightening agents

Permanency of paper and board

Structural colour and iridescence in plants: the poorly studied relations of pigment colour

Beverley J. Glover1,* and  Heather M. Whitney2

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2850791/

Analysing photonic structures in plants 

Silvia Vignolini1,2, Edwige Moyroud3, Beverley J. Glover3 and Ullrich Steiner1

1Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK 3Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK

The Mechanism of Color Change in the Neon Tetra Fish: a Light‐Induced Tunable Photonic Crystal Array

Dvir Gur 1 , Benjamin A Palmer 1 , Ben Leshem 2 , Dan Oron 2 , Peter Fratzl 3 , Steve Weiner 1 , Lia Addadi 4

First published: 27 April 2015

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25914222/

Colour measurement in the paper industry

https://www.erx50.com/en/anwendungen/papier-obsolete

Print Quality Control Management for Papers Containing Optical Brightening Agents

Roberto Pasic, Ivo Kuzmanov, Svetlana Mijakovska

The issues of Optical Brightening Agents in paper and ink

http://the-print-guide.blogspot.com/2009/03/issues-of-optical-brightening-agents-in.html

Optical Brightening Agents in Manufacturing

Posted July 20, 2015 by Greg Stehn

https://www.xrite.com/blog/controlling-obas-in-manufacturing

SUCCESSFUL COLOR MANAGEMENT OF PAPERS WITH OPTICAL BRIGHTENERS

Effect of Optical Brightening Agents and UV Protective Coating on Print Stability of Fine Art Substrates for Ink Jet

Veronika Chovancova-Lovell* and Paul D. Fleming III**

*Daniel J Carlick Technical Center Sun Chemical Corporation

**Department of Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Imaging, Center for Ink and Printability Western Michigan University

OPTICAL BRIGHTENING AGENTS

A Visual Examination of the Solubility of Brighteners in Paper after Aqueous Treatment

Emily H. Cohen

December 17, 2014

Color & Perception Roemich

To Brighten or Not to Brighten

Scientifically examining the controversy over OBA inkjet media additives.

SIGN & DIGITAL GRAPHICS • July 2009

Substitution of Optical Brightener Agents in Industrial Textiles

MUDP report October 2018

Denmark

Chemistry of optical brighteners and uses in textile industries

by Mr. Anwer Tiki, Afreen Amin and Azeema Kanwal, AVM Chemical Industries.

Archroma Introduces Leucophor® MT, A New Cost-Effective Optical Brightening Agent For High Whiteness Surface Applications

Reinach, Switzerland – 20/02/2018

https://www.archroma.com/press/releases/archroma-introduces-leucophor-mt-a-new-cost-effective-optical-brightening-agent-for-high-whiteness-surface-applications

Whiteness indices and UV standards

Konica Minolta

https://www5.konicaminolta.eu/ru/measuring-instruments/learning-centre/colour-measurement/colour/the-colour-of-white.html

The Effect of Optical Brightening Agent (OBA) in Paper and Illumination Intensity on Perceptibility of Printed Colors

Changlong Yu 2014

RIT MS Thesis

Demystifying Three Key Paper Properties

Whiteness, Brightness and Shade

Xerox

The Evolution of Tinting Dyes and Optical Brighteners in White Papers

Mark Crable

Greenville Colorants

Addressing the Challenges of Optical Brightening Agents in Paper Color Measurement

Posted on  December 4, 2015 by Ken Phillips

Hunter Lab

Adding optical brightening agents to high-yield pulp at the pulp mill

Review: Use of optical brightening agents (OBAs) in the production of paper containing high-yield pulps

Shi, H., Liu, H., Ni, Y., Yuan, Z., Zou, X., and Zhou, Y. (2012). 

BioRes. 7(2), 2582-2591.

FLUORESCENT WHITENING AGENTS IN LAUNDRY DETERGENT & PAPER

https://www.sas.upenn.edu/~kimg/mcephome/chem507/spec6.html

A summary of ultra-violet fluorescent materials relevant to Conservation


AICCM National Newsletter No 137 March 2017

Danielle Measday, Museums Victoria

Efficiency of Fluorescent Whitening Agents in Pigment Coatings

Zaeem Aman 2012

Master Thesis
Master of Science in Chemical Engineering

Karlstads universitet (KAU) 651 88 Karlstad

Colour Chemistry 2nd edition

Robert M Christie

School of Textiles & Design, Heriot-Watt University, UK and Department of Chemistry, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Email: r.m.christie@hw.ac.uk

Colour and the Optical Properties of Materials

An Exploration of the Relationship Between Light, the Optical Properties of Materials and Colour

PROFESSOR RICHARD J. D. TILLEY

Emeritus Professor, University of Cardiff, UK

2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

FLUORESCENCE AND PHOSPHORESCENCE

Andrew Glassner

Rendering of fluorescent materials using spectral path tracing : Niixtracer, a custom rendering engine

Nolan MESTRES

2018

Spectral Mollification for Bidirectional Fluorescence

A. Jung1, J. Hanika1 and C. Dachsbacher1 1Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

Assessment of whiteness and tint of fluorescent substrates with good inter-instrument correlation

Rolf Griesser

1994 Williamsburg Conference on Colorimetry of Fluorescent Materials“; English first publication in Color Res. Appl. 19 (1994), 6, p. 446-460

CIE whiteness and tint : possible improvements

R. Griesser

„AIC Interim Meeting ’95 Colorimetry”, Berlin, 4. – 6. September 1995;

first publication (Engl.) Appita 49 (1996), 2, p. 105-112;

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/CIE-whiteness-and-tint-%3A-possible-improvements-Griesser/d2a1df7fb5b7b489fecd344c1f6b8025b3a84165?p2df

WHITENESS DETERMINATION OF OPTICALLY BRIGHTENED TEXTILES

R. Hirschler, D.F. Oliveira and A.F. Azevedo

WHITENESS ASSESSMENT OF PAPER SAMPLES AT THE VICINITY OF THE UPPER CIE WHITENESS LIMIT

Coppel L., Lindberg, S., and Rydefalk, S.

STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm, Sweden

Limitations in the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper

Ludovic G. Coppel, Mattias Andersson, Per Edström and Jussi Kinnunen

WHITENESS EVALUATIONS ON TINTED AND FWA ADDED PAPERS

Burak Aksoy, Paul D. Fleming* and Margaret K. Joyce

Department of Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Imaging Center for Coating Development
Western Michigan University
Kalamazoo, MI 49008

Comparative Study of Brightness/Whiteness Using Various Analytical Methods on Coated Papers Containing Colorants

Burak Aksoy, Margaret K. Joyce and Paul D. Fleming
Department of Paper and Printing Science and Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, 49008

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/250763960_Comparative_Study_of_BrightnessWhiteness_Using_Various_Analytical_Methods_on_Coated_Papers_Containing_Colorants

Using Optical Brightening Agents (OBA) for Improving the Optical Properties of HYP-Containing Paper Sheets

H. ZhangZ. HeY. Zhou

Published 2009 Materials Science

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Using-Optical-Brightening-Agents-%28OBA%29-for-the-of-Zhang-He/665b2e9c5e7749d54f8904624370945c2e723dd1?p2df

Whiteness and Fluorescence in Layered Paper and Board

Perception and Optical Modelling

L G Coppel

PhD Thesis 2012 Sweden

Influence of SPD on Whiteness value of FWA treated samples

Michal VIK, Martina VIKOVÁ, Aravin Prince PERIYASAMY

https://dspace.vutbr.cz/bitstream/handle/11012/51679/257-vik.pdf?sequence=1

Fluorescence model for multi-layer papers using conventional spectrophotometers

L. G. Coppel, M. Andersson, M. Neuman and P. Edström

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258551824_Fluorescence_model_for_multi-layer_papers_using_conventional_spectrophotometers

Factors affecting the whiteness of optically brightened material

Juan Lin 1Renzo ShameyDavid Hinks

J Opt Soc Am . 2012 Nov 1; 29 (11): 2289-99.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23201789/

FLUORESCENCE AND THE PAPER APPEARANCE – CHALLENGES IN PAPER COLORING

Dr. Tarja Shakespeare1, Dr. John Shakespeare

  • June 2009
  • Conference: Papermaking Research Symposium, PRS2009
  • At: Kuopio, Finland

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328873894_FLUORESCENCE_AND_THE_PAPER_APPEARANCE-CHALLENGES_IN_PAPER_COLORING

A fluorescent extension to the Kubelka–Munk model

Tarja Shakespeare John Shakespeare

First published: 30 December 2002

Col Res Appl, 28, 4–14, 2003

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/col.10109

Problems in colour measurement of fluorescent paper grades

Tarja Shakespeare John Shakespeare

Analytica Chimica Acta
Volume 380, Issues 2–3, 2 February 1999, Pages 227-242

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003267098004838

Colorant modelling for on-line paper coloring: Evaluations of models and an extension to Kubelka-Munk model 

Show affiliations

  • Shakespeare, Tarja Tuulikki
  • Thesis (PhD). TAMPEREEN TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU (FINLAND), Source DAI-B 61/11, p. 6074, May 2001, 147 pages.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234289229_Colorant_modelling_for_on-line_paper_coloring_Evaluations_of_models_and_an_extension_to_Kubelka-Munk_model

Kubelka Munk Model in Paper Optics: Successes, Limitations and Improvements

L. Yang

Progress in Paper Physics Seminar 2011

Conference Proceedings

Editor U. Hirn

Radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media

Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Vol. 26,Issue 8,pp. 1896-1900(2009)•

https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-26-8-1896

Fluorescent Transfer of Light in Dyed Materials

S. D. Howison and R. J. Lawrence


Read More: https://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/0153026

SIAM J. Appl. Math., 53(2), 447–458. (12 pages)

https://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/0153026

Extension of the Stokes equation for layered constructions to fluorescent turbid media

Ludovic G. Coppel,1,2 Magnus Neuman,2 and Per Edström

1Innventia AB, Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden

2Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-87188 Härnösand, Sweden

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223985363_Extension_of_the_Stokes_equation_for_layered_constructions_to_fluorescent_turbid_media

Influence of Deinked Pulp on Paper Colour and its Susceptibility to Ageing

Ewa Drzewińska

Whiteness Assessment: A Primer

Concepts, Determination and Control of Perceived Whiteness

Dr. Claudio Puebla Axiphos GmbH Germany

The Chemistry and Physics of Special-Effect Pigments and Colorants for Inks and Coatings

Paints and Coatings Industry

2003

https://www.pcimag.com/articles/85016-the-chemistry-and-physics-of-special-effect-pigments-and-colorants-for-inks-and-coatings

Author: Mayank Chaturvedi

You can contact me using this email mchatur at the rate of AOL.COM. My professional profile is on Linkedin.com.

6 thoughts on “On Luminescence: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Bioluminescence”

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